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niversity Magazine, 


■&*£&. to vm. CHAPEL HILL, N. C. No. i. 


Hunter L. Harris. Wm. Jas. Battle, 

Logan D. Howell, Walter M. Hammond. 


The other day I stood upon the shore 

Of that dark pond, whereon I used to sail 

My ships of whittled bark the waters o'er, 

And walked — a child — upon the glittering shale : 

The once-wide lake had shrunk into a mire, 

The creek that fed it, to a puny rill ; 

And all things noble in my childhood's eye 

Were now become as dwarfish toys : — and still 

Awhile entranced, I saw myself again 

A child, and then the waters grew apace, 

Becoming, as of old, a stately main, 

That mirror'd once again a pleased face ; 

For God's own fountains do not waste away, 

But we grow broader, deeper, day by day. 

Hunter L. Harris, 


No. X.- -Bishot Green. 

I cannot recall the year, but it must have been before Dr. Caldwell's 
death, that I was one day at his house playing with some of Dr. Hoop- 
er's children, and found my attention strongly attracted by the pres- 
ence of a young lady visitor in the sitting room with Mrs. Caldwell. 
Young ladies must have been scarce in Chapel Hill fifty and odd years 
ago, and their visits like those of angels. 

I know I could do nothing but stare- at this one, and I have now a 
strong recollection of her appearance. She was dressed in white, and 
sitting near a window on an old-fashioned "settee" with canebottom 
and back. Her dress was of some very thin delicate materia!, and 
flowed around her and over the settee in an ample way, as if it might 
be half mist or cloud. She was extremely fair, her complexion very 
brilliant, hair very abundant and of a rich dark brown color, her eyes 
blue, with the far-off look in them given by extreme short-sightedness. 
Her hands were the whitest, surely, I thought, of any mortal's, as she 
busied them with some delicate needle-work. I observed that she was 
very quiet and rather grave; that she blushed frequently, the rich color 
deepening in her cheek, and that there was a sort of stilly grace and 
reserve about her person that seemed to set her apart. 

Altogether she filled up my childish idea of an angel, and though the 
vision is now growing more dim, I still recall Miss Charlotte Fleming 
with great delight. I came to know her well in after years, and did 
not then think that she would have been called beautiful by most 
persons, but she was always beautiful to me. 

Near her that day sat a pretty little fair-haired boy, too shy to be 
spoken to. I heard afterwards that he was her nephew, adopted by 
her on the death of his mother, and that for his sake she had resolved 
never to marry, but was going to devote her whole life to him. 

Little did this lovely young lady think that in that very house she 
was to preside for years the mistress and mother of a large family, the 
wife of Prof. Green, of the University ; or that she would live still 
longer at the head of his establishment in Mississippi, where he was 
destined to be the first Bishop of the Episcopal church ; or that little 
fair-haired boy would live to be the Rev. Thos. F. Davis, the Rector of 


the Episcopal church of Chapel Hill, the existence of which had not then 
crossed any man's mind as a possibility. He was a most excellent and 
useful minister and a most loveable man. 

Rev. Wm. Mercer Green, of Hillsboro, was elected Prof, of Belles 
Lettres and Chaplain of the University in the year 1837. He was a 
graduate of the year 1818 — seventy years ago ! And yet he has been 
dead but little more than two years; and if I am not mistaken, at least 
one of his classmates, Rev. Dr. Morrison, of Mecklenburg, still sur- 
vives him. 

He was a native of Wilmington, and on the mother's side of Quaker 
descent. The people of that faith played a prominent part in the 
early history of North Carolina, and some strain of their blood is 
pretty widely diffused among us now. Something of our people's 
sturdy resistance to wrong, and strong advocacy of individual rights 
and beliefs, may be traced to their noted tendency to individualism, 
and quiet tenacity of purpose. They also are apt to bequeath the 
grace of simplicity in taste, and a restful, self-respecting repose of man- 
ner. Dr. Green always spoke of his mother as with a deep sense of 
his obligations to her for strictly careful and religious training. 

He became an Episcopalian, perhaps while in college. It was said 
his conversion and entrance into the ministry was due to the impres- 
sion made by reading the Life of Bishop Berkeley. His first wife was 
a Miss Sneed of Granville ; his second, the lady above mentioned. 

He was Rector of the Episcopal church in Hillsboro when elected 
to a professorship in his Alma Mater, and had been a very busy and 
useful minister. It was said of him that his forte as a minister lay in 
erecting church buildings, often ending in involving himself in the ex- 
pense. He had been largely instrumental in building the Hillsboro 
church, had enlarged its membership, and laid the foundations of its 

Socially, Dr. Green was always a power. His manners were polished 
and his address and conversation delightful, being open, cordial, genial, 
vivacious, and with a little touch of mannerism that gave a distinctive 
flavor. Just how many persons were attracted into the communion of 
his church by the magnetism of his manner will never be known, but 
they must have been many. 

I do not remember anything about his removal to Chapel Hill, and 
must have taken no interest in the arrival of our new neighbors. He 


performed his duties in college for a year or so while still living in 
Hillsboro. riding to and fro. Upon the removal of Rev. Dr. Hooper 
to South Carolina, Dr. Green took the house vacated by him, being 
the old Caldwell mansion, which had now passed into the possession of 
the University. He had a very amiable family of children by his first 
wife. The children of the second marriage were too small to be inter- 
esting except as playthings. 

What I remember chiefly about the family in those early days was 
the air of good breeding that distinguished them all. There was not 
any attempt at style or equipage in their living, but that delightful 
air of old family gentility that is in no way dependent on upholsterers 
or tailors for its effects. It was understood that the new professor 
had crippled his own fortunes and those of both his wives in the ser- 
vice of his church, but his well-trained family servants stepped about 
as if they were none the less proud to belong to him. The head-ser- 
vant, aunt Nanny, who had belonged to the first Mrs. Green, would 
have given tone to a whole plantation of darkeys. 

Over the sideboard hung a large and fine portrait of Bishop Ravens- 
croft, in his robes stern and imposing, and with one finger raised as if 
in admonition. It was a very striking picture, and seemed to domi- 
nate the whole house. 

Dr. Green's oldest son was in the U. S. Navy. His second, Stephen 
Sneed, an extremely amiable young man, after graduating here, died 
in Philadelphia of small-pox, while attending medical lectures. His 
only daughter Mary, grew up here to a very winning and much ad- 
mired young ladyhood, and died unmarried soon after the family's re- 
moval to Mississippi. 

She was lame from a fall on the ice in childhood, and this disadvan- 
tage appeared to invest her with a more tender interest. She inherited 
her father's magnetism, for without much personal beauty or any 
special accomplishments she was always the centre of a circle of friends 
and lovers. Her voice was especially sweet and clear, with a pathetic 
note in it, and to hear her sing one of Moore's melodies to her guitar 
of a moonlight night, was to feel that the mocking birds had a rival. 
She had an exquisite ear for music, and led the singing in her church 
services delightfully. Those were the days before the introduction of 
these unhappy, wheezy little mclodeons which have so sadly lowered 
the standard of church music in this generation. When she lay dying 


in far-off Natchez, she suddenly roused and poured out her soul in the 
"wild warbling measures," of a favorite hymn, and so singing, passed 

As a Professor, I suppose Dr. Green to have fully met the require- 
ments of his day. They were not severe. He was himself an accu- 
rate writer, and a very good reader and speaker. 

His sermons, I think, were a little hedged in, so to speak, by the 
conventionalities of the pulpit, which were of a good deal more impor- 
tance then than of late years. But his excellent delivery, his agreeable 
voice and manner would have made sermons of far less intrinsic value 
interesting. He read the service of the Prayer-book beautifully, al- 
ways devoutly and always as if every word of it was precious. I have 
heard men of acknowledged oratorical eminence read that service, but 
never one from whose lips it fell with such unction. I became a great 
admirer of the Book and of the Church without being at all competent 
to judge of either, solely from my attachment to this preacher. 

Though Dr. Green was Chaplain of the University, yet the Sunday 
services in the college chapel were shared by him with preachers of 
other denominations. Dr. Mitchell would officiate on one Sabbath, 
Dr. Green on the next, Dr. Deems on the next, and every visiting 
clergyman of any orthodox church would be asked to take a turn, so 
that we were at no loss, at least, for variety. 

The night services were conducted on the same fraternal principles 
in the village meeting-house, which stood where is now the Presbyte- 
rian church. Whoever preached in the college chapel in the morning 
was expected to hold forth in the village at night. We all worshipped 
together, villagers and students and faculty folks. Everybody was in 
-chapel at 1 1 a. m., and everybody was in the meeting-house at night. 

It is very nice to have four handsome church edifices in our little 
town. They add a certain dignity and grace, but I cannot but regret 
those old homely days when all the neighbors met together and wor- 
shipped in unison. Afer a while the Methodists, who had held their 
membership out at Orange church, two miles from town on the road 
to Hillsboro, began to thirst for ministrations less staid and formal 
than those afforded by college professors, and took steps for holding 
meetings of their own. They hired the room on the second floor of 
Mr. McCaulay's store, which was then Mr. Jesse Hargraves', and fur- 
nished it with needful seats and pulpit, and attracted there audiences 


larger and much more interested than could be found elsewhere in town. 
The village meeting-house night services were discontinued after 

Dr. Green felt his spirit stirred to emphasize the existence and atti- 
tude of his own church. He had his parlor prepared every Sunday 
night for public worship, and there the faithful few of the Episcopal 
church who had, however, increased considerably in numbers since he 
first came to Chapel Hill, met, together with such of their Presbyterian 
neighbors, or outsiders of no church in particular, who did not care to 
take the long walk to the Methodist place of worship. 

Those were the days of many servants, or the weekly Sunday even- 
ing task of carrying out furniture and carrying in benches to that ample 
old parlor could hardly have been accomplished so punctually as it 
was for several years. 

Thegood Doctor's special accomplishment, that of church building, was 
coming to the front again. Judge Battle's family, who came to Chapel 
Hill in 1843, Pr of. Fetter's, Prof. J. DeB. Hooper's, Miss S. T. Mal- 
lett's, Dr. J. B. Jones', and others, all felt the need of a public place of 
worship for their own church. An Episcopal church building was re- 
solved upon, and Dr. Green undertook to see it accomplished. 

It was two or three years in the building, for the money came in 
slowly; but at last, in the fall of 1848, the work was done, and the conse- 
cration services were held by Bishop Ives and a large gathering of his 
clergy. The new church was pronounced a very pretty building, and 
an ornament to the village. 

One enterprise of this sort is apt to bring on anofher. The Presby- 
terians were not satisfied to be left houseless, and Dr. James Phillips 
bestirred himself to see that they should be provided for. It was char- 
acteristic of Dr. Green that he should begin with his brick-making and 
his plans and his carpenters, and had his walls up without knowing 
precisely how or when it was to be completed, and it was equally 
characteristic of his neighbor, Dr. Phillips, that he would have no 
brick made, and enter into no contract till he had every dollar of the 
sum needed collected, and placed in bank. The Presbyterian church 
was completed in 1849, within a year of its foundation, and dedicated 
just a year after the Episcopal. 

It was next in order for the Methodists to move for a church. Their 
present building was finished in 1 S53— '54. The Baptist church was 



built in 1855, chiefly by the exertions of Rev. George Purefoy, an ex- 
cellent and influential minister of that denomination living in the 

I do not know that Dr. Green had very much comfort in his new 
church after all. As often happens, when we set our minds very stren- 
uously upon the accomplishment of a cherished design, there will be 
some flaw, some hindrance or vexation supervening to mar our en- 
joyment of our finished work. 

All this church building had evoked some rivalry, or some occult ill- 
feeling, turning principally upon certain University regulations which 
were then in force, and which the Trustees declined to revoke in favor 
of the new churches and their services. The students were still re- 
quired to attend divine services in the college chapel on Sunday morn- 
ing, whether there was any other congregation there or not. And the 
Faculty held it still to be their duty to attend them. 

The good Doctor felt himself ill-used in the matter, and there was a 
good deal of heart burning all round. 

Just at this time, i849-'50, Dr. Green unexpectedly received a call 
to be the first Bishop of the Episcopal church in Mississippi, and ac- 
cepted it gladly. His work here was perhaps done. It is well when 
men can recognize that. But he had many friends who were sorry to 
see him go. No more kindly gentleman, no better friend and neigh- 
bor has Chapel Hill ever possessed. 

As for Mrs. Green, retired as her life had been, owing to much ill 
health and the cares of a large family, she was as much lamented as 
her good husband. I do not think I identified her with the lovely 
young lady of my devotion till she had lived here some years, and I 
had grown up into some degree of familiarity with her. She was one 
of a thousand. Reserved and quiet and shy, low voiced and reticent 
of speech, modest and blushing like a girl to the last of her life, she 
was always deferred to, for she had a strong mind and a weighty char- 
acter. She very seldom visited, was very seldom seen in society or on 
the streets, but her influence was felt, the influence that emanates 
from a consistent life ordered upon sound principles. It was generally 
understood that what Mrs. Green said or did was always the proper 
thing, and people who hardly ever spoke to her were glad to have her 
good opinion. 

She was a staunch churchwoman of the old fashioned type, uncom- 


promising but saintly. She had too much piety to be uncharitable, 
and too much sense to be narrow, but she and the Bishop both be- 
longed to the school of Ravenscroft and Hobart, a school too rigid in 
its lines to allow of much outgrowth to their church predilections. 
Her reading v/as sound, but old-fashioned. She would digest a stiff 
Theological treatise or an essay on education, or a volume of sermons 
in preference to any sort of light literature. 

That was the mental diet for ladies sixty years ago who were at all 
"superior." Now-a-days superior ladies show their superiority by 
reading everything, and, if anything be omitted, it is likely to be the 
Theology. I remember very well seeing " Edwards on the Will," a 
favorite accompaniment of my mother's leisure hours. I am not now 
acquainted with any woman who likes such reading. 

It may have been that they had in those days very little choice. 
Macaulay points out that the wonderful linguistic accomplishments 
• of Lady Jane Grey and the ladies of England in her time, arose from 
the fact that if they did not read Latin and Greek and Hebrew they 
had no other resource. And so in North Carolina in the first half of 
this century, seriously and intellectually disposed women formed their 
taste on "Butler's Analogy" or " Edwards on the Will," or " South's 
Sermons," where now their daughters and granddaughters may turn 
to Drummond, or Clarke, or Keble, or Trench for sweetness and light. 
Books came to North Carolina slowly when the four-horse wagon was 
the connecting link with our seaports. The family sugar and coffee, 
and the dry goods had to be hauled over seventy-five or a hundred 
miles of red mud and rocks and corduroy railroads, and boxes of 
books added to these loads would have appeared " foolishness." 

(I don't know that books are a favorite article of freight even yet). 

After Dr. Green's departure, Rev. Dr. Wheat, of Tennessee, was 
elected to his chair. Dr. Hubbard had succeeded to Prof. J. DcB. 
Hooper in the Latin, and Chapel Hill altogether took on a new and 
perhaps a more enlarged order of things. 

I am not sufficiently informed to speak confidently of Bishop Green's 
thirty five years' work in the Diocese of Mississippi. I know that at 
first it was not held to be successful, and that he himself was dis- 
couraged. He was not the man for a comparatively new country, be- 
ing himself too much wedded to old forms of thought and old usages 
and interpretation's. However, he had a gallant spirit and struggled 


on through many difficulties, and had at last the comfort of seeing 
the new day dawning and a new impulse given to all the operations of 
his' beloved church. 

As he grew old, his catholicity took wider views, not loving his own 
church less, but all others more. He loved to revisit North Carolina 
and Chapel Hill from time to time, and appeared to us the ideal 
Bishop, breathing only love and benediction. He lived to his eighty- 
ninth year — a benign and beautiful old age — and so blessed in the re- 
view of his life's work, so happy in the love of friends and children, 
that he begged them constantly to pray for him that he might not be 
having all his good things in this life. 

His saintly wife had died many years before him, and he had had 
to mourn the deaths of several of his children after reaching maturity. 
Two of his younger set became useful ministers of his church ; and one, 
named for his life-long Carolina friend, Judge Duncan Cameron, died 
at his post in Memphis a victim to the yellow fever that was devas- 
tating his flock. 

When the Federal army took possession of Jackson, among other 
outrages they burned to the ground the Bishop's residence. His val- 
uable library, the accumulation of years, his papers, furniture — -ev- 
erything was swept. 

In this he only shared the lot of very many of his flock and personal 
friends. Those who have read the charming memoir of CoL Thomas 
Dabney of Mississippi, by his daughter Mrs. Smedes, will learn from 
that what was the fate of Southern planters and Southern house- 
holders at the hands of our conquerors. Such is war. 

Col. Dabney was one of Bishop Green's warm friends. They 
must have been congenial, and I have thought that the lovely 
character of Mrs. Sophia Dabney was in some points very like 
that of Mrs. Green, though from the widely differing circumstances 
of their lives, Mrs Green must have developed into the stronger, gra- 
ver, more responsible woman. 

The Bishop being houseless took up his abode at Sewanee Univer- 
sity, finally, an institution of which he had been one of the chief 
founders. His building instinct had full development here, and it was 
surely one of the many providential blessings of his old age that he 
was permitted to work for that University and to see his work prosper 
in his hands from year to year. He continued his Episcopate func- 


tions down to nearly the last, enjoying, if ever man did, "a green old 

His last visit to Chapel hill was in the spring of '84, and he stood 
with many others in the campus to see the raising of the wonderful 
arches of Memorial Hall. In this beautiful building he expressed a 
most vivid interest, as indeed he ever did in all things relating to the 
University. One of the last great gratifications of his life was the 
knowledge that his name would have a tablet within those walls. He 
had learned that it was the intention of Mr. P. C. Cameron thus to 
honor trie memory of his own and his father's revered friend, and he 
wrote Mr. Cameron a loving letter of thanks, which was found among 
his papers and forwarded to Mr. Cameron a month or two after his 
death in the early spring of 1887. 

The American people are still largely a migratory people. Even in 
a small place like Chapel Hill this is continually seen. Very few in- 
deed of the families I have known in childhood or in middle life have 
now any representatives in their old homes. Their graves are scattered 
far and wide, and their children and grandchildren have helped to 
build up the mighty West, the Northwest, the Southwest, and are 
still moving towards the sunset. 

It is a little depressing for those who remain to watch wave succeed- 
ing wave. Strange faces again and again looking out of the old win- 
dows, strange children playing in the old yards, new comers in the old 
church seats. 

One of the prettiest of Mrs. Hemans' minor poems represents a 
wanderer begging to be allowed to revisit the home of his childhood. 
He is told that there is no one there to know him now ; all have de- 
parted ; his very name is unknown. At last, he cries : 

I " Are they gone, all gone from the sunny hill? — 
But the blue-bird and buttettly roam o'er it still." 

And so we must console ourselves. Much remains. " The old famil- 
iar faces" are gone, but the new ones are friendly, and Chapel Hill 
air is still sweet, the birds still sing, and the wild-flowers bloom. 

Mrs. C. P. Spencer. 



Not yet rash Hymen's yoke she'll bear, 
Not yet she's fit with man to pair ; 
Not yet could she thy passions tame : 
Too young her years, too weak her frame. 

With purer thoughts her fancy teems, 
Soft now her sleep and sweet her dreams. 
In girlish sports swift pass her days, 
And childish now her winning ways. 

Forbear to crave the unripe grape : 
Let patience all thy actions shape: — 
Till autumn lend the purple dye, 
Far from this verdant bower fly. 

For by and by she'll hie to thee, 
And be indeed thy Lalage. 
Time all discrepancies will cure, 
Will make her ripe and thee mature. 

Yes, by and by, with sweet accord 
Sweet Lalage will own her lord : 
She'll nestle on thy manly breast, 
Nor weary grow though oft caressed. 

Then loved shall be thy Lalage, 
As was not loved thy Pholoe 
Nor Chloris, with her shoulders fair, 
As beams the moon on midnight air. 

W. N. Mebane, 


What graceful youth on many a rosy bed, 
With liquid perfumes breathing round his head, 
For whom thou hast thy locks in simple neatness laid r 
Embraces thee, O Pyrrha, neath the grateful shade ? 


How oft shall he thy fickle heart deplore, 

And changed gods ! He, at old ocean's roar, 

When white-capped waves by blackening storms are tossed, 

Untaught, shall stand amazed and gaze in rapture lost. 

He credulous, thy qualities all gold 

Enjoys, and since of faithless winds untold, 

Still hopes that in the future thou may'st always be 

As now, in love so loving and in fancy free. 

How wretched he whom passion tempts to sip 

The nectar sparkling on thy ruby lip, 

Or seek thy other charms : for soon thou'lt heartless prove 

And show thyself most scornful of his love. 

Behold in Neptune's Fane, the sacred wall 

By votive tablet indicates to all, 

How I my garments, wet with ocean's 'wildering spray, 

Have hung a sacrifice of love's lone cast-a-way. 

T. M. Lee. 


We do not often look in poetry to find philosophy, but every true 
poet is a philosopher. Shakespeare saw life and nature more clearly 
than Bacon ; and it may be a question whether now, after centuries of 
additional thought and investigation, after looking with telescope, 
microscope and spectroscope, we l>ave seen further or more deeply into 
nature than did the magic eyes of that wondrous seer. Medical 
specialists have given their lives to the study and description of insan- 
ity, but it seems to be reserved for the clearer vision and deeper sym- 
pathy of the poet to bring insanity before our eyes. We are better 
acquainted with Lear and Hamlet, with Ophelia and Margaret, than 
with any one of the million insane who have actually lived. 

The poetic comprehension of nature has often preceded the scien- 
tific ; and the theories of the philosopher are frequently but the dreams 
of the poet. We may look to the prophetic and penetrating genius 


of poetry to discover, if such discoveries shall ever be made, the subtle 
and mysterious relation between mind and matter, between life and 
growth, between disease and death. We may look for the poet to tell 
us what it is that binds the molecules together ; what is that mys- 
terious power which we gravely denominate gravity. 

The poet Horace was an interpreter of human life. Although 
nature was full of charms for his rich and playful fancy, yet his prac- 
tical and philosophic mind preferred to study men. For this he had 
abundant opportunities in a rich and varied experience of life. His 
humble birth and boyhood among the farmers of Apulia ; his youth 
and schooling in Rome ; his travels and studies in Greece and Asia ; 
his experience as a soldier in the army of Brutus ; his position as a 
clerk in one of the departments of the government at Rome ; his easy 
and friendly companionship with the statesmen, the scholars, the mil- 
lionaires and the soldiers of the age, 00 less than his independent life 
among the loafers, the hucksters, the gamblers, the fortune-tellers, and 
the Roman rabble who frequented the Forum, the Circus Maximus, 
and the Via Sacra ; his free and easy style of living and of traveling, 
"riding," as he says, " all alone whenever he pleases, astraddle of a 
bob-tailed mule, even from Rome to Tarentum ; " all these and other 
like experiences indicate that he had seen somewhat of life, and would 
sing of humanity, not as a closet, poet, but as one who, sharing its 
common taint, might chant a sweet philosophy for trouble and sorrow. 
The age was rich in human greatness, but was poor in human happi- 
ness. Beneath the smiling courtesy of the politician, the purple toga 
of the conqueror, the wine-flushed laughter 0/ the reveler and the 
fat complacency of the banker, the shrewd eye of Horace observed 
heavy hearts and weary souls. In the midst of an intellectual and 
physical activity which marked the climax of the Roman civilization, 
there was profound and universal unrest. Philosophers, with their 
little plummets, were trying to fathom the bottomless ocean of life. 
The Epicureans denied that human affairs were regulated by the gods, 
and proclaimed that happiness was the object of life and pleasure the 
avenue to happiness. The Stoics enjoined the pursuit of wisdom as 
the chief duty of life, and the only means whereby man might secure 
immortality and become as one of the gods. We recognize in these 
opposing philosophies the apparently eternal conflict between the intel- 
tual and physical natures of man. Early in life the poet Horace was an 


Epicurean. Describing his journey with Maecenas to Brundusium, he 
says that, when the company reached Egnatia, they had a good laugh 
over a pretended miracle which the people of the place claimed was 
performed in the temple. " They try to persuade us," he says, " that 
frankincense melts without fire in the door of the temple. They may 
tell that to the Jews, not me ; for I have learned that the gods lead a 
lazy life, and do not trouble themselves to send down from the vault 
of heaven all the curious miracles that happen in nature." 

In an epistle to his friend Albius Tibullus, the elegiac poet, he 
makes a distinct avowal of Epicureanism : 

"Albius, gentle critic of my Satires, what shall I say that you are 
doing now in the country around Pedum? Writing something, 
or stealing silently amid, the healthful woods, musing whatever is 
worthy one like yourself, both wise and good? The gods have given 
you beauty, the gods have given you wealth and the skill to enjoy it; 
what more could a fond nurse pray for a darling charge? * * * 

"Albius, come and see me ; you will laugh to see me plump and 
sleek, a well-fed hog of the herd of Epicurus." 

When age had diminished his passions and matured his intellect, 
Horace renounced the philosophy of Epicurus and embraced that of 
the Stoics. He was an Epicurean from natural bent : he becomes a 
Stoic from intellectual conviction. In his zeal for the newly chosen 
philosophy he even gives up the writing of poetry. In an epistle to 
Maecenas he says: " I lay down verses and every other toy. What 
is true and becoming I study and inquire, and am all absorbed in this ; 
I amass and arrange my stores, so that afterwards I may be able to 
bring them forth." Again he says: "As the night is long to those 
whose sweetheart plays them false ; as the day is long to those who 
work for debt, so, slow and joyless flow to me the hours that delay my 
hope and purpose to do with diligence that which is profitable alike 
to the poor, alike to the rich; and which, if neglected, will be injurious, 
alike to the young, alike to the old." 

He is seeking after truth and thinks to find it in the Stoic philos- 
ophy. Presently he even accepts the Stoic dogma that only the wise 
man is free, all others being slaves to ignorance and vice. " Who is 
the free man?" he asks, in one of the Satires, and answers with the 
arrogant complacency of a perfect Stoic, " The wise man, for he is his 
own master, and fears neither poverty nor chains nor death ; he is 


strong enough to beat down his lusts and despise worldly honors ; he 
is a perfect man, smooth and polished ; and Fortune rushes against him 

But Horace's good judgment and exquisite sense of humor do not 
allow him long to maintain this radical view of wisdom. Although a 
follower of Stoicism, he must needs laugh at its extreme complacency ; 
and he soon caricatures with exquisite touch the picture that he had 
previously drawn of the wise man. " The wise man is inferior to 
nobody but Jupiter : the wise man is rich, is free, is beautiful, in short 
his kingdom is over kings ; above all things, the wise man is always 
healthy — except when he has a bad cold in his head." We are forci- 
bly reminded of Shakespeare's similarly expressed verse, 

" For there was never yet philosopher 
That could endure the tooth-ache patiently." 

It is easy to see that a man of Horace's practical sense and experi- 
ence could not remain a Stoic. A broader acquaintance with life soon 
convinced him that the true philosophy of life was contained exclu- 
sively neither in the Stoic nor in the Epicurean doctrines, but that 
both philosophies were essential to happiness. He settled down 
finally in the belief that not pleasure alone, nor wisdom alone, can 
produce happiness ; but that happiness comes from moderation and 
contentment. ' 

" There is a mean," he says, "in all things; there are fixed limits, 
outside of which neither truth nor right can exist." 

" The wise man would deserve the name of fool, the just man of 
wicked, should he seek virtue itself beyond what is sufficient." The 
same idea is powerfully expressed by Solomon : "Be not righteous 
overmuch, neither make thyself overwise. Why shouldst thou destroy 
thyself?" and Burns has clothed the sentiment in the pretty dress of 
poetry : 

" My son, these maxims make a rule, 
And lump them aye tegither ; 
The rigid righteous is a fool, 
The rigid wise anither." 

This is the philosophy of Horace's Lyrics. His Satires and Epis- 
tles are evidence of the process by which he passed- through Epicu- 
reanism and Stoicism into the philosophy of moderation and content- 
ment. He dares to say that mediocrity is the price of happiness, and 


to declare that mediocrity is golden. The middle classes in society 
are the happiest, he says, and small possessions are essential to hap- 
piness. " They thai seek much lack much. Happy is he to whom 
God has given with sparing hand no more than enough." Again, in 
loftier flight, he sings : 

" Non possidentem multa vocaveris 
Recte beatum : rectius occupat 
Nomen beati, qui deorum 
Muneribus sapienter uti 

" Duramque callet p^uperiem pati 
Pejusque leto flagitium timet, 
Non ille pro caris amicis 
Aut patria timidus perire." 

Horace's philosophy cannot produce a high degree of happiness. 
It is deficient in faith and hope. It lacks buoyancy and self-reliance. 
He fears the gods, but neither loves them nor trusts them. He has 
confidence neither in the mighty power of humanity as it grows to 
divine perfection, nor in the loving care of the gods. He awaits the 
future with philosophic fortitude, not with strong and buoyant hope. 
He is a poet deficient in veneration. Both his poems and his philos- 
ophy lack the tenderness and the lofty spirit born of trust in God and 
faith in man. 

The Ode to Licinius (Book II, Ode 10), is the happiest of his odes 
on life. It is the calm conclusion of a philosopher. Compare it with 
the Twenty-third Psalm. The one is a triumphant song of faith, the 
other a cool submission to fate ; the one is full of courage, animated by 
hope and trust, the other is full of fortitude, based upon the convic- 
tion of helplessness ; the one is the voice of the soul, the other the 
voice of the intellect. 

Geo. T. Winston. 


The following sketch of a very promising lawyer of this State, once 
Senator from Rowan and Surry, who was cut off by death in early 
manhood, is found among the archives of the Alumni Association of 
the University. There is no signature to the paper, but it is supposed 
to have been written by the late eminent author of "The Life and 


Correspondence of James Iredell," Griffith J. McRee, of Wilming- 
ton. We are sure that our readers will find it not only interesting, but 
a valuable contribution to the history of the State. 

Col. John Alexander Lillington was born in the town of Wilming- 
ton in the year 1820, April 8th. His mother was Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Nathaniel Hill, of Rocky River. His father, Major John A. Lil- 
lington, for many years clerk and treasurer to the town of Wilming- 
ton and cashier of the branch of the Bank of the State, was the 
grandson of the illustrious general, who at Moore's Creek first received 
and broke the shock of those veteran Highlanders who, during the 
war of the Pretender, had, by their dashing gallantry, won for them- 
selves a world-wide renown. The subject of this sketch received the 
rudiments of instruction from that estimable lady, the late Mrs. 
Coxetto, of Wilmington, to whom many generations have been in- 
debted in a similar manner. During Mr. Lillington's boyhood there 
were several schools opened and kept in town, some for long and some 
for short periods. He attended those taught by Mr. Junius Moore 
and John G. Elliott, Mr. Wilkes, and the Rev. John Burke. About 
1829 or 1830, he was entrusted to the care of Mr. William H. Hardin, 
of Pittsboro, Chatham county, and remained under his roof for some 
years. It was here that the foundation of his learning was fairly laid, 
and his mind fashioned and moulded for usefulness. Mr. Hardin, a 
graduate, of the University, is an admirable scholar. Of his skill as 
a teacher, Mr. Lillington and the orator of this occasion, Mr. George 
Davis, are honorable proofs. Licensed to practise law, such was Mr. 
Hardin's excessive diffidence, his lack of ambition, and indolence of 
temperament, that he soon abandoned a profession he was well calcu- 
ted to adorn and over whose dry descriptions he would have thrown 
the brilliant hues of an exquisite genius. Devoted thoroughly to the 
duties he had assumed, his scholars all cherish a high appreciation of 
his ability as a teacher and amiability as a man. 

Mr. Lillington entered the University of North Carolina in 1836, 
and graduated June, 1840, with greatest distinction. He had mind 
enough to master anv subject within the sco'pe of man's attainment ; 
stood high as a scholar, but was especially distinguished as a graceful 
writer and effective debater. His class was one more than ordinarily 
remarkable for ability. It embraced such men as David A. Barnes, 


Tod R. Caldwell, John W. Cameron, William Henderson, Albert and 
William Shipp and Calvin H. Wiley, all men of mark, the latter the 
author of the best history of the State ever published. Mr. Lillington 
read law, after his graduation, under Judge Pearson, at Mocksville. 

However it maybe in other countries, in the United States a man who, 
like Lillington, achieves fame, is eminently the architect of his own 
fortune, a self-made man. Two young men are competing, one the 
son of a blackguard, the other the son of a gentleman, equals in tal- 
ent and merit. In the struggle for wealth and honor, the latter labors 
under peculiar disadvantages. The former starts on the way at the 
first tap of the drum, borne onward to his goal by popular prejudice 
as by an Arab steed. The latter finds the same popular prejudice an 
impediment in his way that must first be overcome before he can con- 
ciliate friendship. Hard will be the task to repulse the reproach of 
clean hands and unstained lineage. He will be charged with decided 
preferences for Addison rather than Coke, for " Ah ! non giunge," 
rather than the "Old North State ;" the fine arts, rather than the use- 
ful and practical. Serious charges ! In the case of Lillington, we fear 
too true. For, though he had not fortune enough to be luxurious, yet 
his tendencies were obnoxious to the above charge. They were more 
than tendencies, positive inclinations, however checked by a sense of 
duty to himself and family. If Lillington had remained at home, such 
was his " bonhomie," so versatile and decided his talents, that I doubt 
not he would have eventually acquired position in despite of all diffi- 
culties. His determination to leave home, however, was wise. In 
Davie, among strangers, the man had fair play ; and, as a natural con- 
sequence, the°public respect and affection were soon gained. He had 
only to be truly known to be loved. In 1842, Mr. Lillington secured 
the crowning blessing of his life in a union with Miss Betty Williams, 
the daughter of Nicholas L. Williams, of Surry, a gentleman whose 
name in North Carolina is a synonym for a warm heart and generous 

Mr. Lillingtonjwas too short a time at the bar to be a recognized 
leader, but his learning and eloquence made him very prominent in his 
circuit. He was ^certainly second to no man of his age. He was 
thoroughly imbued with the spirit of polite literature. Few men have 
acquired in so short a time a profounder knowledge of law or a more 
familiar and dexterous acquaintance with the practice of its courts. 


Around the iron structure of his vigorous logic, his fancy threw a pur- 
ple haze, that, while softening their sharp angle-s and toning down all 
that was too rugged in their strength, enveloped them as with a halo. 

He was elected and served as Senator from Rowan and Davie during 
the legislative sessions of I 848-1850 and 1852. He was pure and en- 
lightened in his public policy. As a speaker, he was always well 
informed, prompt and forcible, particularly eminent for quickness of 
apprehension and readiness of repartee. I heard him often in the 
Assembly and, though a young member, no man more impressed me. 
On one occasion so great was the success of his oratory that he 
extorted the plaudits of the galleries. No people are more distin- 
guished for their observance of decorum than the inhabitants of North 
Carolina; but Lillington, by one of those happy strokes, peculiarly 
characteristic of genius, touched a chord that vibrated in every heart. 
The impulse to cheer was irresistible. The fine form of the orator 
seemed to dilate into more commanding proportion; the eye, usually 
soft as a woman's, flashed with the fire of the " divinity that stirred 
within ;" the tremulous voice grew firm, and deepened in its tones; 
its sound incited like the roll of the signal drum ; it startled like the 
roar of the first gun of the battle. The shock was electric, the tri- 
umph complete ! 

It is not pretended that Lillington was without blemish ; but I be- 
lieve that his errors sprang from the excess of his virtues. He had 
a taste for poetry and music and a ready hand for good fellowship. He 
wrote verses, told a good story, sang a good song. Genial in his tem- 
perament, sometimes in his hours of recreation he was a little disposed 
to be convivial. Let those who think they atone for their own sins 
by holding up to the public gaze those of their neighbors, denounce ; 
for myself — . 

Had Lillington lived long enough, incited by the general flame that 
burned in his breast, he would have striven for and gained the proud- 
est honor within the grasp of genius and assiduity. While the mas- 
tery of lighter studies was to him a relaxation and pleasure, he could 
grapple with the exact sciences with success. By nature he was 
attuned to all its harmonies, and had an eye for all its beauties. He 
was a man of stalwart frame and fine personal appearance. 

He died August, 1854, just after his election as Senator from Davie 


and Rowan, his death being precipitated by the fatigue and exposure 
of the canvass. 

There is a superstitious belief in the Lillington family that there 
cannot be more than one man of the name at the same time. If the 
family continues to furnish such men as Governor Lillington, General 
Lillington and Col. J. A. Lillington, whatever its peculiarities, the 
people of North Carolina cannot but cherish for it veneration and love. 


This tragedy is a wild, terrible struggle against circumstances and a 
corrupted heart. Mr. Hudson calls it "a tempest set to music." 

Macbeth, the man, is an impersonation of intellect, imagination, and 
courage. Truth and honor are "a passion with him." His love is 
wonderful and terrible, because it is so closely woven into his fall. 

He is introduced to us as a warrior in the " day of success," " carving 
out his passage " with a sword which " smoked with bloody execution." 

And when his mind has become " filled with scorpions," when there 
is no more rest, no more happiness, his wife crazed, his Thanes desert- 
ing him, his honor and all gone, feeling that his life is "a tale told by 
an idiot, full of sound and fury signifying nothing," his courageous 
heart lifts itself above all this agony : " I'll fight till from my bones 
the flesh be hacked." What courage he has! bear-like, indeed, but so 
because he was driven to desperation. Sjjch is the entrance, and such 
the exit of Macbeth. 

When he meets the weird sisters on the blasted heath, his heart 
is already corrupt and murderous. Ambition has proved too strong 
for his passion for honor and truth. 

While he was "carving out his passage," the feeling stole over him 

unawares that he ought to be king. Unconsciously he yields to the 

feeling. He did not know he felt so, but when the weird sisters greet 

him as king, his foul heart is revealed to himself: 

" All hail, Macbeth, that shall be king hereafter." 
BANQUO. " Good sir, why do you start and seem to fear things 
That do sound so fair?" 


So Macbeth starts at that prophecy. His murderous heart re- 
sponds, and he is astonished to realize his own evil purpose. 
Banquo turns to the sisters and continues — 

" If you can look into the seeds of time » 

And say which grain will grow and which will not, 
Speak to me, who neither beg nor fear 
Your favors nor your hate." 

As soon as Macbeth realized his corruption, he went into a reverie. 

He recovers when the sisters are about to leave. He commanded 

them to stay, and tell him more, objecting to the prophecy on the 

ground of its improbability. He ends his words to them by : 

" Speak, I charge ye." 

[Witches Vanish.] 
Banquo. " The earth hath bubbles as the water has, 

<. And these are of them." 
Macbeth. " Would they had staid !" 

It is patent how each receives the prophecy. They prophesied that 
Banquo's issue should be kings, but he cares nothing for them. His 
questions to them are rather from curiosity than real desire. He be- 
spoke himself aright when he said, " who neither beg nor fear your fa- 
vors nor your hate." Not so Macbeth. The words find a response 
in his guilty heart. They throw him into a reverie. He immediately 
reasons the matter with himself and them. 

So he is resolved on murder. But his reason was still with him, 
" that large discourse of reason which looks before and after," and, 
with time, it convinced him that murder meant misery here in this 
world even. The future world did not trouble him. He was willing 
to risk that ; he had already consented in thought and will to the 

Macbeth, Soliloquizing : — 

" If 'twere done when 'tis done, then 'twere well 
It were done quickly. 

* * * * That but this blow 
Might be the be-all and the end-all here, 
But here, upon this bank and shoal of time, 
We'd jump the life to come. But in these cases 
We still have judgment here ; that we but teach 
Bloody instructions, which being taught return 
To plague the inventor : this even-handed justice 
Commends the ingredients of our poisoned chalice 
To our own lips." 


At first blush he is resolved on murder, but he is convinced that it is 
misery. This feeling is never overcome. He never becomes recon- 
ciled to committing the murder. He does it under compulsion, and 
becomes a mere tool. More of this later. 

To sustain this I must bring out his character and Lady Macbeth's 
influence over him. His domestic relations are beautiful. Lady 
Macbeth thinks him "too full of the milk of human kindness," and 
" though not without ambition, yet without the illness that attends 
it," and again she says, by way of caution, " your face, my Thane, is as 
a book where men may read strange things." He himself, when re- 
solved to commit the murder, is sorry that he must be one thing and 
appear another. He says : " False face must hide what the false heart 
does know." 

What a beautiful tribute these words are! He loves his wife very dearly. 
He knows he will see her in a few hours, but must write: " This I have 
thought good to deliver thee, my dearest partner of greatness, that 
thou might'st not lose the dues of rejoicing, by being ignorant of 
what greatness is promised thee" — simple and strong, the words a 
warrior puts his love in. 

His passion for truth is shown in two master strokes — exactly alike — 

one powerful, but both together, a transcendent stroke. 

Lady M. " When goes Duncan hence?" 
Macbeth. " To-morrow — as he purposes." 

The lady is supposed to ask what Duncan's intent is. Macbeth an- 
swers this question truthfully, but the positive " to morrow " brings 
his murderous intent to his mind, and he catches himself, and answers 
so as to be true even to his own murderous purpose. And so it is: 
we are corrupted, but still retain some of our former nobility. We 
are loth to acknowledge complete degradation. Even the direst of 
criminals sometimes show a beautiful touch of feeling or thought. 
Hamlet's mother at Ophelia's grave is a beautiful illustration of it. 

His old honor sparkles out brightly for a moment. Lady Macbeth 
abuses him, calls him coward, forestalls all reasoning by making it a 
matter of love to her. He says: 

" I'rythee, peace. 
I dare do all that may become a man, 
Who dares do more is none." 

Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are a strange contrast. Of the two, he is by 


far the superior. In intellect and imagination she does not approach 
him, but in will she is superior, and "thereby hangs a tale." Her will is 
incomparable. In regard tothis matterof intellectual superiority, I am at 
variance with one great authority, who says Lady Macbeth was mentally 
superior to Macbeth. Lady Macbeth is not undervalued by me. She was 
keen, quick, sagacious. How wonderfully she overcomes Macbeth by 
refusing to reason the murder with him! Her will then got complete 
sway over him. He was really no more in the murder than a knife 
would have been, in her hands. He was dazed, amazed when he struck 
the blow. He was not even thinking about the act, but left it half 
done, like a senseless machine : it does no more than you have set it for. 
She had the quickness of a woman, he the solidness of a man. Her 
mind looked only at the end, one-idead, concentrated, narrow, like a 
woman's. His reason comprehended the whole thing. He had "that 
large discourse of reason." I am at variance in this with a great au- 
thority, but then, you know, Mrs. Jameson and Lady Macbeth are 
both women. I must tell you that this authority is Mrs. Jameson, 
and so she claims superiority for Lady Macbeth. 

Even ambition cannot cloud his reason, or restrain it in narrow 
bounds. It tells him what the consequences will be. He says : 

" We will proceed no further in this business. 
He hath honored me of late; and I have bought 
Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
Which should be worn now in their newest gloss, 
Not cast aside so soon." 

The result is necessary to show us that greatness won by crime and 
sin brings misery. But Macbeth's intellect is too great to be so blindly 
led, even by ambition. He realizes this beforehand. 

He is usually thought weaker than she. I must confess I thought 
so at first, but not so. He is stronger. His apparent weakness and 
vacillation is hesitancy, because his reason was averse to the deed. 
Her very unreasonableness is what makes her seem strong. She was 
the real murderer of Duncan. Macbeth was the knife with which she 
slew him. And with Duncan's death, her reign ceases. Her blind 
will had driven her on, and when the reality pours over her, it bears 
away her sweet dream of ambition, bringing instead misery, madness 
and death. Her unreasonable will was her strength. Macbeth had 
weighed the result. Without hesitation he kills the grooms. He says: 


" Here lay Duncan, 
His silver skin laced with his golden blood. 

* * * * There the murderers, 
Steeped in the colors of their trade. 

* * * * Who could refrain 
That had a heart to love, and in that heart 
Courage to make love known ? 

Lady M. Help me hence ! ho !" 

He kills the grooms, he tells the tale. She faints. Poor lady ! 
Nature claims her own ! Thou art but a woman after all thy boasted 
strength. Thou sawest nothii.g but bright days of joy, thy husband 
king, thyself a queen. But there arenightsof misery come upon thee! 
What saids't thou ? "A little water clears us of this deed." What 
says't thou now? 

" Out, damned spot ! Out, I say ! 

The Thane of Fife had a wife once. 
Where is she now ? What ? 
Will these hands never be clean ? 
No more of that, my lord, 
You mar all with your starting. 

$ $ % $ # ♦ 

Here's the smell of blood still. 

All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand. O! O! O!" 

How pitiful, how pitiful a contrast to thy "little water." So Mac- 
beth is the stronger. After Duncan is murdered, he accepts the con- 
sequences. He heaps up murder on murder, no hesitation, no vacil- 
lating now. Reason says: "Go on, it can't be worse, it may be better." 
She has no hand or voice in any of them. His is the strength of 
reason and courage, hers the strength of unreasonable will ; hers 
overcoming his at the moment, but giving way when it is called upon 
to endure the consequences; his a lasting, enduring strength. She 
dies insane, he dies in armor. 

It was not ambition only, as is commonly thought, which induced 
Macbeth to commit the murder. Ambition causes us to do things 
which will result in ease, glory, wealth, or some other thing from 
which we expect to derive satisfaction. I have shown you that Mac- 
beth expected no happiness from it. He looks for the poisoned 
chalice to be put to his own lips. What does he say after the mur- 
der? Lady Macbeth has gone to take thebloody daggers back : 


" What hands are these ? 
Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood 
Clean from my hand ? No. This my hand will rather 
The multitudinous sea incarnadine 
Making the green, one red." 

The real consequences come to him with additional force now. How- 
like her, when long after, she says " all the perfumes." From this mo- 
ment his life is one fitful, feverish agony. He tries to take comfort in 
the prophecy that " no man of woman born" can hurt him, and that 
Birnam wood must come to Dunsinane, but, though he does seem a 
slave to superstition, it gives him no rest, no comfort. Lady Macbeth's 
death is announced to him. His " dear partner of greatness " is gone. 
Hear our brave 'Macbeth pour out the misery of his soul. It is a most 
beautiful passage of slow lingering verse suiting sound to sense : 

" She would have died hereafter. 

To-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow, 

Creeps in this petty pace from day to day 

To the last syllable of recorded time, 

And all our yesterdays have lighted fools 

The way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle ! 

Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player, 

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage, 

And then is heard no more; it is a tale 

Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, 

Signifying nothing." 

. He thought it would be so, and so it is. It may seem strange that 
one of such intellect, as I have claimed for Macbeth, should become a 
mere tool. Why did he murder Duncan, if it was not his ambition 
which drove him to it ? Three causes appear: 

1st. Lady Macbeth's indomitable, unreasonable will, by its very un- 
reasonableness, conquered him. In close connection with this is his 
wonderful imagination, and her comparative lack of it. At the thought 
of murder his mind is filled with horrid images. But she sees nothing. 
He cannot understand such power. But what seems power, is lack of 
imagination. These two together, give her a strange, weird influence 
over him, so that he stands before her awe struck, not knowing him- 
self. He gasps out to her, " Bring forth men-children only." When 
he tells her he heard a voice cry " Sleep no more — -Macbeth, does mur- 
der sleep ?" she impatiently cries, " What do you mean ?" 


And when Banquo's ghost appears to him with such horror, and she 
seems calm and undisturbed, he cries out in bewilderment : 

"You make me strange, 

Even to the disposition I owe, 
When now I think you can behold such sights, 
And keep the natural ruby of your cheeks, 
When mine are blanched with feir." 

Such is her weird influence over him. 

I will insert here an additional proof that he was not driven on by am- 
bition As he approaches the silver haired, kind old king, his kinsman, 
his imagination is in awful suspense. His arm rises, he deals the blow. 
What then are his thoughts? His wild imagination transfers to an 
unknown voice his own thoughts. Are his thoughts the greatness, 
the happiness gained ? No. He hears a voice cry : 

" Sleep no more. 

Macbeth, does murder sleep — the innocent sleep ! 

Still it cried ' Sleep no more ' to all this house. 

' Glamis hath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor 

Shall sleep no more — Macbeth shall sleep no more.'" 

Murdered happiness and greatness, murdered sleep to all his house, 
these are his thoughts. Had ambition moved him to it, he would 
have thought of the glory won. He cannot even complete the plan, 
but carries the daggers to his own room, leaving the work half done. 

2d. His courage has already been shown. He dared do anything. 

3d. His love for his wife. It was wonderful, beautiful. She brought 
Kim from happiness to misery. He was great Macbeth, Glamis and 
Cawdor, and now he is a " fool lighted to dusty death," and all by her. 
Yet not one word of complaint against her, not one. The struggle 
is for this world's happiness. Lady Macbeth overcomes his reason. 
The very thing he loved and for which he sought greatness, caused his 
terrible misery. 'Twas she that made a mere tool of our mighty Mac- 
beth. Suppose he had been willing to do the deed from ambition, 
how tame it would be! Lady Macbeth's will would not have been needed ; 
but it is the evil genius of the play. Macbeth and Hamlet both con- 
template murder. The soliloquies of each are an important, nay, su- 
preme part of each tragedy. Macbeth is " a tempest set to music." 
Hamlet is very slow and protracted. 

Lady Macbeth's unreasonable will is the cause of this difference. This 


makes us feel as though we were on the verge of an awful abyss all 
the while. It is this which makes it " a tempest set to music." 

" What a noble piece of work is man ! How noble in reason ! how 
infinite in faculty! in form and movement, how express and admira- 
ble ! in apprehension how like a God ! The beauty of the world ! The 
paragon of animals!" Such is Macbeth, and what a fall was his. It 
is thy work, O woman, and it is terrible. But when thou art good, 
" the joy of loyal service to thy king shines through thy days and 
lights up others' lives." Hayne Davis. 

Biographical Sketches 



Edited by Stephen B. Weeks. 

BUCK, DeWitt CLINTON, Lexington, Miss., son of Urwin Hunter, 
d. near Vicksburg in 1862. Matriculated i860. Married Martha Griffin. 
He was a private in Wofford's company, Withers' Mississippi Artil- 
lery. A Di. 

BUTT, James ELDRIDGE, Columbus, Ga., b. in Muscogee co., Ga., 
Dec. 2, 1841, son of Moses and Priscilla Banks, d. in Officers' Hos- 
pital, No. 4, Petersburg, Va., Sept. 9, 1864. Prepared by Dr. Carlisle 
P. Beaman,at Mount Zion, Ga., matriculated Feb., 1858, class 1861, with 
second distinction. Unmarried. Entered the service in October, 1861 ; 
in November, 1863, was with Longstreet's Corps in East Tennessee, and 
from May, 1864, until the time of his death wound, was in the trenches 
before Petersburg. Just as his regiment was being relieved, Aug. 8, 
1864, he was wounded in the ankle by a fragment of a shell; gangrene 
set in, the foot was amputated, and he died Sept. 9. He had been 
carefully tended by the Sisters of Charity, but in vain. He inherited 
a fortune of $30,000, and it was said of him that he divided his pay as 


First Lieutenant among the needy members of his company, and 
when he procured luxuries he gave freely to those who could afford 
none, and never complained of the hardships of camp life. At six 
years of age he expressed a desire to become a member of the church, 
and said, even at that age, that he must preach. To one standing by 
his dying bedside he said : " I have no fear in death. My heavenly 
Father's will is mine and he has accepted me." A member of the 
M. E. Church, South. A Di. 

Closs, Thomas Oliver, Orange co., N. C, b. in Franklin co., 
Va., June 28, 1833, son of Dr. Morgan, who removed with him to 
North Carolina in 1847, d. July 3, 1863. Matriculated, 1853. Mar- 
ried in 1858,111 Texas, Mrs. Adriana Bragg. She died, leaving him 
one daughter. While prosecuting his studies, his eyes became very 
much inflamed, and he had to give up books for several months. As 
soon as his eyes recovered sufficiently to use them at all, he commenced 
the study of law under Judge Battle. After getting license to prac- 
tise, he went to Texas. He enlisted in March, 1862, in Co. G, Fourth 
Texas Infantry, and arrived in Virginia in time to take part in the 
Peninsula Campaign. His regiment, with the 1st and 3d Texas and 
2d Georgia, formed what was known as the Texas Brigade, and was 
attached to Stonewall Jackson's Division. On the 3d of July, 1863, 
while storming the heights of Gettysburg, he was killed by a shot 
through the head, and his body sleeps on the battlefield. 

Flamner, Andrew Jackson, Wilmington, N. C, b. Nov. 19, 1837, 
d. July 27, 1864. Matriculated 1853, class 1857. Married Fannie 
Kirkpatrick. A lawyer. He belonged to the Signal Corps on the 
Confederate blockade runner Whiting, and entered the service from 
Wilmington. A Phi. 

Gardner, Hugh Walker, Wilmington, N. C, b. 25th June. 
1835, son of Junius D. and Mary, d. Sept. 7, 1862. Matriculated 
1853, class 1857. Unmarried. A physician. Entered the service 
from Wilmington as a private in the Wilmington Eight Infantry, Co. 
G, 18th Regiment, Col. J. D. Radcliffe, Aug. 1861 ; was promoted to 
be Surgeon and Major, May 31, 1862. He was temporarily attached 
to the 33d N. C. Infantry, Branch's Brigade, and then assigned to a 
battery of artillery, in which he served until seized with epidemic 
jaundice, then prevalent in the Chickahominy bottoms among the 


soldiers. He died of abscess of the liver, in General Hospital No. 4, 
Richmond, Va. A Phi. 

HARVEY, HUBERT, Marshall, Saline Co., Mo., b. Thursday, March 
23, 1837, son of Thomas Hudnal and Elizabeth Sarah Edwards, d. 
Thursday, Jan. 10, 1867. Matriculated 1856. Unmarried. A lawyer 
by profession and a farmer by practice. He served as a private in 
Ruxton's company, Robertson's regiment. Parson's brigade, and was 
engaged at Booneville, Dry Wood, Lexington and Blackwater. He 
was captured at Blackwater, Dec. 19, 1861. In prison, at Alton, he 
contracted cold that brought on consumption, which caused his 
death. Deceased was economical in his habits, just in his dealings 
with his fellow men. correct in judgment, slow to form an opinion, 
but, when formed, always correct. Gifted by nature and cultivated by 
education, had he lived he would doubtless have made an impression 
upon society. A Phi. 

Haughton, John Lawrence, Chatham co., N. C, b. April 16, 
1841, son of Lawrence J. and Ann L., d. Sept. 23, 1S62, of disease 
contracted from exposure while in the C. S. A. Matriculated 1858, 
class 1 861 . Unmarried. While at the University, he joined in May, 
1 861 , the Orange Guards; was commissioned Second Lieutenant Co. 
B, 63d N. C. Reg't (cavalry), afterwards became First Lieutenant Co. E, 
same regiment ; participated in battle of Newbern, and in several skir- 
mishes in Eastern North Carolina. He was lovely and amiable in dis- 
position, and beloved by all who knew him. A D.i. 

Haughton, John Robert, Chatham co., N. C, b. in Pittsboro, 
June 10, 1845, son °f John H. and Alice Hill, d. Smithfield, N. C, 
July 10, 1864, from fever contracted in the service. Matriculated 1862. 
Unmarried. Joined the C. S. Army in 1863, and assigned to duty at 
Smithville, N. C, as a member of the Signal Corps; was in no battle. 
He was always true and faithful to his duty ; courteous and thought- 
ful of the comfort of others; perfectly unselfish, and a true Christian m 







Salutatory. — We enter upon our task of 
editing the MAGAZINE with considerable dif- 
fidence. For years it has been so generally 
the custom to abuse the Magazine, no 
matter what its contents might be, that we 
despair of pleasing the great body of stu- 
dents. In fact, we shall make no effort to 
pander to the average Sophomoric or Fresh- 
man tastes. We intend to give the Maga- 
zine a two-fold character: in the first place 
making it a journal of North Carolina his- 
tory, and, secondly, rendering it an exponent 
of the best thought and literary culture of 
the University. At the same time we shall 
furnish a record of college events, and Hip- 
ply news of our University boys away fiom 
the Hill. 

In its character of an historical journal, the 
Magazine will contain the best productions 
of the State Historical Society, together with 
matter from other sources which may be ap- 
propriate. Our readers may rest assured that 
in every number they will find at least two 
articles relative to State history, which will 
be of permanent value. In this way the 
Magazine will be made a repository of his- 
torical matter of general interest and invalu- 
able to the student of North Carolina's past. 
The volumes issued previous to the war are 
now eagerly sought after, and it is our hope 
to make this, the eighth volume, equally as 

In its second capacity, as a literary journal, 
the Magazine will be filled with the best pa- 
pers read before the Seminaiy of Literature 
and Philology and the Shakespeare Club. 
The most careful work of our Faculty will 
cause each number to be conspicuous for 
ability and learning among the monthlies <>f 
the day. Papers by students also, which 
show thought and research, will he frequently 

Again, the popular features of the college 
paper will not be overlooked. Each issue 

will contain news of old Chapel Hill boys, so 
that (.very alumnus can rely on learning 
through the Magazine of the whereabouts 
of his old college friends and associates. 
The College Record, a few fresh, pithy per- 
sonals, items of interest as culled from other 
college papers, with a few remarks on our 
exchanges, will complete the account of the 
contents of the Magazine. 

We beg of all our readers to look with in- 
dulgence upon our mistakes and to give us 
their good wishes, but, above all, to furnish 
substantial aid in extending our subscription 
list, and supplying us with good papers and 
items of news. 

The Gymnasium. — We desire to call the 
attention of the Faculty and Trustees to the 
condition of the College Gymnasium. It is 
our impression that the Trustees agreed with 
the Gymnasium Association to furnish all 
necessary apparatus. This was all supplied 
very properly at first, but since then it has 
been much broken and scattered, so that now 
the Gymnasium is almost destitute. The 
leather ftom several of the swinging rings is 
very much worn, and in some places entirely 
gone, so that the rings are almost useless. 
All the dumb-bells have been stolen or bro- 
ken ; only a few odd Indian clubs are lying 
about the floor ; the pulleys are broken to 
pieces ; none of the ladders have been re- 
placed since Commencement ; of the parallel 
bars, one set is not fastened to the tloor, and 
therefore is dangerous, while the other is not 
in the Gymnasium at all. Such are a few of 
the deficiencies observed by one passing 
through the room ; doubtless there are many 
others. We respectfully ask that this matter 
be at once attended to, for at present there 
are no inducements to the students to use the 
Gymnasium at all. 

The Age of Societies. — What would our 
ancestors have thought of the thousand and 



one Societies, Ciubs, Seminaries and Asso- 
ciations which are now in existence at this 
University? In the good old times they 
didn't have such things. But now ! ! We 
hear daily of the formation of some new club 
or society or other. The bell rings almost 
every night for their meetings. An evening 
to one's self, even now, is a rarity. But in 
the future ! Ah, doleful prospect. A so- 
ciety of some kind will mett, not only every 
night in the week, including Sunday, but 
in the afternoons, and often two or more will 
be going on at the same time. Byron clubs, 
cross-roads historical societies, Bill Arp 
scientific societies, L. M. E. associations, 
and Seminaria. with names even longer than 
some already known, will be the order of the 

day, and they all will be of exactly the same 
character. Primum omnium, as Livy says, 
prospective members will have to be passed 
on by executive committees, and then — of 
course the initiation fee. Frequently this 
will be about all — all except the election of 
officers and payment of annual dues. But 
finally things will grow still worse. The stu- 
dents will no longer prepare recitations; they 
will belong to societies. The professors will 
nor hear their classes; they will preside over 
societies. Executive committees, initiation 
fees, papers and meetings will occupy every- 
body from morning till night. Then will be 
the time longed for by the association-found- 
ing maniac, for his millennium will have come. 

Exchanges and College World. 

— One of the Cornell professors went to 
the circus to see what students to excuse the 
next day on account of sickness.- Ex. 

— Dr. W. E. Boggs, a Presbyterian min- 
ister, of Memphis, has been elected Chan- 
cellor of the University of Georgia, at Athens. 

— President Cleveland is not a college 
man, but Mrs. Cleveland is a college woman, 
and Uan. Lamont is a graduate of Union. 
Acting Vice-President Ingalls is a Williams 
man. Secretary Bayard had a business edu- 
cation : Secretaries Fairchild and Endicott 
are Harvard men ; Secretary Whitney hails 
from Yale ; Dickinson, from Michigan Uni- 
versity ; Vilas, from St. Mary's College, Ken- 
tucky. — Ex. 

— The students of Cornell are taking an 
active interest in the political campaign. 
They have organized a Democratic and a Re- 
publican Club. The Prohibitionists also 
hold meetings, and the Mugwumps advertised 
in the Cornell Sun a meeting of "persons 
favoring the election of Cleveland and the 

defeat of Hill, to make arrangements for one 
or more mass meetings, to be addressed by 
speakers favoring tariff reform and electoral 
reform." We suppose the next thing will be 
the organization by the young ladies of that 
University of a Belva Lockwood Club. 

— Little drops and rises, 
Little air that's fanned, 
Makes a mighty pitcher, 
And the pleased grand stand. — Ex. 

— Professor Patton, recently elected Presi- 
dent of Princeton, is a British subject, who- 
has never sought naturalization in this coun- 
try. — Ex. 

— When I was first a Freshman, 
All innocent and pure, 
I was so home-sick all the time, 
I thought 'twould kill me sure. 

But when I was a Sophomore, 
And went to our class spread, 
I came home sick so very bad 
I wished that I was dead. — Ex. 



— Twenty-four young women graduated as 
lawyers in Michigan last summer. — Ex. 

— The students of Columbia College are 
now obliged to wear caps and gowns. — Ex. 

— Malvern Hill Palmer, 'S8, has an article 
in The Schoolteacher, for September, on 
" Locke's Physical Education." 

— The Cornell Sun claims for that Uni- 
versity the largest Freshman Class on record 
in America, over four hundred. 

— The Rutgers Targum says, editorially, 
that nine-tenths of all her students last year 
were professing Christians, while nearly one- 
third are studying for the ministry. — Ex. 

— In Michigan University a course has 
been established in the art of writing plays 
for the stage. — Ex. We should advise Mrs. 
Amelie Rives Chanler to attend the lectures. 

— A special car was run by the Principal 
of Salem Female Academy from Dallas, 
Texas, to Salem, N. C, enabling pupils from 
Texas and other Southern States to come 
unattended by guardians, without change of 
cars or any inconvenience. 

— Yale came out victorious in the inter- 
collegiate league of base ball clubs. Har- 
vard holds the second place. Yale also won 
in the annual boat race with Harvard, June 
20th, at New London, breaking the record 
by ten seconds. Stagg, Yale's pitcher, has 
refused offers to play in professional base ball 
clubs, having resolved to study for the minis- 

— The Earlhamite, published at Earlham 
College, Richmond, I nd., a Quaker institution, 
has some very good articles in its literary de- 
partment in the October number. The one on 
"Technical Education in the Public Schools" 
expresses our sentiments and convictions. It 
is a protest against substituting a technical edu- 
cation for the training of a general collegiate 
course, and holds that the best results are to be 
achieved in any occupation by the man whose 

views have been enlarged and mind trained 
by a regular academic curriculum. To give 
a boy an education with a view to immediate 
results is short-sighted policy. 

— The Pacific Pharos, coming to us 
across the continent, is one of our best ex- 
changes. It is published bi-weekly. There 
is a commendable variety in its columns. The 
college poets, who appear to be numerous, 
contribute much to this feature. In the issue 
of August 29, there is a college love story 
and a Chinese legend. The September 26 
number contains an interesting letter from 
Lucerne, describing Northern Italy and 
Switzerland. The writer is evidently a good 
observer, and descriptions of country and 
people and politics are well combined. 

— We compliment the Wake Forest Stu- 
dent upon the excellent quality of its paper 
and type and attractive appearance of its in- 
side. Wake Forest's poet laureate, Gilles- 
pie, has a contribution in iambic blank verse, 
entitled " Sumpter : a Reminiscence." The 
Student says Edwards & Broughton have in 
press a volume of poems by him, which will 
soon be issued. He is of Duplin county, 
N. C. We are glad to see the students turn- 
ing their attention to fiction in the literary 
department. We recommend the exercise to 
our own embno novelists. But the author 
of " Lorinne " must have been suffering from 
dyspepsia. It is " sound and fury, signify- 
ing nothing." "The Mysteiy of An' Su," 
a negro tale, is much better. It has some 
merit. The article on " The Coming Party " 
(the Prohibition party) is well written, but 
we do not agree with the author of it. How- 
ever true his conclusions may prove to be, 
his argument is evidently at fault. He de- 
clares that " there are now in reality no po- 
litical parties." We advise him to consult the 
editorof "Current Topics," who wrote of the 
" Bagging Trust." He may learn that there 
are two great political parties, with a distinc- 
tion very important to us of the South; yes, of 
vital importance to the farmers of North 

Personal and Student Gossip. 

When this Magazine last appeared, un- 
der different management, the small world of 
college interests had culminated in a grand 
finale which we call Commencement. As 
usjial, it brought its joys to high and low. 
And now the wheel has slipped, and every- 
thing moved a peg onward and a step higher. 
"And so the old order changeth, yielding 
place to new." 


* * 

Moreover, a month, and more, has passed 
and we hardly knew it. Three score and 
ten have come to fill the ranks. 

We like the Freshmen. They look as if 
they meant business. It is hoped they will 
not deceive their looks. 

* * 

Another thing looks like business : that is 
the firm set-to which the Faculty make to 
ever build up the standard of work done in 
the University, in spite of disadvantages 
which would weaken any other college. The 
system of holding recitations on Saturday so 
distributes the work that, in the multiplicity 
of courses, all recitations may be held in the 
morning hours, and thus the Faculty is en- 
abled to do the work of a larger body. Still, 
there are those who object to it. 

. * . 

* * 

As a result of this ruling, it has been found 
necessary for the Societies to change their 
hour of meeting. The Di's meet Saturday 
afternoon, and it is presumable that the Phi's 
will do the same. 

* * 

Dan Currie, who has been confined with 
a painful attack of rheumatism, is now im- 

Darnall is at Washington and Lee. 

Henry Johnston will not come back un- 
til November. He is not yet fully recovered 
from his sickness, but we are glad to know 
that he is much better. 

L. Grandy, '86, is studying medicine in 
New York, 

Jodie Morris, '87, also stopped for a day. 
He is taking a medical course at Vanderbilt. 

Tom Ransom was with us for a few days. 
John Alexander, also, came and made be- 
lieve he was in College again. Would that 
he were ; but, then, we' can't expect it now, 
you know. 

Gus Long, '85, has the chair of English 
in Wofford College, S. C, the place for- 
merly held by Dr. Woodward, who goes 
to the University of South Carolina. Some- 
how our graduates are in demand. 

W. H. Wills, familiarly known as " Hu- 
man," is teaching fn a high school at Fre- 
mont, in Wayne county. We understand 
that he has the department of military tac- 
tics — "teaching the young idea how to. 
shoot," as it were. 

Passing Professor's House. —Senior 
Reinbeau : " This detestable gate will be the 
ruin of my legs yet ! " Senior Topnoddy : 
" Detestable gait !" (looking thoughtfully at 
the other's legs.) "Why not change yout 
style of walking ? " 

" Nath " Wilson, '86, came to see us on 
his way to the Vanderbilt Theological School, 
and he is the same old Nath. He preached 
on Sunday night in the Methodist church, 
and a large number of students and towns- 
people were present. 

Of the Class of '88, the following have 
been heard from as teaching : Harper, Pal- 
mer, Smith, Lewis, Little and Foust. Battle 
and Headen are taking graduate courses here, 
the latter in Pharmaceutic Chemistry. Hayne 
Davis is in Raleigh, acting Secretary of the 
Democratic State Committee. Armfield is 
engaged in banking at High Point. We 
should be glad to hear from the others. 



C. Granijy, '86 (" Little C "), is employed 
on the staff of one of the Washington City 

Dr. Weeks has obtained a scholarship at 
Johns Hopkins, where he intends taking a 
three years course. 

'Tis healthy to see athletics coming more 
into favor among us. Why not have a field- 
day occasionally, with the usual events of tug- 
of-war, sack, knap-sack, 3-legged, and potato 
race, &c? 

C. A. Webb, of the Dialectic Society, has 
been elected Washington's Birthday Orator. 
Alex. Stronach will make the address of in- 
troduction, and R. Bingham and DeB. H. 
Whitaker will act as Marshals. 

Graduates and former students are ear- 
nestly requested to keep the Magazine in- 
formed of their whereabouts and their doings. 
Such news is of interest to our readers, here 
and elsewhere. 

Teachers during vacation, farmers' sons 
when work is slack on the farm, and any 
others not fully and profitably employed, can 
learn something to their advantage by apply- 
ing to B. F. Johnson & Co., 1009 Main St., 
Richmond, Va. 

We had the opportunity of hearing many 
famous college yells last summer, including 
those of Weliesley and Vassar. Why can't 
we get up a yell? What's the matter with 
Rah! Rah! Rah! Ree! 
Popsy, wopsy, tingsy, tee! 
Vive la, vive la U. of N. C. 

In the Law School of this year, Carroll, '86, 
and Simmons, '87, are, thus far, about the only 
graduates of this institution. It seems that 
the proportion of students entering the pro- 
fession of law is smaller than of yore. We 
hear, however, of other graduates who will 
soon enter the law class. 

E. M. Foust, '85, was married Septem- 
ber 27th, to Miss Sudie Noble, of Kemp, 
Texas. Mr. Foust is Principal of the High 
School in that town, and also editor of ihe 
Kemp Times. He has become a full-Hedged 
Texan, but cherishes an unchanging love for 
his native State and his A Ima Mater. 

Foot-ball is lively this term. The Soph, 
eleven is getting ready to challenge anything 
that walks — their usual attitude. Tennis 
also is having a good deal of attention. A 
tournament has been arranged, for the week 
after the State fair, in which six fraternities 
will each enter a couple for the fraternity 
championship. In a tournament held at 
Northfield, Curtis and Little came out third 
best in a list of about fifteen couples, nearly 
all of whom were crack players. 

The grudge we bear the Literary Editor of 
this magazine is deep and lasting. In fact, 
we should be afraid to trust ourselves to ex- 
press our feelings in the matter. A man who 
will secretly enter our private apartment and 
make a change of pen to mucilage bottle, 
and mucilage brush to inkstand ; put the soap 
in the water-pail and tie our best cravat 
around the oily part of the lamp, is past the 
reach of printer's ink, and fit only for " trea- 
son, stratagems and spoils." 

Curtis, Little and Harris had a good time 
at Northfield, Mass. The occasion was a 
meeting for Bible study, a conference of col- 
lege men, called together by Mr. Moody, and 
directed by him and a number of other well 
known Bible scholars from all over the land. 
Meals and rooms were furnished to all who 
came, in the buildings of the Northfield 
Seminary, of which Mr. Moody is the virtual 
head. The design was to combine Bible 
study, and study of methods of Christian work, 
with pleasant recreation and fellowship with 
students from the various colleges of Amer- 
ica and some from England. • 

University Day was observed with ap- 
propriate exercises. Dr. Battle gave a hasty 
but graphic account of the University as it 
was in its early days, and made it more 
graphic by reading letters from students. 
Trustees and others relating to the students' 
manner of living, etc. Such bits of college 
history are always acceptable, especially to 
new students. Professor Love told about 
the old Astronomical Observatory, the first 
college observatory erected in America. This 
was built by the Trustees at the instance of 



President Caldwell, who made a trip to Eu- 
rope before 1830 to purchase instruments for 
it. It was finished in 1831, and stood near 
the road now known as the Raleigh road, 
between the limits of the campus and the 
village cemetery. Williams College claimed 
the honor of having the first college observa- 
tory, but we are ahead by seven years. 
Many students took advantage of the holi- 
day to visit the Durham Exposition, hence 
the attendance was not large. 

The address of Dr. W. B. Phillips, on 
the placing of a pyramidal shaft at the "Pis- 
gah tomb " of the good Dr. Elisha Mitchell, 
was very largely attended and much appre- 
ciated. He reviewed the thrilling details of the 
tragedy ; how Dr. Mitchell came to lose his 
life, and how the search for him was carried on. 
He believes, on carefully going over the rug- 
ged path pursued by Dr. Mitchell, which has 
scarcely changed since the day of his death, 
June 27th, 1857, that he must have made the 
descent in daylight, and must have been ob- 
serving the falls from above when he lost his 
footing and fell into the deep pool. Dr. Phil- 
lips told how difficult was the undertaking of 
transporting the sections of the monument 
from the station to the top of Mitchell's 
high peak, the ascent being so circuitous 
and steep, and the distance so great. The 

process was described in detail, and the hu- 
morous side presented. We are all glad, by 
the way, to know that Dr Phillips will not 
yet leave the State. He expects for some time 
to be engaged in mining operations for gold 
within about seven miles of this place. 

Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, the world re- 
nowned specialist in mind diseases, says : 
" I am familiar with various systems for im- 
proving the memory, including, among oth- 
ers, those of Feinaigle, Gourund and Dr. 
Pick, and I have recently become acquainted 
with the system in all its details and appli- 
cations taught by Prof. Loisette. I am there- 
fore enabled to state that his is, in all its 
essential features, entirely original ; that its 
principles and methods are different from all 
others, and that it presents no material analo- 
gies to that of any other system. 

" I consider Prof. Loisette's system to be 
a new departure in the education of the 
memory and attention, and of very great 
value ; that, it being a systematic body of 
principles and methods, it should be studied 
as an entirety to be understood and appre- 
ciated ; that a correct view of it cannot be 
obtained by examining isolated passages 
of it. 

" William A. Hammond. 

" New York, July 10, 1S88." 

University Record. 

OPPORTUNITIES for independent and vol- 
untary work in reading, criticism, and com- 
position, and all kinds of research, are offered 
to us, one and all. This kind of work marks 
the rising of the student mind above the 
' ' dry-as-dust " work of the regular text-book, 
and puts him upon his own feet. It gives 
him an individuality, and he feels that he is 
becoming a spring of knowledge, rather than 

a mere pool fed by the common stream. . We 
believe that this, more than any other one 
thing, will tend to make the general tone of 
our University stronger and more nearly 
abreast with the spirit of the times. 

Shakspere Club. — The first meeting 
for the year 1888-89 was. held September 
12th. Subject: Two Gentlemen at Verona. 
L. D. Howell gave the sources of the play. 



W. J. Battle — A few random remarks in- 
dited without the use of commentaries. 

St. Clair Hester — Launce and Crab as 
types of Shaksperian Humor. 

Dr. Hume— Study of diction; comparison 
of characters with those of the Merchant of 
Venice ; the early faultiness of Shakspere's 
creative power seen in Two Gentlemen at 

OFFICERS FOR 1888-89. 

Prof. Thos. Hume, Jr., D. D., President. 

Prof. W. D. Toy, Vice-President. 

Wm. Jas. Battle, Secretary. 

H. G. Wood, Treasurer. 

Executive Committee — Prof. G. T. Win- 
ston, John S. Hill. Logan D. Howell, and 
the officers above named. 

The N. C. Historical Society had its 
first meeting for the year iSSS-'So. on Tues- 
day, September 18th. 

President Battle read a paper proving the 
error of the statement in a recent history 
that North Carolina, like Rhode Island, 
founded her dislike to the Federal Constitu- 
tion on its prohibition of bills of credit, be- 
cause she had issued so much of her own. 
He showed by quotations from the speeches 
of its opponents in the State Convention of 
17S8, and of such Federalists as Iredell, 
Davie and Maclaine, that the objections were 
of a general character, chiefly a dread of 
consolidated government. No one objected 
to the future prohibition, and the attitude of 
the State was to defer action until the de- 
sired amendments were made. 

Dr. Stephen B. Weeks presented a sketch 
of the life and doings of Blackbeard, the 
Corsair of Carolina. He gave an intensely 
interesting account of the various traditions 
and facts about this strange character^ whose 
real name was Teach, together with the date 
of his death and the name of his slayer. 

Mr. W. J. Andrews, of Raleigh, was 
elected Secretary and Treasurer in place of 
Dr. Weeks, who goes to Johns Hopkins 

The officers are now as follows: 

Dr. K. P. Battle, President. 

W.J. Andrews, Secretary and Tieasurer 

Executive Committee. — Dr. Battle, Profes- 
sor Winston, Professor Mangum, Mr. W. J. 
Andrews and Mr. Shepard Bryan. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. — 
September nth. 

The Society was called to order by the 
Vice-President, Professor Graves, who pre- 
sented a paper on " The Principle of Dual- 
ity." The application of this principle to 
plane figures only was considered. The co- 
existence of figures and their properties (cor- 
relative), as the different elements are chosen, 
constitutes the Principle of Duality. 

Professor Gore then gave an account of the 
August meeting of the American Associai ion 
for the Advancement of Science, outlining 
some of the papers read at that meeting. As 
the thiid paper of the evening, Dr. Venable 
described some of the recent discoveries in 
chemistry and the progress made in that 
branch of science. 

The Secretary reported large additions to 
the libiary during vacation. The total num- 
ber of books and pamphlets has reached nearly 
1,900, about 500 coming in during June, 
July and August. The list of exchanges has 
grown to one hundred and eighty-four. Thir- 
teen foreign countries are represented in this 
list, there being twenty-one exchanges in 
Germany alone. This list is constantly 
growing and the library becoming more and 
more valuable. 

The Vice-President named the committees 
to repoit on the different branches of scientific 
work. There are eleven of these commit- 
tees, and three report at each meeting. These 
reports aie limited to ten minutes each, and 
the meeting, at furthest, to one hour and a 

Seminary of Literature and Philol- 
ogy. — This strongly equipped society had its 
first regular meeting on the night of Septem- 
ber 26th. It is designed to furnish an oppor- 
tunity for broader discussion of matters 
classed under the general terms Literature 
and Philology than could be offered by a 
society for the study of any special literature. 
It will share its time with the Shakspere 



Club, each meeting every month on alternate 

The subject of this meeting was Lyric 
Poetry, and many sides of the very broad 
subject were presented by readings of various 

Professor Alexander : The Greek Lyric. 

Professor Toy : Lyric Poetry of France. 

L. D. Howell : Love Poetry of Horace 
and Burns — A contrast. 

T. M. Lee : Poetical rendering of one of 
Horace's Odes. 

Dr. Hume : Wordsworth. 

W. J. Battle : Horace, the Poet of Com- 
mon Sense. 

Professor Winston : The Philosophy of 

. Professor Winston also read several metri- 
cal translations of Horace, from different 

The officers are as follows : 

Professor Winston, President; Professor 
Alexander, Vice-President ; Geo. S. Wills, 
Secretary ; Wm. Jas. Battle, Treasurer. 

Executive Committee. — Professor Winston, 
Professor Alexander, G. S. Wills, W. J. Bat- 
tle, Professor Toy, Dr. Hume, L. D. Howell. 

Subject for next meeting, The Historians , 

Y. M. C. A. — The Association has be- 
gun operations in good earnest, and promises 
to become more of a factor in college life 
than ever before. The increased interest 
shows itself in the heartiness with which the 
men undertake Christian work. There are 
now over sixty members, and the attendance 
on religious meetings is large. Sixty copies 
of Gospel Hymns, No. 5, a new collection, 

have been purchased. The Faculty have 
again granted the use of the college organ, 
and Gaston Battle is the organist. 

Money is being received, in response to a 
printed call, for the purpose of fitting up 
another room, to be used by the members as 
a social parlor and reading-room. This will 
very soon be put into effect. It is intended 
to be the brightest and prettiest place in col- 

A number of the best men in the State, 
representing different lines of interest, will 
be invited to speak before the students dur- 
ing the year. 

Mr. Wilder, of Princeton, the leader of the 
volunteer mission movement among college 
men, will doubtless visit us before the end of 
this term. We expect also to have a visit 
from Mr. S. M. Sayford, the evangelist, 
during the Spring term. 

The attention of the members should be 
fixed on the set week of prayer, Nov. 11-17, 
at which time Rev. Egbert Smith, of Greens- 
boro, will probably be present. It should 
be the unalterable purpose of every member 
to do his part tuward awakening and sustain- 
ing a religious sentiment in college. 

As an example of the influence of such an 
organization as this, we note 'that the most 
prominent men in the work throughout the 
State have had their training here. 

The officers oi the present term are : 

Hunter L. Harris, President. 

Walter M. Curtis, Vice-President. 

Gaston Battle, Treasurer. 

Hugh Miller, Recording Secretary. 

W. W. Davies, Corresponding Secretary. 


Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina. 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

The Magazine has six departments, each conducted by a student 
selected with a view to his qualifications for the work in hand. 

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT is mainly intended to exhibit 
the character of the work done in the Societies, to encourage literary 
efforts and co-operate with the chairs in the University in developing 
a critical appreciation of the masters of the language. It is a vehicle 
of communication between the Alumni of the Institution, a repository 
of interesting bits of history, important results in scientific investiga- 
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THE COLLEGE RECORD will chronicle the events of college 
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Old Series, Vol. XXI. No. 2. New Series, Vol. VIII. 















Commemorative Address : The Mitchell Monument W.B.Phillips. 39 

Poetry and Truth in Wordsworth ... .'. Thomas Hume. 54 

Old Times in Chapel Hill, No. XI (The Old University Magazine).. Mrs. C. P. Spencer. 59 

The Davie Poplar (reprinted from March number, 1844) 64 

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Biographical Sketches of the Confederate Dead.. ,. S. B. Weeks. 75 

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Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 

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Professor of Mathematics. 


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Professor of Geology and Natural History. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 

Hon. JOHN MANNING, A. M., LL. D., 

Professor of Law. 

Rev. THOMAS HUME. Jr., M. A., D. D., 

Professor of the English Language and Literature. 

Professor of Modern Languages. 


Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 


Associate Professor of Mathematics. 

S. C. BRAGAW, c Librarians - 

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Old Series. Vol XX CHAPEL HILL, N. C. NO. 2. 

New Series, Vol Vlll. 


Hunter L. Harris, Wm. Jas. Battle, 

Logan D. Howell. Walter M. Hammond. 


Commemorative of the Erection of a Monument on Mitchell's High Peak in 

Honor of the Rev. Elisha Mitchell, D. D., for Thirty-nine Years 

a Professor in the University of North Carolina, 

Delivered before the University Oct. i6th, 1888, by Wm. B. Phillips, Class of 1877. 


To mention the name of Professor Elisha Mitchell among middle- 
aged educated people in almost any part of North Carolina, is to re- 
call a loved and venerated teacher and leader. To mention that name 
here, where he spent by far the greater part of his life, and where he 
wielded for many years so powerful and beneficent an influence, is to 
speak of Caesar to the battered survivors of some Gallic legion. 

It is not my purpose at this time to record the events of that life, 
nor to comment upon that influence. Both these tasks have already 
been accomplished by abler pens than mine, and in the pages of the 
" Memoir," published by the University in 1858, and the 1st volume 
of the Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, the interested 
reader will find them set forth. This address is to recall to the minds 
of the present generation the life and services of a great and good 
man, and to preserve the record of the erection of a monument to his 
memory upon the great Peak which bears his name among the Black 
Mountains in Yancey county. 


On the summit of the highest mountain in the United States east 
of the Mississippi river there lies a lonely grave. A whole generation 
of mankind has passed away since its occupant was laid to rest amid 
the gloomy balsams, on that wind-swept peak. No marble shaft tower- 
ing towards heaven with but too liberal praises marked the spot where 
the mortal awaited immortality. No lovingly tended enclosure with 
flowers and evergreens showed the ceaseless care of faithful hearts. A 
low mound, a rough cairn of stones, and the immensity of nature, 
these were all, and yet the place was eloquent of great deeds. 

Thirty-one years ago this summer the scientific world was startled 
by the announcement that Prof. Elisha Mitchell, of the University of 
North Carolina, while engaged in the exploration of the Black Moun- 
tains in that State, had fallen over a precipice and lost his life. 

He was well known in many departments of science, and at the time 
of his most unfortunate death was determining for the last time the 
heights of those tremendous peaks which are grouped under the term 
"The Black Mountains." 

But few had ever trodden their rough solitudes, for they were of 
forbidding aspect and were known to harbor many wild beasts and 
venomous serpents. Pushing their bold crests aloft above the clouds, 
standing as great barriers thrown up by nature athwart the landscape, 
they had ever been, indeed, objects of curiosity, but not of actual ex- 
ploration. People were content to gaze upward at the driving clouds 
that encircled their summits, and wonder in a feeble fashion how high 
they were, and how big, and what they were there for. Now and 
then a hunter more adventurous than his fellows would pursue a bear 
or deer into their fastnesses, and come back with wonderful tales of 
foaming waterfalls and terrifying precipices, of the oppressive silence 
and gloominess of the balsam forests, of the fallen timber and the ice 
cold water, of bear dens and rattle-snake dens. But for the most part 
the Black Mountains held their secrets, and concealed whatever they 
had behind the dark blue curtain of balsam and hemlock. There were 
no roads through them, scarcely a trail ; a bold active man could in- 
deed make his way up their rugged sides with more or less difficulty, 
but there was nothing to induce him to reach the summit, unless he 
were in pursuit of game. 

The interest which now centers around those Peaks is derived 
almost entirely from the tragic death of Prof. Mitchell on Mitchell's 


High Peak. Up to the time of his death but few had ever reached 
the summit of the highest peak. There was indeed a trail from the 
head waters of the Swannanoa, and men and women rode to the top 
more than forty years ago. But these were the exceptions that prove 
the rule, and those trips are now referred to by the families and 
friends of the excursionists as something quite remarkable. It is un- 
deniable that up to Prof. Mitchell's first visit there in 1835, these 
mountains were almost a terra incognita, a sort of no man's land, 
where bear and deer, wildcat and rattle snake possessed a pre-emption 
claim, and held their own against all comers. 

What induced Prof. Mitchell to undertake their exploration ? Per- 
haps two reasons. First, for the benefit which he would derive from 
such out door exercise, and second, to satisfy his curiosity and enrich 
science by ascertaining at what spot along the Appalachian chain 
nature had set the seal of her greatest achievement. 

To this work he devoted himself for more than twenty years with a 
singleness of purpose and a stoutness of heart and limb but rarely 
seen. Nothing could deter him. He met an obstacle but to over- 
come it, and danger but stirred his blood and quickened his pulse to 
fresh exertions. Through untrodden forests, over rocks and fallen 
timber, through laurel and briars, he pushed his determined way to 
the solution of the great problem which lay before him. To the con- 
sideration of what this problem really was, and how he solved it, and 
won imperishable fame, your attention is respectfully invited. 

There is a tradition that about the year 1835, John C. Calhoun in 
conversation with Gov. Swain, of North Carolina, expressed the opin- 
ion that the highest mountains in the United States east of the Mis- 
sissippi river would be found in the Western part of North Carolina, 
between Asheville and the Virginia line. He based his opinion on the 
observation of the numerous streams which headed in this part of the 
State. A study of the map of North Carolina will show that a num- 
ber of streams do ' head ' on the flanks of the Black Mountains, and 
run to almost every point of the compass. But whether this fact 
would support one in the prediction made by the great South Caroli- 
nian, was at that time a matter of doubt. 

Be this as it may, Dr. Mitchell seems to have determined to settle 
the question, and in 1835, we find him for the first time engaged in 
exploring that tremendous mountain mass. 


In 1838, he resumed his labors there, and in 1844 seems for the first 
time to have reached the summit of what is now termed Mitchell's High 
Peak. Without entering upon the details of the evidence, and avoid- 
ing as far as possible any unnecessary references to the unhappy dis- 
pute which followed the visit of 1844,. we cannot but believe that Dr. 
Mitchell was the first to measure the height of that peak. 

From 1844 to 1856, the controversy between himself and Hon. Thos. 
L. Clingman, in regard to this point, raged with intermittent violence. 
Mr. Clingman claimed to have preceded Dr. Mitchell in the measure- 
ment of the highest peak among the Black Mountains, and still claims 
this honor. But several independent and careful cross-examinations 
of the witnesses, and collection of all the written testimony available 
have put the question now beyond doubt, and to Dr. Mitchell alone 
belongs this high distinction. The final court of appeal, if I may use 
the expression, has decided this, for the U. S. Geological survey in 
i88i-'82, when it became necessary to adopt final names for the peaks 
of this range, decided in favor of Dr. Mitchell. So that we may ac- 
cept for once and all that whatever aspect the question may have had 
between 1844 and 1856, Mitchell's High Peak is the highest mountain 
in the Eastern United States, and was measured first by Dr. Mitchell. 
Dr. Mitchell's visit to this range in 1856, was to substantiate his claims, 
and the fatal journey of 1857 was f° r tne same laudable purpose. 
Coupled with this purpose was one more thoroughly scientific in char- 
acter, viz.: To compare the indications of the spirit level and barome- 
ter in the measurements of heights, so as to simplify this delicate un- 

He left the University about the middle of June 1857, and went at 
once to Jesse Stepp's at the foot of the Cedar Cliff on the North Fork 
of the Swannanoa. This place is now known as Patton's, and is sit- 
uated at the junction of the East Fork and the Stony Fork, which 
together make the North Fork. At this point terminates that huge 
horseshoe curve which, beginning on the southern slope of the Potato- 
Top Mountain, stretches its gigantic course along in a general south- 
east direction, until it towers above the beautiful valley of the Swan- 
nanoa in the Cedar Cliff. Between it and the Grey-beard and Pinnacle on 
the east runs the East Fork of the Swannanoa, a stream of enchant- 
ing loveliness and well worthy of the poet's emotion when he sang: 


Swannanoa, nymph of beauty, 

I would woo thee in my rhyme; 
Wildest, brightest, loveliest river, 

Of our sunny. Southern clime ! 
Swannanoa, well they named thee, 

In the mellow Indian tongue ; 
Beautiful thou art most truly, 

And right worthy to be sung. 

I have stood by many a river, 

Known to story and to song; 
Ashley, Hudson, Susquehanna, 

Fame to which may well belong. 
I have camped by the Ohio, 

Trod Scioto's fertile banks, 
Followed far the Juniata 

In the wildest of her pranks. 

But thou reignest queen forever, 

Child of Appalachian hills; 
Winning tribute as thou flowest, 

From a thousand mountain rills. 
Thine is beauty, strength begotten 

'Mid the cloud-begirded peaks, 
Where the Patriarch of the mountains 

Heavenward for thy water seeks. 

Through the laurel and the beeches, 

Bright thy silver current shines; 
Sleeping now in granite basins, 

Overhung by trailing vines; 
And anon careering onward, 

In the maddest frolic mood; 
Waking with its sea-like voices, 

Fairy echoes in the wood. 

Peaceful sleep thy narrow valleys, 

In the shadow of the hills; 
And thy flower-enamelled border, 

All the air with fragrance fills. 
Wild luxuriance, generous tillage, 

Here alternate, meet the view, 
Every turn through all thy windings 

Still revealing something new. 

Where, O graceful Swannanoa! 

Are thy warriors, who of old 
Sought thee at thy mountain sources, 

Where thy springs are icy cold ? 


Where the dark-browed Tndian maidens, 

Who their limbs were wont ti> lave 
(Worthy bath for fairer beauty.) 

In thy cool and limpid wave? 

Gone forever from thy borders, 

But immoital in thy name, 
Are the red men of the forest, 

Be thou keener of their fame! 
Paler rac s dwell beside thee, 

Celt and Saxon till thy lands ; 
Wedding use unto thy beauty, 

Linking over thee their hands. 

It was along this historic stream that Dr. Mitchell carried his instru- 
mental survey, starting from a large white oak, the stump of which is 
now standing near the residence of Charles Glass, two miles below 
Patton's. By Saturday the 27th of June he had reached what is now 
known as the Halfway or Mountain House, five miles above Patton's, 
which is now in ruins, but was then occupied by William Patton, of 
Charleston, S. C. His son, Charles A. Mitchell, had accompanied him 
to this point; his daughter, Miss Margaret E. Mitchell, remaining at 
Stepp's. Having carried his observations about one-fourth mile above 
William Patton's house, which would bring him near the Elizabeth 
Rock (from which is to be had one of the most magnificent views in 
all the mountains), he bade farewell to his son, with the intention of 
proceeding alone and on foot to Big Tom Wilson's, on Caney River. 
He set out at 2:30 o'clock P. M. As the trails now run, he should 
have reached Wilson's by dusk, as the distance is not above fourteen 
miles, but at that time there was no plain trail from Mitchell's Peak 
to Wilson's, and he would be compelled to go through the woods for 
six or seven miles. 

In order that we may have a clear apprehension of what followed, 
it will be necessary to digress here for a moment to speak of the trails 
to Mitchell's High Peak. For nearly fifty years- there has been a 
passable bridle trail from the headwaters of the East Fork of the 
Swannanoa to the high peak of the Black. Leaving Patton's (it was 
Stepp's then), the trail follows the East Fork rather closely for two 
miles, then bends towards the west and by long and tedious zig-zags 
crosses the Depot branch, the Mountain House or Jack's Bank branch, 
and reaches the plateau on which William Patton's house was built. 


This plateau slopes towards the south, and has an elevation of about 
5,000 feet, Patton's being about 3,000 feet. The trail here enters the 
balsam and ascends the slope, leaves the summit of the Potato-Top 
on the right or east, crosses what is known locally as Clingman's Peak 
(6,587 feet), leaves Mt. Gibbs on the left, crosses Haul-back Mountain, 
dips into the great depression between Haul back and Mitchell, and 
then begins the ascent of this latter peak. From Patton's, at the foot 
of the Cedar Cliff to Mitchell's grave, is nearly twelve miles, and as 
Mitchell's High Peak is 6,688 feet high, the average grade per mile is 
about 300 feet. This was the only bridle trail to Mitchell's High 
Peak for nearly forty years. 

About twelve years ago, Big Tom Wilson cut out a bridle trail from 
his house on Caney River to the Swannanoa trail, one-half mile below 
the Peak. About two years ago, a so-called bridle trail was cut from 
the Round Knob Hotel on the Western North Carolina Railway over 
the Greybeard, Pinnacle and Potato Top to the Swannanoa trail, four 
miles below Mitchell's Peak. This trail is now closed. A foot trail of 
uncertain length and very certain roughness leads from the upper Toe 
River settlement to Mitchell's Peak, and is known as the Set Ridge 
trail. It was made by the bears, and becoming too rough for them 
was turned over to the more adventurous of the human race. 

In 1857 only the Swannanoa trail had been laid off, leading as before 
stated from Stepp's at the foot of the Cedar Cliff on the Swannanoa 
to the High Peak of the Black Mountains. It was along this trail 
that Dr. Mitchell was making his final measurement of the Peak. 
When he left his son near the Elizabeth Rock on the 27th of June, 
1857, he proceeded along the Swannanoa trail, until he reached the 
old field on Mitchell, a sort of natural meadow about one-fourth of a 
mile below the summit. Thinking that he was then nearly opposite 
to Big Tom Wilson's on Caney River, and furthermore was near the 
spot to which William Wilson had brought him thirteen years before, 
he turned off abruptly to the left or west and plunged boldly into the 
unbroken forest. It must then have been nearly 5 o'clock in the 
evening, and it is known that on that evening there was a heavy fog 
on the mountain. This was on Saturday. Dr. Mitchell had informed 
his son that he would return to William Patton's on Monday. He 
failed to do so, but as there were many plausible reasons for the delay 
it occasioned no especial anxiety. But when Wednesday came and 


passed without his return, considerable alarm was felt for his safety, 
and his son and John Stepp went to Caney River to inquire for him. 
He had not been there. The whole neighborhood on both sides of 
the mountain was at once alarmed, and diligent search made for him 
by more than two hundred men. A most graphic account of the 
search was printed in the Asheville Spectator, and was written by Z. 
B. Vance, one of the party. After describing the events of the search 
for the first nine days after the departure of Dr. Mitchell from Wil- 
liam Patton's, this most interesting account proceeds as follows: 

"A general gloom now overspread the countenances of all, as the awful 
and undeniable fact was proclaimed that Dr. Mitchell wassurely dead, 
and our only object in making the search would be to rescue his mortal 
remains from the wild beasts and give them christian sepulture. It 
could not be possible, we thought, that he was alive, for cold and 
hunger and fatigue, if nothing worse had happened to him, would ere 
this have destroyed him. Alas! We reasoned but too well ! By this 
time the alarm had spread far and wide, and many citizens of Ashe- 
ville and other parts of the country were flocking to the mountains to 
assist in the search for one so universally beloved and respected. On 
Monday July 6th, the company numbered some sixty men. New 
routes were projected, new ground of search proposed, and the hunt 
was conducted throughout the day with renewed energy and deter- 
mination, but still without avail. On Tuesday the company of Bun- 
combe men separated into three squads and took different routes, 
whilst Mr. Thomas Wilson and his neighbors from Caney River took 
a still more distant route, by going to the top of the highest peak, 
and searching downwards towards the Cat-tail Fork of the River. 

They were led to take this route by the suggestion of Mr. Wilson 
that Dr. Mitchell had gone up that way in his visit to the High Peak 
in 1844. an d that perhaps he had undertaken to go down by the same 
route. They accordingly struck out for that point, and turning to the 
left to strike down the mountain in the prairie near the top, at the 
very spot where it was alleged the Doctor entered it thirteen years 
ago, they (Adoniram Allen of Caney River found the track) instantly 
perceived the impression of feet upon the yielding turf, pointing down 
the mountain in the direction indicated of his former route. * * *. 
It was as they expected. The Doctor had undertaken to go the same 
route to tin: settlements which he had formerly gone. They traced 


him rapidly down the precipices of the mountain until they entered 
the stream, (now called Mitchell's Fork of Caney River), found his 
traces going down it — following on a hundred yards or so they came 
to a rushing cataract, saw his foot-prints, trying to climb around the 
edge of the yawning precipice, saw the moss torn up by the out- 
stretched hand, and then — the solid impressionless granite refused to 
tell more of his fate. But clambering hastily to the bottom they found 
a basin worn out of the solid rock, at least fourteen feet deep, filled 
with clear and crystal waters, cold and pure as the winter snow that 
generates them. At the bottom of this basin, quietly reposing with 
outstretched arms lay the mortal remains of the Rev. Dr. Elisha 
Mitchell, the good, the great, the simple minded, the pure of heart, 
the instructor of youth, the disciple of knowledge and the preacher of 
Christianity! Oh, what friend to science and virtue, what youth 
among all the thousands that have listened to his teachings, what 
friend that has ever taken him by the hand, can think of this wild and 
awful scene unmoved by the humanity of tears." 

Dr. Mitchell's body was found on the 8th of July. For more than 
thirty years it has been thought that Dr. Mitchell met his death after 
night-fall in the dark ness and gloom of the sombre forests, wander- 
ing to and fro in a vain endeavor to extricate himself from such 
fearful surroundings ; that the fatal plunge over the precipice into 
that black pool was made about half-past eight o'clock in the evening. 
But after a careful examination of the locality (which has suffered 
few or no essential changes since that time) in company with Big Tom 
Wilson, the leader of the search and the fortunate discoverer of the 
body, I find myself unable to accept this opinion. With Mr. Wilson 
I followed Dr. Mitchell's trail from the Falls for more than a mile up 
the mountain, and I can say without exaggeration that it was by far 
the roughest mile I ever traversed. I cannot believe that Dr. Mitchell 
or any other man could have gone down there after dark, nor can I 
square it with the known prudence of his character that he should 
have even attempted to do so. It is as much as a bold active man 
can do to go in broad daylight where Dr. Mitchell went ; that he suc- 
ceeded in reaching the Falls in the night is incredible. The sole evi- 
dence that he did do so is that his watch had stopped at nineteen 
minutes past eight. Taking into consideration the following circum- 
stances, viz.: 

ist. The exceedingly dangerous descent for the last mile. 


2d. That Dr. Mitchell was never an active man in the sense of 
physical agility, and was then in the 64th year of his age. 

3d. That he would have had abundant time after leaving the Swan- 
nanoa trail at 5 o'clock, to have Veached the Falls by half-past seven, 
or even by 7 o'clock, at both of which times there was still fair day- 
light on this the western slope of a high mountain. 

4th. That none knew better than he the peril of attempting the 
descent after dark. . • 

5th. That he was a man of well-balanced mind and of great pru- 
dence, and would not have been guilty of the folly of such an under- 

6th. The exceeding improbability that he or any other man could 
have gone as far as the Falls in the night : — I think it will appear that 
he did not plunge over this precipice after dark in the course of a wild 
blundering. The accepted opinion is that as he was descending the 
bed of the stream, in the night, he heard the murmur of the Falls just 
before him and turned up on the north side of the stream to avoid 
them. Thinking he had done so, he attempted to descend again to 
the bed of the stream, but most unfortunately did not go far enough, 
stepped on the inclined and slippery rock overhanging the pool, slid into 
this some fifteen feet below, and was there drowned. Mr. Wilson pointed 
out to me where Dr. Mitchell had come down the stream, and turned 
up on the side, where he began to slip, and where he plunged over the 
edge of the rock. He had been tracked with wonderful patience and 
skill from the Swannanoa trail to his last fatal step, and when found 
had no brusies or contusions of any kind upon his person. This last 
fact but strengthens the opinion that he did not make the descent 
after dark. It is my deliberate opinion that Dr. Mitchell reached the 
Falls before dark, that in attempting to observe their magnitude (for 
nothing of this is to be seen from above), he ascended the northern 
side of the stream, and in peering over the edge of the pool, lost his 
footing and fell in. 

It cannot be believed that any man as unacquainted with the route 
as Dr. Mitchell was could have reached the Falls after dark, and to 
believe that any man would have attempted it, is to charge him with 
most extraordinary and mo^t culpable rashness. 

To suppose that Dr. Mitchell, of all men, would have been guilty of 
such inexcusable temerity, is utterly at variance with his known 


character. That he was a determined man, who shrank back from no 
ordinary task because of impending danger, is well known ; but that he 
would have attempted what he could not but know would in all prob- 
ability result in his death, ,1 cannot believe, nor will it be believed 
by those who knew him personally, and who have studied the locality 
and all the attending circumstances. 

Dr. Mitchell's body was w ( ith great difficulty transported to the top 
of the peak, two-and a-half miles, on men's shoulders, and thence car- 
ried to Asheville, where it was buried on the 10th day of July. From 
Asheville it was removed to-the top of his peak, and interred there on 
the 16th of June, 1858. 

From that time until the present, it has lain there with only a rough 
cairn of stones to mark the spot. Several attempts have been made 
to have a suitable monument erected to his memory there, but from 
one cause or other they all failed. 

Upon the death of his daughter, Mrs. E. N. Grant, in 1883, it was 
found that she had set aside a sum of money to be expended for this 
purpose. This was increased from time to time by donations from 
other members of the family until the Spring of 1888, when a suffi- 
cient amount was available. At the request of Miss M. E. Mitchell, 
the University of North Carolina took charge of the undertaking. 
The deed to the site of the grave was vested in the University, and a 
committee, consisting of President Kemp P. Battle, Prof. J. W. Gore 
and Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, was appointed by the Faculty and charged 
with the duty of erecting a suitable monument over the grave. 

Perhaps the most suitable structure would have been a great cairn of 
rough hewn stones, so put together as to be a lasting memorial of this 
famous man, with a tablet let in inscribed with his name and recount- 
ing briefly the circumstances of his death. But owing to the nature 
of the s.tone on the summit, and the difficulties attending such work, 
after careful consideration the committee decided upon a monument 
of white bronze. The plans, drawings and specifications were submit- 
ted to the accessible surviving members of Dr. Mitchell's family and 
accepted by them. In May, 1888, the contract was let to the Monu- 
mental Bronze Company of Bridgeport, Connecticut. It called for a 
structure of white bronze, of pyramidal shape, three feet square at the 
base, twelve feet high, cast in sections, the heaviest piece not to exceed 
140 pounds in weight, with interior bolts of copper and brass, the 


whole to be delivered at Black Mountain Station on the Western North 
Carolina Railway by the middle of July, for $400. 

The other members of the committee not being able to attend to 
the work, Dr. Phillips was requested by the Faculty of the University to 
assume entire control of it. He had made two separate visits to the 
Peak, and was well acquainted with the difficulties to be met and over- 
come. On the 16th of July he made the ascent again, going carefully 
over the trail twice, to observe whether or no it would be necessary to 
repair it. It was Miss Mitchell's wish that the trail from Patton's to 
the Peak be put in good condition, so as to facilitate the journey thither. 
The trail was found to be in a deplorable condition. It had not been 
worked for twenty years and more, and was in places entirely blocked 
up by fallen timber, so that circuitous routes had been laid off to avoid 
it. At other places, steep and dangerous rocks had been laid bare by 
the torrents of water which after every rain rush down the trail. For 
several miles the trail was a ditch from one to four feet deep and two 
to three feet wide, half filled with loose stones and intersected by hun- 
dreds of roots, rendering horseback riding disagreeable at all times 
and frequently perilous. For the last half mile there were no less 
than six extremely dangerous places, the last one, at the very summit, 
being particularly so. As it was determined to transport the monu- 
ment, piece by piece, from the Depot branch to the grave, a distance 
of about nine miles, on men's shoulders, it became advisable to repair 
the trail thoroughly, not only on account of the additional ease with 
which the "carry" could be made, but also, and more especially, on 
account of the additional safety to the men and to the monument. 

On the 1 8th of July, therefore, the work on the trail was begun. 
The monument had not yet arrived, and it was hoped to complete the 
work on the trail before it should reach us. The work proceeded 
steadily with no interruptions except on account of bad weather, and 
by the 8th of August, the trail was in excellent order from Patton's to 
the top of the Peak. We worked that trail with a cross-cut saw, with 
mattocks, spades, crow-bars, hand-spikes, sledge-hammers, drill ham- 
mers, drills, blasting powder, hoes and hands. At times only one- 
fourth of a mile could be made per day. We slept on the ground, on 
rocks, on balsam bark, on each other, on anything that was at hand, 
under balsam boughs, under blankets, under shelving rocks, under the 
starry firmament, under each other. It shined upon us, it rained upon 


us ; it was windy, it was calm ; it was warm, it was cold ; it was comfort- 
able, it was very uncomfortable. At times we had plenty to eat, at times 
little, and at other times nothing at all, for as we advanced up the 
mountain we added day by day to the distance that separated us from 
the comforts of life. Two University students beamed upon us for a 
few minutes and then passed by, Messrs. W. E. Hedden and O. D. 
Batchelor, leaving us to the now familiar companionship of the cross- 
cut saw and hand-spike. Several parties of tourists, equipped with all 
the unnecessary luggage with which such people generally travel, came 
and went. One party was particularly kind, and informed us that 
Mitchell's High Peak was named for " a General Mitchell of the Fed- 
eral Army," who was buried on its summit, and General Clingman upon 
Clingman's Peak. Between these and a party who contended that the 
proposed monument was a life-size marble bust of a Miss Smith, who 
lost her life on the mountain under romantic circumstances, we were 
sadly puzzled, and knew not for a while what we were doing. 

The diffusion of popular information among a certain class of the 
citizens of this great country does not as yet seem to be perfect. 

Finally, the trail was finished, and on Tuesday August 7th, we be- 
gan the transportation of the monument from Black Mountain Sta- 
tion. From this point to Patton's is seven miles, and the road is 
fairly good. There were seven cases in all, weighing 1,041 pounds. We 
hauled them in a wagon two miles above Patton's, where they were 
unpacked, and the sections of the monument, nine in number, were 
then slung on poles, securely fastened, and the ten-mile "carry " was 
begun. We had built a wagon road one mile further, and could have 
made the "carry" only nine miles, but found it would save time to 
unload and unpack two miles above Patton's instead of three, sending 
the wagon on with the provisions and blankets. 

By Wednesday evening all the sections had reached the old William 
Patton place, five miles from Patton's at the foot of the mountain, 
and we went into camp. Such a night as followed must be experienced ; 
it cannot be described. The weather was so fine during the afternoon 
and early evening that we concluded to camp here instead of pushing 
on to our regular camp, five miles further, where we had built a sub- 
stantial and comfortable Indian wigwam. So we cut down some bal- 
sam boughs, stood them up against a ridge-pole, built a good fire and 
turned in. All went well until 11 o'clock. Then began a most tre- 
mendous thunder storm, and a second deluge of rain. The thermometer 


fell to 40 F., the wind blew with a violence unknown in these 
lower regions, while the incessant and blinding sheets of lightning lit 
up the sombre gorges to right and left and before with lurid and ghastly 
flames, and each neighboring peak echoed in thundering reverberations 
the shoutings of the great storm king. 

We were forced to leave our now insufficient shelter and creep cau- 
tiously down the mountain to a shelving rock, beneath which we 
crouched in unhappy wetness and cold, sixteen of us packed into a 
place barely large enough for six. It was at this time that my then 
companion, Mr. Jas. D. McNeill, of Fayetteville, N. C, expressed his 
utter and entire satisfaction with mountain travel, a sentiment silently 
but completely acquiesced in by the others, whom, perhaps, excess of 
joy had for the moment deprived of speech. On Thursday, August 9th 
however, the sun rose majestically from behind the sharp outline of the 
Pinnacle, gazed for a moment upon that cowed and shivering group, 
and then betook himself to his daily task of warming and beautifying 
the earth. We dried our clothes as best we could, cooked and ate a 
hasty breakfast, and reassuming our several burdens began again the 
toilsome ascent. We camped the following night in our wigwam at 
Stepp's spring, and on Friday, August 10th, at 11:45 A. M., the last 
section of the monument was laid beside the grave on the Peak, and 
the greater part of this arduous undertaking was at an end. The 
monument itself weighed about nine hundred pounds, and in three 
and a-half days from the time of receiving it at the railway, it had 
been hauled nine miles and carried ten miles, thirteen men, one boy 
and two oxen employed at a cost of $46.96. 

The work of quarrying out stone for the foundation was begun 
Monday, August 13th. The rock on the Peak is a coarse gneiss, very 
friable and brittle, so that it was found best to get out two blocks and 
join them in a bedding of Portland cement. The two together weighed 
about 1,800 pounds, and after drilling" 1 in them the necessary anchor 
holes, they were placed in position at the head of the grave and leveled. 
The bottom section of the monument, weighing 140 pounds, was then 
anchored to the foundation by eight § inch copper bolts screwed into the 
metal base and " leaded " into the ro:k. The second section was then 
bolted to the first by eighty inch copper bolts from within. The third 
section was bolted to the second by eight J inch copper bolts, and fastened 
to the bed-rock by four 1 inch zinc bolts, screwed into the section and 
" leaded" into the rock. The monument is thusanchored to the bed-rock 


by eight f inch copper bolts and four 1 inch zinc bolts. Each section was 
bolted to the one underneath by eight \ inch copper bolts, all of which 
fitted fairly well except a few. All these bolts are within the struc- 
ture, none of them show from the outside. Finally, the cap weighing 
about 80 lbs., was hoisted up, and screwed to the 8th section by four \ 
inch copper screws with ornamental zinc heads. These heads, being of the 
exact color and composition of the monument itself, are countersunk 
into the cap, and are barely noticeable. The last screw was fastened at 
4:45 P. M., August 18th, 1888, and the monument stood complete. 
It is severely plain, having no figure-work or ornamental designs of 
any kind. Upon the western side is cast in raised letters " Mitchell;" 
on the side towards the grave is the following brief inscription : 

" Here lies in hope of a blessed resurrection the body of the Rev. Elisha 
Mitchell, D. D., who after being for 39 years a Professor in the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina, lost his life in the scientific exploration of this 
mountain in the 6ph year of his age, June 2jth, 185 J." 

Below this are the words, " ERECTED IN 1888." 

The material of which the monument is made is known as white 
bronze. It is in fact almost pure zinc, which is treated under the 
sand-blast to impart a finely granular appearance, and to cause it to 
resemble white granite. It does closely resemble this stone. It is 
practically weather-proof, and will not become discoloured. There 
were no ceremonies connected with the erection of this monument to 
Dr. Mitchell, this address alone being commemorative of the event. 

It is so far as can be learned, the highest monument in the United 
States, if not in the world, which has been especially prepared for the 
purpose, transported five hundred miles and carried on men's shoulders 
to such an elevation. The grave of Helen Hunt Jackson, near Colorado 
City, Colorado, is at an elevation of 8,500 feet, but is not marked by a 
structure of this kind. 

This simple bronze monument will stand for many generations, 
overlooking the beautiful valley of the Catawba and the Estatoe, 
fronting the graceful outlines of the Linville Mountains and Grand- 
father, marking the spot where repose the remains of a great and good 
man, whose example shineth ever more brightly, and whose memory 
will ever be cherished at this venerable seat of learning, so dear to him, 
so full of memorials of one of the wisest and best of teachers. Si 
monumentum quceris, circumspice ! 



The ancient Stoic sought God apart from Nature, and in his life of 
self-discipline lost the inspiration which comes from sheer animal de- 
light in her charms or from mystic fellowship with her hidden spirit. 
The Pantheist adores nature as the vague and indefinite "All," and 
seems to us to lose God Himself in groping after an impersonal ab- 
straction. Wordsworth believed both in the Soul and in Nature, and in 
God in both ; and his spiritual and poetic power opened our eyes to the 
correspondence between the Soul in Nature and the Soul in man. 

He lived at an important transition period in the career of England 
and of man in general. In literature, the Romantic revival had already 
begun, for Cowper had made his successful protest against the finical 
emptiness of the mere imitators of Pope and had effected the union of 
good sense with natural forcible diction and apt numbers. Great con- 
vulsions in the body politic accompanied the intellectual reaction every- 
where seen. The French Revolution was stirring the oppressed people 
into revolt against the standing order of things, a revolt which threat- 
ened the foundations of social happiness, while it defined the worth 
of the individual as against class and caste and tyrannical custom. 
Man as man became the study and the hope of the politician, the 
philosopher, the poet ; and Wordsworth, for earnest, moral, Saxon 
England, became in the order of Providence a divine voice, a satisfy- 
ing interpreter. It is true, that as the intellectual and political revo- 
lution went to its inevitable extreme, that conservative reaction seized 
him which overtook Burke and Southey also, and attracted towards 
Wordsworth the thunderbolt of Browning's " Lost Leader." But his 
truth in humanity and in its progress never faltered. 

The following lines illustrate the spirit which animates many of his 
strains and help us to differentiate him from other poets : 

" O Nightingale ! Thou surely art a creature of a fiery heart ; 
These notes of thine — they pierce and pierce, 
Tumultuous harmony and fierce ! 

I heard a stock-dove sing or say His homely tale this very day; 
His voice was buried among trees, Yet to be come at by the breeze: 
He sang of love with quiet blending, Slow to begin and never-ending, 
Of serious faith and inward glee; That was the song, — the song for me !" 


He loved the retirement in which he could hear and interpret the 
voice of his own heart, but he restrained the tendency to a morbid 
self-questioning by constant communion with all phases of outward 
Nature and with those simple souls who live near to Nature unt ram meled 
by conventionalisms. Some of his poems are records of long tours taken 
on foot amid that exquisite scenery of the Cumberland and West- 
moreland lakes and their guardian mountains, in which one realizes the 
perfect " bridal of the earth and sky." His noble prose essays and 
his letters to his sister Dorothy, reveal the minuteness of his observa- 
tions and the tranquil delight that thrilled him in this remote life 
amongst the dalemen. There are passages which are the germs of 
Lucy, of The Highland Girl, o( The Daffodils, of those long descriptions 
of character and those statements of philosophic truth seen in The 
Prelude and The Excursion. He thus tells his own experience : 

" The outward shows of sky and earth, 
Of hill and valley he has viewed; 
And impulses of deeper birth 
Have come to him in solitude." 

He reaped the harvest of a quiet eye that sleeps and broods on his 
own heart. Thus there shone in upon him a sense of the mystery 
and yet of the beneficent working of Nature, an inner sense, such as 
others do not appear to have gained until he comes to guide and teach 
them. He is not content with cold scientific analysis of tree and 
flower, — -he answers the despairing cry that Nature is hard and cold 
and that the Power that rules her is impersonally indifferent to our 
aspirations and sorrows. He is the prophet of natural religion, a seer 
beholding with open face the secret for himself, and inspired to 
make it an open secret for us. How apt we are to miss 
" the splendor in the grass, the glory in the flower ! " Rural life, even 
in the midst of the grander aspects of Nature, is too often viewed as 
rude and mean. Sometimes " every prospect pleases, — only man is 
vile." Wordsworth sets the simplicity and greatness of outward 
objects together. He finds an awe-inspiring character and an enno- 
bling impulse in the emotions of the abandoned mother and the forlorn 
boy, in the transparent feeling of his Lucy, as well as in the heroic 
self-abnegation of the classic Laodamia. The Lines Composed near 
Tintern Abbey strike the key-note of his poetic philosophy. The 
waters of the Wye, its steep and lofty cliffs, all the associations of the 
spot, to them he owes that blessed mood, 


" In wh'ch the burthen of the mystery, 
In which the heavy and the weary weight 
Of all this unintelligible world, 
Is lightened : * * * 

While with an eye made quiet by the power 
Of harmony and the deep power of joy, 
We see into the life of things." 

In his boyish days, the sounding cataract 

" Haunted him like a passion." 

Now he recognizes something still deeper, " the still, sad music of 

" I have felt a presence that disturbs me with the joy 
Of elevated thoughts: a sense sublime 
Of something far more deeply interfused, 
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, 
And the round ocean and the living air 
And the blue sky and in the mind of man. 
* * * Well pleased to recognize 
In Nature and the language of the sense 
The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse, 
The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul 
Of all my moral being." 

Even in his best lyrics the spontaneity of emotion, " the well-spring 
bursting forth suddenly at one's feet," is checked in its incipiency by 
this reflective mood. In the elder day of the world the Greek had a 
vivid vision of Morn going forth with the Sun-god following in her 
wake and the radiant and happv hours attendant on him ; and this 
view was consistent with a dim sense of " the Power that makes for 
righteousness." Wordsworth passed beyond this. But we think it 
fortunate, considering the mission he was destined to perform, that he 
had not quite reached our period of scientific progress, when the phe- 
nomena of the universe, of life in general, have mixed themselves in 
all their strangeness and their familiarity with the imagination and 
the feelings, and found themselves reflected in the novel and the poem. 
For he might not have had so much of pure idyllic joy in looking into 
the heart of Nature and finding that she never did betray the human 
heart that loved her, a joy alternating with the spiritual philosopher's 
sense of personal responsibility colored and chastened by her ministry. 
All his training fitted him to give direct expression to this ever spring- 
ing pleasure in the contemplation of Nature and man as adapted to 
each other. Read his Sonnet on the Beach at Calais. 

Or his 


" Listen! the Mighty Being is awake, 
And doth with his eternal motion make 
A sound like thunder everlastingly." 

" Great God! I'd rather be 
A Pagan suckled in a creed outworn: 
So might I, standing on the pleasant lea. 
Have glimpses that would make me less forlorn: 
Have sight of Proteus rising from the sea: 
Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn." 

The Highland Girl excites his romantic sensibility, but he composes 
his song on her in unison with his wife and sister. The darker and 
more terrible passions of his time seem to have swept by without 
harming him, if one may judge from the absence in his verse of that 
volcanic energy so characteristic of Byron. We learn that at certain 
times he was disposed to a violent excitement, but the tranquil- 
lizing influence of Nature stole into his fancy and heart and commu- 
nicated that inward peace which flowed like a river in steady current 
towards the thought of God and duty and eternity. Do not the 
sublime aspects of the external world, the mountains and the sea, affect 
us in some sort like the conception of the Deity and of the immortal 
life beyond us, and, after we have held true converse with them, cease 
to be disquieting, vast and mysterious though they be, and under their 
overshadowing spell hush all lower noises and all the common 
experiences that flurry the surface of our being? This poet 
teaches us his hidden sources of instruction and solace, and we too 
learn to run into them. A brilliant sceptic said that Wordsworth's 
grasp of the real Beauty of the world, and his sense of the nearness 
of the silent forces of things to man's life, communicated themselves 
to him and consoled him with all his atheism weighing on him. The 
wonder and the pity is that they did not take him back to the Life of 
all life, the Soul of all souls, the personal God. 

Through our seer, hill and lake and meadow and ocean return to 
our sight as new creations apparalled in celestial light, the dew and 
liquid morn yet on them and on us. Childhood is for him the interpre- 
ter of Heaven. He firmly forces you back on your true intuitions as the 
" fountain-light of all your seeing " into truth, and these intuitions he 
would have us study in their undimmed quality in youth. In his reflec- 
tive lyrics the child is made to show us that a right nature cannot tolerate 


the idea of death, cannot understand anything but the ceaseless throb- 
bing of its own life in harmony with God's. 

Our subject is intended to suggest that his charm is that of profound 
vital truth wedded to beauty, the perception he creates in us of the 
nobleness of life and the dignity of human nature even under the 
homeliest guise. His Lyrics are strong and original in conception, 
definite in statement, with a clear, true ring, a transparent sincerity. 
There is no pretense, no filigree work. The bare majesty of his style 
is colored by a glowing imagination that never becomes wayward and 
uncontrolled. In his Sonnets he is near to perfection in his expression 
of the great simple truths of experience. This cameo-like form of 
verse, adopted from the Italian, handled with free and graceful strength 
by Shakspere and with artistic breadth and sublime vigor by Milton, 
shows in Wordsworth the combination of Milton's power and elevation 
with Shakspere's flowing ease and loveliness. 

It was not strange that Wordsworth should have strayed into his 
peculiar theory of poetic diction. Because he was simple and high, 
he supposed that height and simplicity went always in company. He 
declared that the true language of poetry does not differ from the best 
prose. It was his protest against the affectation and the exaggeration 
that had disfigured too much of English verse ; and we may forgive 
the few puerilities it is so easy to caricature, when we find that the 
childlike hand that commits such artistic mistakes is transformed into 
the eagle's pinion, and bears us away serenely into the " light that 
never shone on land or sea." THOMAS Hume. 



No. XI. The Old University Magazine. 

Iri the first place, why should there be a University Magazine at all? 

A great many good reasons why, seem to spring up at the first ask- 
ing of this question. (1.) A Magazine published at the University 
affords a gentle stimulus, and a suitable outlet for the budding literary 
aspirations of the college students. It is their mouthpiece, so to speak. 
(2.) It furnishes an authentic record of college life, and the perfor- 
mances or failures of graduates and undergraduates, and also a fair 
chronicle of the times in and around the seat of the University. (3.) 
It builds up college feeling, and forms a bond of union in the present, 
and of future continued interest in the University for students past, 
present, and to come. (4.) It is, or should be, a repository of some of 
the results of study, of reading, of reflection among the gentlemen of 
the Faculty. They have it at hand to use in their literary work, their 
" new readings," suggestions, facts scientific, literary, or moral. (5.) 
It is a common ground where Professors and students may meet and 
learn to respect each other's attainments, may encourage, applaud, 
assist each other. 

The reply of the regular-bred North Carolinian to such reasons in 
favor of supporting a University Magazine will ordinarily amount to: 
(1.) The budding literary aspirations of collegians are not worth at- 
tending to, or providing a vehicle for, and if they are, we don't care to 
pay $1.00 a year to encourage 'em. (2.) College life, and events in 
and around the Hill are interesting to collegians only. (3.) College 
feeling and the bond of union proves a rope of sand the day after * 
commencement. We old students are ready to talk all day about the 
sacred hills and halls, but when you comedown to real matters of fact, 
'taint proned into us, as uncle Remus says, to give a real dollar to- ,. 
wards keeping the hills and hails going. (4.) The Faculty as a body 
seldom appear to have any results of study or of reading to commu- 
nicate ; and when they do, they prefer a wider audience than the 
UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE affords. (5.) There's no use in anything any- 
way, and less in the UNIVERSITY Magazine than anything else. 
When we take a Magazine, (which we never do), we want something 
with news — something with illustrations. (6.) I haven't got a dollar. 


Such reasons are conclusive. The Magazine is not supported, 
though still it lives along "at a poor dying rate," as we have seen a 
vine draggling half on the ground and half on an insufficient trellis, 
producing a few clusters when it might have borne bushels of good 

In the year 1844, sa y forly-five years ago, after much talk, much 
hesitation and some enthusiasm, a Magazine to be devoted to the in- 
terests of the University of North Carolina was resolved upon, was 
officered, and was launched. Gov. Swain was of course among the 
leading spirits of the enterprise, though the students themselves were, 
I believe, its originators and most enthusiastic friends. There were some 
very bright young fellows in college in those days, and the senior class 
of '44 held some of the brightest. 

Gov. Swain thought great advantages were to result not only to 
the University, but to the State at large from the move. He proposed 
to make the Magazine a repository for valuable historical papers, he 
thought intelligent people throughout the State would be interested — 
that his Faculty would assist to give stability and permanent value by 
their communications, and that it was to prove the vanguard of active 
literary achievement in North Carolina. 

Thomas Loring, of Raleigh, undertook to be the publisher; he also 
assumed the pecuniary liabilities, a piece of enthusiasm which doubt- 
less proved a grief of mind unto him afterwards. 

The editors, selected from the senior class, remained carefully incog. 
In those days it was thought to savor of undue self-assertion to put 
your name to anything you had written. There was something>posi- 
tively indelicate in letting it appear in print. 

No. 1, of Vol. I, appeared in March '44, and was hailed by 
certain parties in Chapel Hill with much pride. The inaugural was 
written by E. DeB. Covington, of Richmond county, a gifted, ambi- 
tious and handsome youth, who had evinced a decided taste for letters 
and was, moreover, possessed of a vein of poetical talent. A month or 
two previously he had issued the Prospectus, written in graceful f.isli- 
ion and promising the ladies especially that the editors would "always 
wield a gallant pen." 

He led off now with a fluent article on " American Poetry," clearly 
demonstrating that America had no poets. However, we all admired 
prodigiously his " Lines to the University Poplar*" in this very num- 

*Keprintud on page 64 of this number. 


ber. The philological critics, (for North Carolina was chock-full of 
critics even then), objected indeed, that the Scotch vernacular in which 
the poet chose to celebrate the old tree was a little too Scotch to be 
natural. Burns himself might have needed a glossary: — -and the sen- 
timental critics had their feelings hurt by the poet's repeated prognos- 
tications of the tree's speedy decline and fall. 

Poor Covington ! bright, ardent, and promising! the poplar has out- 
lived him this many a year, has withstood even a staggering thunder- 
bolt, and still holds its head high among its leafy brethren. 

Robert Cowan, of Wilmington, one among the many handsome and 
gifted boys whom loyal Wilmington has continuously sent to our 
University since its first opening day, contributed a manly article on 
"The Abuse of the Press" He too is dead. George Wetmore, of 
Fayetteville, long a useful minister in the Episcopal church, and 
Stephen A. Stanfield, one of the best in the Presbyterian, were both 
editors and contributors, and Gov. Swain gave one of those stray 
leaves of North Carolina History, which, little as the young folks 
thought of them, form now the chief value of the back numbers of 
each series of the MAGAZINE, and are eagerly inquired for, North, East, 
South and West. 

Of all who contributed to that first number, but two, I believe, are 
now living: Rev. Dr. Deems, of New York, and Hon. S. F. Phillips, 
of Washington City. 

The pride felt in the new MAGAZINE received a withering 
stroke from the misguided zeal of the Publisher to fill up the requisite 
number of pages. College " Personals" were not then dreamed of, and 
poor Mr. Loring had nothing of that sort to fall back" upon — no late 
news of " Slip shot Sam " or "Father Wade" or " Ped Bullacc," no 
thrilling announcement that Baldy Long-legs is now station-master at 
Bideawhile or that "Short-horns " has become a lawyer of vast erudi- 
tion since our last issue. So he made up ten pages of " Foreign news " 
to January 6th ; of debates in Congress to January 26th ; news about 
the Mormons; an awful case of poisoning from "Lobelia"; a thrilling 
romance of " the sweet Famele " ; one of Miller's oldest jokes, and the 
particulars of "Tricking a tailor" in New York, — the whole not unlike 
a third-class " patent back" of the present era. 

A universal shudder ran through us at this specimen of padding. 
" Lobelia " indeed ! Had Mr. Loring- a mind to make us all ridiculous ? 


After all, it was only anticipatory. In December of that year the 
last number appeared. The UNIVERSITY Magazine had not been 
supported ; it had collapsed ; and to fill up the last numbers the un- 
happy publisher resorted to the publication of " Indexes to Colonial Doc- 
uments now on file in the State paper offices in London" and " Proceed 
ings of the Safety Committee for Wilmington, 1774-76." 

By this time our pride was mightily abased, and not even a feeble 
remonstrance was uttered. We were very willing to let it go at that, 
and say no more, if Mr. Loring on his part made no further move. 

Little did any of the young folks of that day suppose they would 
ever see the publication in full, and in North Carolina, of those very 
"Colonial Documents." Live forty- five years, however, and one sees a 
great many unexpected events. Everything comes to those who can 

Thus ended, after ten months' struggle, the first attempt. The final 
editorial closes thus lugubriously: 

" Projected at an unfortunate epoch in the history of public feeling, 
commencing with an insufficient patronage to justify its publication 
without hazardous responsibility — confined to a contracted sphere of 
circulation — deprived of the kind smiles and encouraging sympathies 
of friends, it has lingered on through the successive stages of its brief 
existence, until, having reached the contemplated goal of its short- 
lived career, it takes its place among the things that were. Its brief 
but eventful history contains an instructive lesson, a warning moral to 
all subsequent adventurers in the paths of literary glory. Requicscat 
in pace." 

The MAGAZINE, nevertheless, was destined to rise again, and yet 
again. The second series, begun in '51 -'52, was closed by the war in 
i860, and the last Vol.. (X), was padded with an autobiography of 
President Caldwell. 

Reviewing these volumes one sees a pretty strong family likeness 
in them all. There is always an article upon " Love " or " Woman "; 
always a strictly literary essay ; always one upon " Life," and tolerably 
melancholy too; always a "Dream" or a "Reverie"': and always 
some lines addressed to Miss X., Y. or Z. There are always the college 
addresses; "baccalaureates;" tributes of respect; and Gov. Swain in- 
variably puts in his notes on the " War of the Regulation," or biog- 
raphies of Revolutionary worthies. 


As before stated, the historical contributions, whether by the Gov- 
ernor, or by Dr. Hubbard, or by Dr. Deems, or any other of his col- 
leagues were all that gave permanent value to the publication, and no 
one who meditates writing a full history of this State can afford to 
overlook the files of our UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE. 

On the whole, the contributions of the second series, as well as of 
the third, are of a lighter texture than those handed in in 1844. 
Whether of greater literary merit, I shall leave to others to decide. 
The object of a Magazine it has been said, is to please, to entertain 
without fatiguing the attention. It should not aim too high, nor use 
very heavy metal. 

. For myself, I prefer college thoughtfulness to college fun. I prefer 
the under graduate's stateliest views on the probable destiny of the 
English language to his description of a coon-hunt or a candy pulling. 
Let some philosopher say why, but the truth is that few very young 
people are good at jokes. Sentiment, passion, even tragedy, may be- 
come them, but let them beware of attempts to be comic. 

Ten or twelve years before the first essay at a Magazine, Dr. Cald- 
well projected and issued a weekly newspaper entitled " The Harbin- 
ger." It was printed in Chapel Hill by a Mr. Isaac Patridge, from 
Newbern, and lasted perhaps a year. I have been told by good judges 
that this was a paper of superior character. The various members of the 
Faculty -assisted Dr. Caldwell in the editing or make up; and made 
it so far ahead of the times that nobody wanted to read it. 1 suppose 
that not a copy is now in existence. 

Since President Battle came to the helm, the UNIVERSITY MAGA- 
ZINE has been again resuscitated, and in some respects with far supe- 
rior results. But there is always this trouble about a college publica- 
tion : if the Faculty or other experienced hands take hold of it, the 
students begin to lose their interest in it ; and if the students engineer 
it exclusively and to please themselves, nobody else will read it. 

College literature must depend largely on college friends for its sup- 
port. Students themselves and the late graduates will want to see 
the " personals," and the Chapel Hill gossip, old students will be in- 
terested by historical communications, and by seeing the movements 
of the Institution, and being able to note a steady progress and im- 
provement in the quality of its articles. 

// should be carefully edited. 


And here I may congratulate the friends of our MAGAZINE on the 
fact that some of the Faculty of the present day are giving freely of 
their time to this work ; and as all that is done by editors and 
contributors is gratuitously done, our friends abroad may see that 
there is some public spirit in exercise at Chapel Hill. They who 
give a dollar to keep the UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE alive, are not, after 
all, its most generous patrons. C. P. SPENCER. 


The following is to be found in the March number, 1844, of TlIE 
University Magazine. It is such a gem that we think it will bear 
reprinting. The author was Mr. E. DeB. Covington : 


Addtessed to an Aged Poplar, standing in the College Grove. 

Auld Tree ! ye haud your head fu' high, 
Your swirlie spauls athart the sky ; 
Ye gar all ithers stand abeigh, 

Aboon them a' : 
I rede ye, tho' ye geek sae skeigh, 

Ye soon may fa'. 

Ye ken ye stand on classic grun', 
And reek na win', nor rain, nor sun ; 
For weel ye trow our lave you've won, 

Auld totterin' fricn' ! 
But now, I grieve your course is run, 

Oure late to men'. 

Ye have a stock of antique lear, 
Whilk ye hae kept wi' tentie care. 
For ilka birkie wha may spier 

Wi' studious airs ; 
For weel ye ken that we would hear 

Of our forbears. 


Ye mind ye weel, in bye-gone days, 
How Trustee fathers — carls o' grace, 
When toddlin' on to choose a place 

For Learning's seat, 
Unco' forjesket — tak their ease 

E'en at your feet. 

How they beguiled the lee lang day 
(An' auld Rip too, I weel might say,) 
Wi' clishmaclaver, crouse an' free, 

In drucken gate, 
Or crooning o'er some antient glee 

Till gloamin' late. 

But time has passed — an' they are gane ! 

An' ye, auld frien', are left alane 

To speak their fauts — whilk give no pain ; 

For know the trowth, 
That runkled eild may have its fun, 

As well as youth. 

A douce, auld Tree, ye lang hae stood ; 
But Time wha recks na ill nor good, 
Wi' blastin' tooth has sapp'd your blaid 

An' left his mark. 
I'd fain uphaud ye, an' I could, 

Auld Patriarch ! 



The whirl and bustle of Commencement was past. The Class of '88 
had stood all together for the last time and sung their beautiful class 
song. And deeply impressive had been that final moment, the most 
affecting of the whole graduating exercises. For the graduates, a short 
breathing spell was now at hand before commencing in earnest the 
business of life ; for the rest of the students, the question was how to 
spend the vacation. Morehead and Wrightsville had great attractions 
and beguiled many, but some of us turned our steps mountainward. 
Among these were the writer and his boon companion, who will be 
referred to as "Son." We had resolved to take a mountain tramp. 

Leaving Chapel Hill on Saturday, June 9th, we were to go to Black 
Mountain Station and commence our tramp from there. We had 
planned a definite route, knowing exactly what we wished to sec, and 
had even set dates for being at certain places. This last was unwise, 
for rain and other unforeseen calamities delayed us and caused great an- 
noyance. The true way to proceed is to go leisurely along, seeing what 
you choose, but with your mind ready to make changes of programme 
on the slightest notice. If this course is adhered to, and one has, as 
we had, a minute diary of some preceding tramp, nothing is more 
delightful than a walking tour through the mountains. For a student, 
it is especially charming, as it furnishes such a violent contrast to his 
previous sedentary life. 

The Sunday afternoon ride up the mountains was marred by a 
hard rain, which greatly obscured our view. The night we spent at 
the Black Mountain Hotel, which, though not open for guests, had a 
few inmates. Our proposed trip was much laughed at, and we were 
told that we would be found back there in just about a week. Un- 
fortunately, our chief scoffer was not on hand to be put to confusion 
when we finally did return. 

Our Monday's excursion to Catawba Falls, six miles off, was rather 
a failure, for we lost our way through the misdirection of our guide. 
Finally, becoming disgusted, we retraced our steps and dined at a 
store at the east end of the Swannanoa tunnel. We were ravenously 
hungry, but all we could get was a large number of great, sweet lemon 
crackers and a can of potted ham. Our meal, however poor, yet tasted 


exceeding sweet, for veriiy the mountain air and much toil had made 
almost anything acceptable. After dinner, we walked down the rail- 
road to Round Knob, encountering a large blacksnake, and amusing 
ourselves stepping off the length of all the short tunnels we passed. 
One point, where you can see through two tunnels to the bright day- 
light beyond, is particularly pretty. Of Round Knob, the chief glory 
is of course the fountain. One can sit for hours and never tire of 
watching the swaying, ever-varying column of mist. On calm days 
the height is said to be over two hundred feet, but at no time did we 
see it over a hundred and forty. 

Having had our hair cropped, we set out next morning, following 
the fountain pipe, for Catawba Falls, which we reached this time with- 
out difficulty. On every side the forest was thick with the white and 
pink ivy, which was now in full blossom, mingled with the white laurel 
and the superb azalea — white, scarlet and brilliant orange. In going 
to the falls we followed, the last mile of the way, the course of a stream, 
entirely without a path, down a very wild and steep yet extremely 
beautiful gorge. We had almost despaired of ever finding the falls, 
when suddenly we found ourselves at their foot. They are in two 
divisions. The lower is a succession of cascades, the whole aggre- 
gating nearly two hundred feet. Very beautiful they are, but the 
upper falls, with their single plunge, are still more so. The climb to 
the latter was like trying to walk up a wall. For two hundred yards 
or more, we had to hold on to trees and bushes every step lest we fall 
and know no more. 

Returning to Black Mountain, we occupied ourselves in the prepara- 
tion of our packs, and in bidding a last farewell to civilization and our 
trunks, which were to be sent to Blowing Rock, our intended final desti- 
nation. We had expended much care on deciding what we should carry 
with us; in combining a maximum of comfort with a minimum of 
weight. Our costume was flannel shirt, rough pants, stout, well-broken 
shoes, belt, felt hat, and coat, which, on account of the heat, we gen- 
erally suspended on our umbrellas and carried on our backs. The 
packs which we bore consisted of a change of underclothing, some 
paper-back literature to read in emergencies, and several sundries which 
suggest themselves to everyone, wrapped in a large piece of oilcloth 
held together with leather straps, which fastened the whole to our 


shoulders. Hanging over the pack, and thus out of our way, was a 
rubber coat. Pack, coat and all, weighed a little over ten pounds. 

Our Wednesday's walk was directly south of Black Mountain to 
ex-Judge Logan's hostelry at Chimney Rock, twenty miles. The road 
was beautiful most of the way, running up. one stream till we came 
to Lakey's Gap and then down the Broad River, at first a small 
brook, at last a river of considerable size. In the morning a hard 
rain had fallen, and consequently the muddy roads were very disagree- 
able. A stupid old mountaineer and a small boy named Jim Payne, 
of pleasant face but of remarkably little sense, diverted our attention 
for some miles. James declared that there was not a church or school 
within ten miles of where he lived. Our dinner at Broad River Post- 
office was presented to us on the strength of President Battle's repu- 
tation. It seems that Dr. Battle had signed a recommendation of 
some book of which our host was agent, but he had never even seen 
him. This incident should be a lesson to our worthy Faculty. Here- 
after they can give book testimonials with a light heart, relying on 
some relative in the distant future obtaining a free dinner by reason 
thereof. The dinner at Broad River was a fair sample of the -average 
mountain meal. It consisted of very fat fried bacon, hot corn bread 
and immense half-done biscuits, with good butter, excellent milk, and 
very strong, very hot coffee, flavored with cream and brown sugar. 

After dinner we continued to go down the Broad, now a large, beau- 
tiful river dashing over great boulders, between very high, perpendic- 
ular rock-cliffs, at first a mile or two apart, but with the distance 
between them gradually expanding. The scenery all along the river 
is grand, being rarely equalled. By the time we reached Logan's, we 
were pretty well fagged out. Our first long all-day tramp, with the 
first wearing of the pack, had produced its effect. The writer's neck, 
too, was so blistered as to be sensitive to the slightest touch. Evi- 
dently we were in no condition to see anything that afternoon, so we 
concluded to spend the whole of Thursday at the Rock and see all 
the objects of interest in the vicinity, for the valley of the Broad here 
has more attractions for the tourist than any other one place in North 
Carolina. Within a radius of four miles are Shaking Bald Mountain, 
the Caves, the Pools, Hickory Nut Falls, and Chimney Rock itself. 

Retiring early, we found a hot foot bath very soothing, but our slum- 
bers were disturbed by a parcel of vile canines barking at a company 


of midnight fishermen. On the following day, guided by one of the 
Logans, we proceeded to the so-called caves in Bald Mountain. These 
are not real limestone caves at all, but are formed by the falling away 
and settling of the granite of which the whole mountain is composed. 
The chambers are long, very narrow and high pitched, and extend 
far into the mountain. We then had a terrific climb to the crack 
near the top of old Bald. Bald Mountain at one time, it will be 
remembered, caused great excitement by the deep rumblings heard in 
it, the whole country for several miles being pretty well shaken. After 
the loudest of these rumblings in 1881, a crack was discovered, which 
was then much longer than at present, for it has partially filled up. 
Now it is not more than two hundred yards long, two or three broad, 
and at most I should say two hundred feet deep. At one end a large 
mass of rock has fallen off, crushing the largest trees before it like twigs. 
This granite is very beautiful, but the distance from a railroad pre- 
vents its being utilized. 

Hastily descending, and keeping a sharp look-out for pilots, as the 
mountaineers call our copperheads, we proceeded at once to the Pools. 
These are three perfectly circular holes in the solid rock-bed of a small 
creek from fifteen to twenty feet wide and of great depth, the least 
being eighty feet, we were told. They are very singular, and are 
quite unique in their size and depth. The pool in which Dr. Mitchell 
was drowned is something like them, but not so deep or so perfect in 
shape. One of them is said at times to show great suction, allowing 
nothing to remain on its surface, but of this we saw nothing. 

Just after dinner, a very heavy rain storm prevented our going to 
Chimney Rock and the Hickory Nut Falls. This was a great disap- 
pointment, but we tried to amuse ourselves looking at a semblance of 
a cabin on the cliff opposite the house, discovered by Mrs. Frances 
Hodgson Burnett, and named, from the heroine of her story, the scene 
of which is in part laid here, Esmeralda's Cabin. I was unable to find 
it, but Son became quite enthusiastic on the subject. It was very 
amusing during the storm to see the members of the family rushing 
about, setting buckets and tubs to catch the water from the numerous 
leaks. This family evidently makes money out of housing visitors. 
The house is the most accessible one in the vicinity, and they give 
good fare, but they truly know how to charge, and, for what they 
furnish, exorbitantly too. 


Hendersonvillc was the next point to be reached, twenty miles off 
The road thither was pretty, along a plateau, but with little shade, 
and the heat was almost intolerable. We had trouble in finding a 
dinner house, most of the people along the road being negroes. The 
dinner we finally obtained, was several great lumps of dough browned 
on top, boiling hot coffee without sugar, cream, or spoon, and good 
butter. We could not possibly eat it, and excusing ourselves hurried 
off. The poor woman looked hurt, for she had evidently put herself 
to some inconvenience and had done the best she could. 

At Hendersonville, Egerton's familiar face greeted us, and its owner 
took pride in showing us the sights of his native place. It is a pretty 
town, of a thousand inhabitants, and the summer resort of many 
wealthy South Carolinians, who own some very elegant residences in 
the vicinity. More charming than Egerton, however, and his hand- 
some town, was the receiving of letters and remittances from home. 
This was our last home news till we reached Waynesville, June 27th. 

At night there was a dance, in which Son actually had the temerity 
to take part. A fellow whose ardor for the Terpsichorean art is not 
dampened by a twenty mile walk, combined with tramping costume, 
must surely have been inspired by the muse herself. Of the fair 
daughters of Hendersonville, none save two waltzed with men ; and of 
the men present, only Son and Egerton knew how. But between the 
two there was only one pair of pumps. So alternately did the redoubt- 
able Son and the valiant Egerton glide round and round, being in 
truth the cynosure of all eyes. 

On Saturday, seven miles brought us to Bowman's Bluff, the home 
of a large English colony. We took dinner with Dobbin Holmes, 
whose father, a typical Englishman, bluff, hospitable and a great hunter, 
has a very pretty place surrounded by white pines on the bank of the 
French Broad. Both Mr. Holmes and Mr. Valentine were profuse in 
their kindness, begging us to spend Sunday with them, but we de- 
clined with regret, and continued our journey up the French Broad. 
About five we reached a large stone store with a glass front and alto- 
gether a very citified look, standing right in the open country. We 
were strangely tired, and concluded to stop over Sunday at Calhoun, 
as the place is called. The next day one of the clerks in the store 
very kindly drove us to preaching at a Presbyterian church at David- 
son's River, some four miles off. The road led along the French Broad 


through the most beautiful county in North Carolina. The broad 
bottoms are very fertile, and well cultivated. The houses of the land- 
owners are large and well built. On every side are evidences of wealth 
and culture. One farm was particularly beautiful, the finest in Tran- 
sylvania county in fact, and that is saying much. The residence is on 
an elevation in the centre of large grounds, dotted here and there with 
clumps of white pines. The former owner, a Mr. Lowndes, of Charles- 
ton, spent much money on the place, but his son seems at present dis- 
posed to neglect it. 

Mountaineers have a peculiar way of calling a church, a church- 
house. The church-house at Davidson's River was a barn-like, two- 
storied affair, the lower floor being used as a school room. Why is 
it that people will build ugly houses, and, least of all, ugly houses of 
God? Sunday afternoon hung heavy on our hands, but with reading 
and sleeping, it at last was over. Towards evening we were struck by 
the unusual number of whip-poor-wills. These, together with thrushes 
and red birds, were almost the only birds whose song we had yet heard. 

In the morning we rose betimes, and desiring to reach Tallulah by 
Friday, we hired a buggy and drove to the falls on Little River, and 
thence to the State line, three miles from Caesar's Head. With bad 
roads, fat horse and lazy driver, we made slow progress. In fact 
we had almost as well have walked. The falls of Little River are among 
the finest in Western North Carolina. There are three, the High, the 
Bridal Veil, and the Triple or Buck Falls. The latter we were unable 
to see. The High Falls are the prettiest. The Little is quite a large 
stream, and the whole face of the broad, high cliff is covered with one 
mass of white, foaming water. The Bridal Veil Falls are also fine, 
not high, but stretching over some two hundred yards of unbroken rock, 
rushing and roaring. There is but one single plunge, that about fifteen 
feet high, over projecting rock. Under this we went, and quite a sin- 
gular sensation it was to see a great wall of water pouring above and 
over you. 

At Bishop's, near the line, we got dinner and had washing 
done, afterwards proceeding under the lead of a bright little kid to 
Caesar's Head. Caesar's Head is an immense cliff fifteen hundred feet 
high, named from a fancied resemblance to the profile of Julius Caesar, 
The mountains appear here to break short off, for a stretch of coun- 
try, apparently almost level, and yet little cultivated, extends as far as 



the eye can reach. On a clear day the view is magnificent in 
the extreme, but when we were there, though the sun shone angrily, 
the air was misty, and everything was dimmed by a murky blue haze. 
Even thus, however, the sight was one to impress a man forever. The 
rocks of the Head are much marred by the names, scrawled in great 
glaring letters, of John Smith, Tom Jones and Bill Brown et a/., insane 
idiots who think that posterity will care a straw, except with con- 
tempt, about the fact that they had visited the place. Forthis sickening 
practice there can be no excuse whatever. 

After inspecting the Devil's Dining Room, a cleft in the rock where 
on the hottest day a cold breeze always blows, and going through part 
of the great crack, six or eight feet wide and very deep and long, in 
the shape of a right angle, we walked down to the hotel, a large, ugly, 
three-story building, and thence back to Bishop's. On the way, we 
made a detour to see Raven's Cliff, or Saluda Falls, very beautiful, 
though not so grand as either the falls of the Catawba or the Little. 
From Bishop's we went on four miles to McGaha's, on the road to 

Paying a quarter each for our breakfast, supper and lodging, we pro- 
ceeded to Charlie Henderson's, twenty-three miles on the way to 
Whiteside. We went to the south of Brevard some three miles, see- 
ing near the road Conestee Falls, and passing a large force of hands at 
work on a railroad from Greenville through Brevard to Waynesville, 
and thence to Knoxville. Bryant's, ten miles west of Brevard, fur- 
nished a very good dinner station. The afternoon walk to Henderson's, 
eight miles, was delightful. The road was excellent and very cool and 
shady, climbing right over the Blue Ridge. For six miles we saw no 
inhabited house. Henderson's is a very good place for hunting and 
fishing. It is directly on top of the ridge and commands many excellent 
trout streams. Deer, turkeys, partridges and pheasants are abundant. 
Soon, however, the place will be spoiled by the railroad now being 

Early next morning we went fishing for trout in Indian Creek with 
bait. Hurrah! hurrah! at last I caught two mountain trout! Son 
and young Waitt Henderson, our pilot, were more successful. We 
left Henderson's at eleven and proceeded to Wash Zachary's, twenty 
miles. The road lay through dense forest. For twelve miles there 
were only two inhabited houses. As we were going on, a man caught 


up with us who had his beard plaited. We thought his face vicious 
and fought shy of him. As he took short cuts and we followed the 
road, we were separate for some time. At last we came together again 
and this time got on very peaceably. Our highwayman turned out to 
be a preacher named Scales, who said he was a relative of the Gov- 
ernor. He unplaited his beard and was very kind to us, showing us 
the Georgetown gold mine, where several men were at work. 

When we reached Zachary's we were much tired, our great uncer- 
taintv as to the correctness of the road having produced a marked 
effect on our physical nature. Zachary is quite an intelligent man, 
well off and very agreeable. On Thursday we set out early, under 
Zachary's leadership, for Whiteside. He regaled us with marvellous 
bear stories, and dissertations on politics, and an account of his war 
experience. He showed us various flowers and plants of great interest, 
among them sweet fern, which, he says, is a sure cure for rattlesnake 
bite, eaten raw, or, preferably, boiled in milk. We went first to the 
Devil's Court-house, on the northwest side of the mountain. This is 
a steep cliff of over a thousand feet in height. The lookout is grand ; 
but to-day the air was so hazy we could scarcely see anything. We 
next went up to the top of the mountain, and stood upon the edge of 
the highest cliff in eastern America, for Whiteside, on the south, is a 
sheer descent of over eighteen hundred feet. The face has several 
large white patches on it, hence the name Whiteside. The mountain 
itself is grand, the finest in North Carolina south of Pisgah. The im- 
pression it produces upon one is peculiar to itself. The great cliff 
formed by one touch of the finger of God, makes one feel the lit- 
tleness of man as nothing else in all the mountains. It seems a prof- 
anation, at a place of such sublimity, to laugh and talk. We seem to 
stand almost in the Almighty presence itself. 

The view from Whiteside excels that from Caesar's Head. The 
prospect is unlimited over South Carolina, Georgia and Southwestern 
North Carolina. Zachary carefully pointed out the different moun- 
tains to us, but then spoiled it all by admitting us into one of his trade 
secrets. He remarked very drily that it made very little difference 
what name he gave to a mountain ; none of the tourists knew any bet- 
ter, and he certainly didn't care. I suppose this is the case every- 
where. The guileful mountaineers stuff the innocent travellers without 


We wanted to see Whiteside from the foot of the precipice, but how to 
get there was the question. Zachary showed us very carefully a way 
down the face of the cliff, and we determined to follow it. Zachary 
went home and we commenced the descent. There was really no dan- 
ger of falling off and being dashed to pieces, but there was absolutely 
no path, and how we escaped breaking a leg or an arm and being bit- 
ten by rattlesnakes has always been strange. Of course we got lost, 
but only for an hour or so. We eventually found a trail and followed 
it blindly, knowing it must lead somewhere. It did ; but when at last 
we found a house it was several miles from wherewe intended to come 
out. At first we were much confused, but finally got on the right 
road to Highlands, which we reached utterly worn out after the worst, 
most anxious day which we spent. 

Highlands is a new town of about three hundred inhabitants, almost 
all Yankees, about seven miles southwest of Whiteside. It was founded 
by a Minnesota man named Kelsey, who became almost a monomaniac 
on the subject. The situation is very pretty, on top of the mountains 
3,817 feet above the sea; but as the country around is very poor, the 
place will never be much more than a summer resort. Walhalla is the 
nearest railroad point. 

Thus far the dreaded rattlesnake had been for us unseen, nor did 
we meet one except on Hawksbill Mountain, but there we saw three 
immense fellows in two orthree hours. We had with us, however, some 
"medicine," each of us carrying it alternately with our field-glass. This 
field-glass we could very well have gotten on without ; but the one 
thing which gave us more comfort than any other, was our Kerr's Map 
of Western North Carolina. As to roads it is utterly worthless, and 
very inaccurate in almost every other respect, but hardly two hours 
at a time passed without our examining it. It was a sine qua non. 

W. J. B. 

biographical sketches. 75 

Biographical Sketches 



Edited by Stephen B. Weeks. 

Henderson, Leonard Alexander, Salisbury, N. C, b. Nov. 14, 
1841, eldest son of Archibald and Mary Steele, d. June I, 1864. Ma- 
triculated 1859. Unmarried. On the maternal line he descended from 
Gen'l John Steele, Comptroller General during the administration of 
Gen'l Washington, and his intimate friend and confidential adviser. 
He was also the descendant of Mrs. Elizabeth Steele, that pious and 
patriotic lady, so beautifully and touchingly connected with the his- 
tory of North Carolina by the manner in which she relieved General 
Greene, who, fleeing before Cornwallis, had come to her house weary, 
hungry, alone, and moneyless. On the paternal side, he traces through 
those of his name whose lives have formed a part of the history of 
North Carolina from its earliest Colonial existence. When the war 
began, he was an academic student at the University of Virginia. 
Without consultation with, or even the knowledge of his parents, he 
volunteered on the 14th of April, 1861, and went with the company of 
students to Harper's Ferry. When the company of students returned 
to the University and disbanded, he, without returning home, repaired 
immediately to Fort Johnson, below Wilmington, where he again vol- 
unteered as a private, and worked in the trenches six weeks. From 
this point he wrote to his father, asking him to make no request for 
an appointment for him by the Governor, stating that "he did not 
leave the University to get office, but to defend the Old North State." 
But Governor Ellis had already appointed him 2d Lieut., the notifica- 
tion having failed to reach him because of misdirection. His first 
appearance on a field of battle was at Roanoke Island, where he was 
in command of his company. Here, when the men were requested to 
lie down, he alone kept his position, standing or moving back and 
for thin front of the line, while the air was filled with missiles of 
death. He was taken prisoner, with the entire garrison, and shortly 
after returned home on parole. Upon his exchange, he was made 


Captain of his company, and the regiment was attached to General 
Clingman's brigade, whose fortunes he followed without any special 
incident or opportunity of distinction until the storming of Plymouth, 
where he was again conspicuous for coolness and intrepidity. Said a 
writer in the Raleigh Confederate, June 17th, 1864, " In the charges at 
Plymouth he was one of the three officers of the regiment who led 
their companies." He came out of the battle unscathed, "under the 
protection of a Divine Providence," as he himself expressed it, though 
his clothing was riddled by balls. When Hoke's division, to which 
Clingman's brigade belonged, was ordered to Virginia in the spring of 
1864 for the protection of Petersburg, he participated in the battles 
about Drury's Bluff and between Petersburg and Richmond. In one 
of these he was painfully wounded in the thigh, but he refused to be 
relieved from duty, and the next day appeared at the head of his men. 
During the engagement of the 20th May, he was in command of the 
skirmishers of one regiment, fifty in number; the whole skirmish line 
was ordered to advance, but through some mistake he alone received 
the order. Without hesitation he ordered forward his men, and with- 
out any support he led them to the charge of the enemy's rifle pits, 
under a heavy fire from the front and both flanks, gained his position, 
and held it until the regiment came to his support. His love for his 
men was as enthusiastic as theirs for him. Being told by his Colonel 
on one occasion at Charleston, when about to go on some important 
service, to " leave the least reliable man to take care of the camp," he 
replied promptly, " I have not an unreliable man in my company." 
His next appearance, and his last on the field of battle, was at second 
Cold Harbor, June 1st, 1864. On the evening of that day General 
Meade having arrived, gave orders for an immediate attack upon our 
forces in order to secure the heights around New Cold Harbor and 
Gaines' mill. At 4 o'clock, Wright and Smith made the attack, and 
succeeded in carrying the first line of rifle pits, but were soon driven 
from them. They had" been repulsed three times with hardly any loss 
on our side and, as an officer of the 8th North Carolina wrote, "all 
were jubilant of victory, when the brigade on our side gave way, allow- 
ing the enemy to get on our flank and rear." The Colonel was, at the 
time, supposed to have been killed ; and Capt. Henderson was called 
on by the officers to lead the regiment. Casting aside his sword, he 
took up a musket and led the command to the charge. Just as the 


enemy were forced back, he fell pierced by a musket shot and was 
borne bleeding from the field. He lived about two hours, and died 
quietly, a Di. 

HUSTED, DELANO WHITING, was born near Dudley, in the county 
of Wayne, N. C, at a place known as " Pleasant Green," which had 
been the country seat of his maternal great-grandfather, the gallant 
Col. Ezekiel Slocumb of Revolutionary memory, on the 5th day of 
August, 1833. "Pleasant Green," it will be remembered, was for 
some time before the battle of Moore's Creek, the headquarters of the 
notorious British Commander, Col. Tarleton, and it was there that the 
wife of Col. Slocumb showed much courage and wit in defending her 
absent husband from the slurs of Col. Tarleton and his staff ; and it was 
from that place that she made the long night-ride, in storm and dark- 
ness, on a fleet horse, to inform the Patriot forces of the approach of 
the enemy, an act that rendered her famous as one of the heroic 
women of the Revolution. So the subject of this sketch came hon- 
estly by the courage and daring that marked his course in the war 
between the States. His mother's maiden name was Harriet A. Slo- 
cumb; and his father's, Major Hiram W. Husted, who was born 
in New York, graduated at Yale College, moved to North Carolina and 
was married about 1830. Major Husted lived and practised law in 
Smithfield, N. C, from a short time after the birth of Delano until the 
latter was about twelve years old, when he removed to Raleigh, where 
he continued to live until his death, about the year 1869. He was a 
gentleman of literary attainments and considerable humor, and being 
an ardent "Henry Clay Whig" in the political campaign of 1844, he 
edited a paper called The Clarion, which by its witty criticisms of the 
adversary leaders gained him some eclat and did his party much ser- 
vice. His wife survived him several years and died in the odor of 
sanctity, a devout member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. They 
had several children, but Delano alone survived early infancy, and he 
had the advantages and disadvantages incident to being an only child 
of devoted parents. He was prepared for college at the Raleigh Male 
Academy, by the late J. M. Lovejoy, along with Col. Ivey F. Lewis, 
who recently died in Alabama, Capt. R. B. Saunders, now of Dur- 
ham, Col. W. L. Saunders, and Capt. J. G. B. Grimes of Raleigh ; and 
with them entered the Freshman class at the University of North 


Carolina in 1850. He graduated in 1854 in a class of sixty members. 
At Chapel Hill, Delano Husted was not a close student of his text- 
books, but he spent much time in general reading, and early acquired 
an easy style in essay and letter writing, of which he was always fond. 
He was remarkably light-hearted, cheerful and generous in his inter- 
course with his college mates, and he was so friendly and pleasant with 
his preceptors in and out of the class-room that he disarmed their criti- 
cism when he had been careless in the preparation of lessons. He was 
handsome in face and figure ; fond of society, and was a most welcome 
guest at the houses of the good people of the village ; so that on his 
graduation he left no enemy, but many friends behind him, and all 
his associates parted from him with sincere regret. Returning home 
to Raleigh, he spent some months reading law in his father's office 
and with Hon. D. G. Fowle, and in writing an occasional article for 
the newspapers, but the distractions to one of his disposition, with 
idle friends about him in Raleigh, were such that he concluded to 
remove to Gainesville, Alabama. There he prepared himself for his 
life work in the office of Judge Turner Reavis, formerly of this State, 
who, when a young man, had experienced some kindness from Delano's 
father, and cordially invited him to make his home and study law 
with him. 

He was admitted to practise in the courts of Alabama about the 
year 1858. and prosecuted the profession as a partner of Judge Reavis 
until the spring of 1861, when, like most of the Southern youth, he 
volunteered to resist the coercion of the seceded States and went to 
the front. Afterwards he was elected First Lieutenant of Captain 
Vandergriff's company in the 5th Alabama Battalion. He fought 
gallantly in the first battle of Manassas in July, 1861, and was in the 
campaign about Yorktown and on the Peninsula in the spring of 1S62. 
He returned to his old home in Raleigh on sick-leave in April, 1862, 
and saw his fond parents for the last time. Returning to his com- 
mand as soon as his health was sufficiently restored, he took part in 
the battle of Mechanicsville June 26th, and was killed next day in the 
battle of Gaines' Mill. In the heat of the battle, his Brigade Com- 
mander, General Archer, called for volunteers to silence a battery 
which, by well directed aim, was greatly annoying his troops. Delano 
Husted volunteered to lead the band and was instantly killed in a 
charge upon the battery. A faithful servant, whom he had taken with 


him from Raleigh, exhibited great pluck and energy, as well as devo- 
tion to his young master and friend, by securing the body and 
bringing it to Raleigh with the least possible delay. He was buried 
in the old City Cemetery in that place, the burial service of the Epis- 
copal Church being read over his remains by his old pastor, the late 
Rev. R.S. Mason, D. D., and followed to the grave by many friends 
and by his grief-stricken parents. All their earthly hopes were buried 
with their handsome, gallant son. A Di. 







A Letter from President Battle. 

To the Readers of the Magazine : The 
Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies have 
kindly given the Univeisity such of their 
pamphlets as they can spare. I have col- 
lected others belonging to the University. 
I will take pleasure in forwarding any or all 
of those named in the following li>t, until 
exhausted, provided you will send me the 
postage, viz.: two cents for the Mitchell, 
and one cent for each of the other pamphlets. 

" Memoir of Elisha Mitchell," with por- 
trait ; " Fifty Years Since," by William 
Hooper ; " Memoir of W. II. Battle, '" with 
portrait. Addresses by Jas. H. Dickson, M. 
W. Ransom, Wm. Gaston, E. J. Mallett 
Augustus Van Wyck, with portrait, John 
Pool, James Grant, Jas. C. Dobbin, A. V. 
Brown, J. A. Engelhard, W. H. Battle, 
Thos. C. Manning, John Manning, K. P. 
Battle, Bishop Atkinson (before the Histori- 
cal Society). 

Sermons by Rev. Dr. Basil Manly, Jr., and 
Rev. Dr. C. H. Hall. 

Report by President Battle, (1887). 

N. C. U. Magazine, Vol. X, No. 8 : 
Sketch of Hugh L. White, wiih portrait. 

N. C. U. Magazine, Vol. X, No. 7: 
Sketch of Whit. Hill ; portrait of Rev. Dr_ 

N. C. U. Magazine, Vol. X, No. 2; 
Dr. C. L. Hunter's Review of " Woody 
Plants"; portrait of Joel Lane. 

Dialectic Catalogue, (1852). 

Philanthropic Catalogue, (1S52). 

University Catalogues for iS3S-'g, i85i-'2, 
i852-'3, 1854— '5, i859-'6o, i86o-'i, i862-'3, 
1866-7, 1867-8, 1869-70, 1S75-6, 1876-7, 
1877-8, 1878-9 18S2-3, 1883-4, 1884-5, 
1885-6, i886-'7, i387-'8. 

Normal School Catalogues, 1877, 1S78, 
1879, 1880. Very respectfully, 

Kim i' P. BATTLE, President. 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The Dialectic Catalogue. — We wish to 
call special attention to the effort now being 
made to publish a Catalogue of the members 
of ihe Dialectic Society. A preliminary edi- 
tion has been published, and many copies 
sent out, but as yet very few collections and 
additions have bc;en received. The editors 
of the Catalogue are doing their best, but 
unless our Alumni and friends lend us their 
help, the whole must be a failure. We 
earnestly beg every member of the Society 
and every fiiend into whose hands one of 
these preliminary copies may fall, to examine 
it carefully and send us corrections, even if 
they relate to but one name. Do not wait 
for any body else to do it, for rest assured 
that unless you personally intere-t yourself 
in the matter, nobody else will. Either Mr. 
E. M. Armfield, High Point, N. C, or Mr. 
W. J. Battle, Chapel Hill, N. C, will send 
copies to any who may desire them for pur- 
poses of correction. Send the corrections to 
either of these gentlemen. 

Death of Mr. W. J. Yates. — We were 
pained to learn of the death from apoplexy 
of Mr. W. J. Yates, editor of the Charlotte 
Democrat, on October 25th. Mr. Yates was 
always a staunch friend of the University. 
He held it his duty to attend the meetings of 
the Board of Trus:ees, and his face was often 
seen at our annual commencements. His 
sound counsels and constant interest will be 
greatly missed. We gather the following 
facts of his life from the State papers. Born 
in Fayetteville in iS27, at an early age he 
entered the printing office of the North Ciro- 
linian, which, by industry and frugality, he 
was soon enabled to purchase. Selling this 
after a time, he bought the Charlotte Demo- 
crat in 1S56. A good editor, he loved his 
profession, and continued in active service 
up to his death. A loyal North Carolinian, 
he invested his money entirely in the State, 
having no use for outside enterprises. Very 


pronounced in his opinions, and of strong 
will, he wielded an influence in the councils 
of which he was a member. Liberal, simple 
in his tastes, plain in his habits, intolerant of 
display, he was a good citizen, a valued edi- 
tor, a sincere Christian, whose loss will be 
greatly felt. 

A Suggestion to the Class of '89. — In 

the University Records of the year 1804, of 
the dale June 25th, is found the following: 

" It is worthy to be mentioned that all the 
members of the Senior Class, at the time of 
receiving the degrees, were dressed in uniform 
sui s of neat, plain homespun cloth, and it is 
to be hoped that this example of patriotism 
and economy will be imitated on every simi- 
lar occasion that may occur hereafter." 

We recommend that the class of '89, in- 
stead of adopting the conventional Prince 
Albert, signalize the recent triumph of pro- 
tection by a return to home manufactures. 
The commencement speakers, by robing 
themselves in homespun and thus outwitting 
the Northern manufacturers of woolen goods, 
would show great patriotism, and at least, 
we are sure, attract gi eat attention. 

Class Pamphlet of '88. — We are very 
glad to see on our table the " Proceedings of 
the class of '88," University of North Caro- 
lina, edited by Eugene M. Armfield. This 
pamphlet contains the exercises of Class Day, 
April 24th, last. The p< em shows ability, 
the prophecies are amusing, the history is in- 
teresting, and the oration and President's 
speech are both good. The song by Mrs. 
Spencer, published also in the Magazine for 
May, is really beautiful. It is certainly a 
commendable thing thus to publish memo- 
rials of a graduating class. Such a thing will 
serve as a constant reminder of days that are 
past, and call up the most delightful period 
of a man's life. We hope other classes will 
follow the excellent example set by 'S8. 

A Reading-room Nuisance. — Our read- 
ing-room has lately been turned into a smok- 
ing-room. No doubt it never occurs to those 
who puff their cigarettes in others' faces and 

fill the room with a fog, that they are mak- 
ing themselves disagreeable to a large num- 
ber of non-smokers, or they surely would be 
more considerate of others. The room being 
open all day and free to all, visitors are re- 
strained in general only by the unwiitten 
rules of common decency and politeness. We 
can compliment our students upon their good 
behavior there in ever)' respect except in this 
matter of smoking. This we attribute to 
thoughtlessness, and trust that, being thus 
requested to discontinue the nuisance, there 
will be no further cause for complaint. 

The Personal Editor. — The Personal 
Editor of this Magazine saw fit in the last 
issuetomakea vileattack upon ourreputation. 
" We deny the allegation and defy the alle- 
gator." The whole thing was a villainous 
slander, which was caused by the wrath of 
this abandoned wretch at our having acci- 
dently broken a new pencil of his. Like the 
elephant of India who, when he has once 
been made angry, will calmly wait long an 
opportunity for revenge, and then pounce 
unexpectedly upon his victim, so this misera- 
ble fellow, cherishing under his peaceful ex- 
terior the nature of a wolf, bided his time, 
and vented his spleen through the pages of 
the Magazine, besides stealing from us, to- 
make up his loss, abetter pencil than the one 
we had broken. 

And notice the characteristic way in which 
he revenges himself. Despairing of finding true 
charges against us, he resorts to the most 
transparent falsehoods. But enough. We; 
are told that there is an Ananias Society in 
Boston; certainly it would find a m >st worthy 
member in our highly esteemed fellow editor. 

The University Libraries. — When the 
libraries of the Dialectic and Philanthropic 
Societies were moved into the University 
library building, the Faculty covenanted, 
among other things, to afford space for the 
books of the two libraries. When the re- 
moval took place, several of the shelves were 
full to overflowing. The difficulty was then 
solved by many of the old, useless University 



books being taken out, to stay out till room 
was found for them. Moreover, not all the 
Society books by a good many were moved 
down. Since that time several years have 
passed, and not a single shelf has been added 
to the library. Books have been purchased 
by the hundred, and are being bought every 
year. But there is no place for them to oc- 
cupy. The result is that the old books are 
displaced to make way for the new ones. 
Whole shelves of Dialectic books have given 
place to University books; and vice versa, in 

consequence of the action of the University 
book authorities, the Dialectic book commit- 
tees have taken great pleasure in shoving 
dozens of old University books into drawers 
to find room for their own. This is a great 
evil, but it cannot in the present condition 
of things be avoided. As long as the Faculty 
fail to put in new alcoves, so long will books 
on all sides be taken off in honor of more 
modern ones. We ask you, gentlemen of the 
Trustees and Faculty, to remedy this evil. 
The expense cannot be very great. 

The College World. 

— This is the centennial year of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. 

— The first female college in the world was 
built in Georgia. — Ex. 

— Princeton paid $3,260 for foot ball last 
season. Her gate receipts were $3, 312. — Ex. 

— President-elect Harrison is a graduate 
of Miami University and a member of Phi 
Delta Theta. 

— There is an advance of five per cent, in 
college attendance in the United States this 
year over last. — Ex. 

— Gifts to Princeton College amounting to 
$80,000 were announced November 9th. 
The donor of $50,000 of this sum author- 
ized its use for the building of a dormitory, 
or for any other purpose which President 
Patton should deem best. 

— We hear that Trinity College, in this 
State, has abolished its preparatory depart- 
ment. If this means that only those who 
are really piepared for the Freshman class 
are to be admitted, it is an excellent sign. 
Our colleges ought to have enough to do in 
their own lines, without competing with the 
preparatory schools. 

— Prof. Ptabody, of Harvard, says that 
the general tone of the college has been im- 
proved by the growth of athletics.— Ex. 

— At Oxford, England, there are twelve 
American students in attendance ; at the 
University of Berlin, 600 ; at Leipsic, over 
200. — Ex. 

— The following American colleges have 
more than 1,000 students : Harvard 1,690 ; 
Columbia, 1,487 ; University of Michigan, 
1 .475 ; Oberlin, 1,487; Yale, 1,245; North- 
western, 1,100 ; University of Pensylvania, 
1,069. — •£•*"• 

—The present tendency seems to be to 
have less of lecturing, and more of teciting. 
Monier Williams, an eminent professor at 
Oxford, urges a return to the usage of for- 
mer days, when " nearly every lecture was a 
kind of viva-voce examination." 

— It is not commonly known that, while 
American students have fifteen or sixteen 
hours of recitations or lectures each week, 
students in the German Gymnasia, doing the 
same kind of work as our collegians, have 
thirty; and those in the Keal-schools have 
thirty-two, partly to make up for fewer hours 
in ancient languages. 



— The first college astronomical observa- 
tory in America was erected at the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina in 1832. 

— Two students of the Southern Univer- 
sity at Greensboro, Alabama, living in Mis- 
sissippi, and being shut off by the quarantine, 
resolved to return to college any way. " So 
setting out from their home on foot, they 
reached Greensboro and entered College on 
the seventh day of their journey, having 
traveled 192 miles." — Southern University 

Doubtless fear of yellow fever, rather than 
a devotion to education, prompted such a feat 
of pedestrianism. 

— A Yale graduate who was a student 
about thirty years ago said, in speaking of 
the changes that had taken place since his 
time : " I never knew whether to attach any 
significance to it or'not, but when I was there, 
the law school adjoined the jail, the medical 
school was next to the cemetery, and the di- 
vinity school was on the road to the poor- 
house. — Hat t ford Post. 

— William and Mary College, the Alma 
Mater of Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and 
Tyler and Chief Justice Marshall, has been 
reopened this fall after a long term of inac- 
tivity. The war crippled this institution 
very seriously. It is the oldest college in 
Virginia. — Ex. 

It is the second oldest in the United States, 
the date of its charter being 1693, making it 
fifty-seven years younger than Harvard. It 
is reopened as a normal college, we hear. 

— Dartmouth has the credit of publishing 
the first college publication, Yale second, 
and Union third. — Ex. 

— " In 1800 the Dartmouth students issued 
a paper called The Gazette, which is chiefly 
memorable as containing in 1802-3, numerous 
articles by Daniel Webster, then a graduate 
of one year's standing. They were signed 
' Icarus.' " American Colleges, by C. F. 

This Magazine is no longer in existence. 
The oldest college periodical now being pub- 
lished is The Yale Literary Magazine, 
founded in 1839. Senator Evarts was one of 
its founders. 

— At a recent meeting of college and prepar- 
atory teachers in Boston, the following were 
suggested as reasons why the numbers of stu- 
dents in New England colleges fail to keep 
pace with the growth of the population: for- 
eign immigration; improvement in the public 
and secondary schools, many people being sat- 
isfied with the education received at these ; 
the tendency of colleges to advance their 
standards, now far higher than they were 
thirty-odd years ago; parents from the South 
who could then have sent their sons to col- 
lege are now too poor. If the numbers fall 
off in the great centers of wealth, popula- 
tion and education, we should expect a much 
greater decrease in our own State. Yet such 
is not the case at the University, which has- 
to-day more North Carolina students than at 
the period under comparison and not only that, 
but a larger number of collegiate students 
than any Southern institution, with one pos- 
sible exception. 

— California must be the center of the as- 
tronomical world. The Southern California 
University proposes to erect a telescope on 
Wilson's Peak to cost $100,000 ;" its lens to 
be forty-two inches. It is claimed that it 
will make the surface of the moon as visible 
as if it were only sixty miles away. It will 
require five years to make the glass. Again : 
The Stanford University of California has 
ordered a lens for their new telescope which 
is to be forty inches in diameter. This will 
be six inches wider than the- famous Lick 
telescope. — Ex. 

But The Occident, published at the Uni- 
versity of California, commenting upon the 
above says : 

' ' The old story of the large telescope that 
is going to be built for the Stanford Univer- 
sity is going the rounds of the college press. 
Although we live quite near the Stanford 
University, we have not yet heard of the tel- 
escope. We think that the thirty-six inch 
lens of the Lick telescope of the astronomi- 
cal department of the University of Califor- 
nia is still the largest in existence, and that 
it probably will remain so for many years to 

8 4 


— One of the professors at Syracuse Uni- 
versity called for a vote of his class on the tariff 
question, and every lady in the class declared 
that she was in favor of protection! — Ex. 

The result of the recent national election 
is explained. 

— Ann Arbor, Michigan, claims the honor 
of originating the "-He's all right " yell. It 
has been known for many years among col- 
lege men, though before Inst spring it had 
failed to attract a wider share of attention- 
When the delegates from the University of 
Michigan branch of the Michigan Club went 
down to the Republican banquet at Detroit 
in February, they edified the gathering by 
the question : " What's the matter with the 
U. of M.?" Which elicited the equally 
threadbare response : " She's all right !' 
The cry was taken to the National Conven- 
tion at Chicago by the Michigan delegation, 
who applied it to Ceneral Alger, and since 
that time it has enjoyed a national reputa- 
tion. — Herald. 

— Much of the prejudice against inter- 
collegiate contests is due to the fact that 
they are said to be detrimental to good 
scholarship. In order to discover the real 
state of the case at Cornell University, a 
thorough examination was recently made in 
that instiiul on of the records of the men 
who engaged in inter-collegiate sports since 
the opening of the college. The result 
showed that the average scholarship for the 
year of each .man who rowed on the crews 
was 70 per cent., that of the base-ball play- 
ers 73 per cent., and that of the track ath- 
letes 76 per cent., a standard of 70 percent, 
being necessary to graduate. Fifty-four per 
cent, of all thtse men graduated, which is 7 
per cent, above the University per cent, of 
graduat on. These results would seem to 
show that inter-collegiate contests, when kept 
within reasonable limits, do not interfere 
with the general scholarship of educational 
institutions. — Ex. 

— " Yes," said a man recently whose hairs 
have whitened since he left the doors of Ids 
Alma Mater on commencement day, " the 

boys used to vote in college towns, and thry 
do in some of them yet, although the decis- 
ions of the State Courts are against it, and 
we used to have to pay taxes. 

" The good people down on the banks of 
the Raritan once decided that Rutgers' men 
should pay a heavy poll tax. The boys held 
a meeting, and resolved to vote at the coming 
town election, if the officers insisted on the 
the collection of the tax. Things took that 
course, the beys put a ticket in the field, and 
they elected it from alpha to omega. The 
town council chamber was converted into a 
club-room, and a council meeting was held 
nightly. The town was bonded for $50,000 
in order to build a walk from the colli ge to 
the post-office, which still is a model of the 
mason's art, being of polished granite." 

" The students had no troub'e after that, 
and some p- ople in New Brunswick to-day 
will tell you it was the be>t thing that eyer 
occurred for the welfare of the village. — 
Cornell Daily Sun. 

North Carolina Colleges and Schools. 

The University Magazine wishes to 
give more piominence in its columns to edu- 
cational affaits in. North Carolina, and aca- 
demic news of our own State. So aceittin 
portion of The Magazine will hereafter be 
devoted to items of general interest concern* 
ing he colleges and principal preparatory 
schools of North Carolina. We invite ihe 
Faculties and students of these institutions :o 
send us any news items relating to this depart- 

"From every section of North Carolina 
comes the tidings that the schools a e all full 
of pupils, and it is estimated that there are 
at least 2,000 more boys and girls in the 
schools of our State this fall than ever be- 
fore." — A'. C. Teacher for November. 

Major Hingham has added a new featute 
to his school this fall, artillery drill'. 

The Davis Cadets attended the Richmond 
Exposition in November, and were reviewed 

in Governor Lee. 



The chief preparatory schools of the State 
are represented at the University as follows: 
Bingham School, i3; Horner School, 13; 
Raleigh Mile Academy. 11; Tarboro Male 
Academy, 7; Davis School, 6; Oak Ridge 
Institute, 2; Shelby High School, 2. 

"A branch Y. M. C. A. has been organized, 
and nearly all the students hive connected 
themselves with it." — Wake Forest Student. 

Now all the colleges in 'he State have As- 
sociations. Trinity has one, established last 

The Friends' School at New Garden has 
been improved, and opened this Fall under 
the name of " Guilford College." The 
stand.! rd of scholarship has been raised. 
The number of pupils is 145, the largest in 
the history of the institution. There are 56 
in the collegiate department. It is a college 
for both sexes, and they are about equally 
divided in number. President Hobbs writes: 
" We offer the same courses of study to both 
sexes, and we find as much intellectual ca- 
pacity in girls as in boys." 

Foot-ball Association. — On Novem- 
ber 29th, representatives of the Uuiver- 
sity, Trinity and Wake Forest met in 
Raleigh, and organized a " Norh Carolina 
Inter-collegiate P'oot Ba 1 Association." The 
following officers were elect -d : Piesi- 
dent, J. F. Jones, of Trinity; Secretary, W. 
C. Dowd, of Wake Forest; Treasurer, S. C. 
Bragaw, of the University. The Constitu- 
tion adopted is modeled after that of the 
American Inter-collegiate Association. A 
series of championship games will be ar- 
ranged for next term. 

It was for organizing this Associa- 
tion that a correspondent of the News 
and Observer from Chapel Hill claimed the 
credit for the University, and a student at 
Trinity wrote to that p iper denying it; labor- 
ing, it seems, under a misunderstanding. 
Trinity was the first college in the State to 
organize a foot-ball team, for when their 
challenge was received here to play on 
Thanksgiving Day we had no team to play 

them. But as to the Intei'-collegiate Associa- 
tion, it had its birth here, and its successful 
organization is due to two students of the 

A game of foot-ball was played at Raleigh 
during Fair week between the Wake Forest 
team and the University Soph. Class team, 
under a set of improvised rules. The score 
was two goals to one in favor of Wake Forest. 

The Wake Forest Student says of the 
game, (the Italics are our own): 

" The fir^t game resulted in favor of the 
Chapel HilL team, owing to the fact that our 
boys played under two new rules and had the 
disadvantage in position of their goal. The 
next game our boys went at it with a vim, 
caught on to their opponents' dodges, and won 
the game in short time. The third game was 
simply a repetition of the second." 

No one objects to The Student's exulting 
over the victory (?), if it can find anything in 
it to exult over, but it should be fairer to- 
wards its opponents. There were many more 
rules which were strange to the University 
than to the Wake Forest team. It was by 
these rules, very unfair and peculiar, that 
Wake Forest got the credit of a victory, and 
not because ihey were at a disadvantage in 
regard to their goal, or " caught on to their 
opponents' dodges." In that game the Uni- 
versity boys were better organized, and 
pbiyed better in tunning, dodging, kicking 
and tackling than the Wake Forest, as was 
acknowledged by all third parties ; and we 
do not believe there is a man on the Wake 
Forest team who thinks that their men are 
better players than the University team. 

The first scientific game of foot-ball ever 
played in this State was at Raleigh last 
Thanksgiving Day, between Trinity and the 
University. The rules were those of the 
American, Inter-collegiate Association. The 
players were : 

Trinity — Rushers: Johnston (Captain), 
Durham, R. , Crowell, Fearrington, Nichol- 
son, Crawford and Mitchell ; Quarter-bach, 
Durham, S.; Half-backs : Rahders and Dan- 
iels ; Full-back, Sharpe. 

University — Rushers: Bragaw (Cap- 
tain), Little, Wharton, Shaffner, Blount, S., 



Dalrymple and Headen ; Quarter-back, 
Campbell ; Half-backs: Graham, G., and 
Gilliam ; Full-back, Love. 

Referee, H. B. Shaw, of the University ; 
Umpire, Frank Jones, of Trinity College. 

In the first part of the game, Headen 
wrenched his knee so as to disqualify him, 
and Howell, L., was substituted. 

It was seen in the beginning that Trinity 
was sure to beat. It was thirty minutes, 
however, before they made their first touch- 
down by Durham, S. The next was made 
by Daniels. They secured goals from both 
these touch-downs. The third and last 
touch-down was made by Crowell, but they 
missed the goal. Graham narrowly missed 
the goal by a field kick, and came within five 
yards of making a touch-down. Both he and 
Little made some fine runs, but the final 
score remained 16 to o. 

Our men have taken the defeat philosoph- 
ically and good naturedly, as they should. 
They will endeavor to profit by the lessons 
taught by this game. The only excuse our 
men can give is that Trinity's was a better 
team. Let us see why they beat : In the first 
place, they were better organized, had prac- 
tised systematically, and worked together 
better. They were more familiar with the 

tricks of the game. Their half-backs, Rah- 
ders and Daniels, were the fastest runners in 
the game. They perhaps did better block- 
ing than the University team. Our men 
tackled better, and had as good or better 
wind. They improved much during the 
game. Their playing was decidedly better 
during the second than during the first half, 
and they kept the ball in Trinity's territory 
most of the time then. Let our team, then, 
be stimulated to more systematic practice and 
cooperation in play. They have been intrust, 
ing the success of a game too much to one 

There is no occasion for despondency. In 
the first game between Harvard and Yale, 
Yale was beaten all over the field. That was 
the last time, and Yale has suffered only one 
defeat since, in seven years. Let us hope 
this game is a good omen for us. 

The best all-round player in the game was 
Geo. Graham ; though from what the Trin- 
ity fellows say, their Captain Johnston is 
probably nearly as good. We have never 
seen better runners than their half-backs. 
Their goal keeper, Sharpe, did good service 
on several occasions. Of our men, Graham, 
Bragaw and Little deserve credit for their 
tackling. Both clubs had good captains. 


Concerning a Modest Maid. 

She seems to blush, when, in the dance 

I touch her fingertips; 
Her voice so modest, — she so shy — 

I long to touch her lips ! 

'Tis o'er: — I to the garden slip; 

There, seated near a tree, 
I muse what angels women are, 

'Mongst sinners such as we. 

It seems — but, from the arbor comes 

A tone I surely know ? 
It is that selfsame modest voice : 

" Don't, Jack, you tickle so ! " 

— Record. 

It Was Not Meet. 

We were riding one day in the country, 

My Helen and I all alone ; 
And the silence was getting oppressive, 

As our pokey old horse jogged on. 
By way of breaking that silence, 

" How few people we meet," I said; 
Then I knew that she had an idea, 

For her face grew terribly red ; 
And I nestled a little bit nearer, 

And I listened as hard as I could. 
While she said with copious blushes, 

"Do you think it is meet that we should ?' 
— The Yale Record. 



The Present Moment. 

The present moment is our wealth in hand; 

The past is dead, the future yet to come. 
Within the glass of time each single sand, 

Fallen, adds another to the total sum 
Of minutes gone before. Oh, with what grand 

Painstaking sageness thou shouldst direct 
The fateful atoms as they downward run! 

Their aggregate must make the final add 
Of thy exploits, however bright or sad. 

— The Owl. 


Still life — among the moonshiners. 
A dentist lives from hand to mouth. 
"Are sulphur springs good places for match- 
making?" They are. 

The most powerful book in the world is 
the pocket book (provided that it is well 
filled). — Salem {JV. C.) Academy. 

A Sophomore, stuffing for examination, has 
developed the ethics of Sunday work in a way 
to render the further elucidation of the sub- 
ject unnecessary. He reasons that, if a mau 
is justified for trying to help the ass from the 
pit on the Sabbath day, much more would 
the ass be justified in trying to get out him- 
self. — Ex. 

It will be the rule of The Teacher in 
the future to use the title ' Professor ' in an 
educational sense with names of men only 
who occupy a regular chair of instruction 
in the University or some other chartered 
college. We adopt this rule as a matter of 
compliment and justice to the entire brother- 
hood of teachers to whom the title of ' Pro- 
fessor ' has been so indiscriminately applied 
that it means nothing, even to those teachers 
who are entitled to that degree. — The N. C. 
Teacher, for November. 

We heartily commend this rule to all 
papers and people generally. 

To Somebody. 

I've watched the glow, of sunset fade, 

I've watched the shadows fall, 
I've watched the play of light and shade 

O'er earth and sky and all ; 
And know that spirit twilight nears, 

And night, to cover me; 
Still, castles bright my fancy rears 

Whene'er I think of thee. 

The lives we dream in summer days 

Are lives we ne'er can live, 
For we would bask in milder rays 

Than summer suns can give; 
But though the faith of youthful years 

No longer dwells in me, 
Still, casiles bright my fancy rears 

Whene'er I think of thee. 

The flower that buds may live to bloom, 

The fledgling live to sing, 
A hope, a life may long illume, 

And time fruition bring. 
But well I know in earthly years 

Some things may never be; 
Still, castles bright my fancy rears 

When'er I think of thee. 

— The Varsity. 

Stille Liebe — Silent Love. 

From the German. 
Truly loved! yet true love speaks not, 
(Words dissolve its mystic spell,) 
Holiest feeling silence breaks not, 
Signs reveal emotion well. 
Oft the silent tear can thrill us, 
More than words, or music's tone, 
And love's faintest sigh can fill us 
With heart music all his own. 

Warmly loved! my crown and blessing 
Call I thee in faltering tone, 
And the heart to thine now pressing 
Is, dear love, all, all thine own. 
Then forgive that still I break not 
Silent love's o'erpowering spell; 
Holiest feeling I can speak not, 
Signs my deathless love must tell. 

— Texas University. 

Ballade of Compulsory Lectures. 

The burden of attending when we must, — 

The toil of getting up at half-past eight, — 
The breakfast quickly gobbled, a mere crust - 

O curses rest on such an adverse fate ! 

But I can get a snooze at any rate, 
Or else from overwork I might expire, 

Or I can gain a moment coming late ; — 
This is the end of every man's desire. 



The weariness to Passmen, and the bore — 

And what a farce the whole affair must 


Above all, when the lecture comes at four; 

It rudely wakes him from his pleasant 

He seeketh not occasion to redeem 
The error of his ways. lie would admire 

To get his name upon the foot-ball team: — 
This is the end of every man's desire. 
The woe of lectures to the honor man — 
He's down the livelong day from nine to 
Snatching between whiles what fresh air he 
In the entrance hall. Thus he keeps alive. — 
(Compare Macaulay's Essays — that on 
Still, in the race for glory who can tire ? 

He after honors doth intently strive:— 
This is the end of every man's desire. 

l' envoi. 
The burden, and the weariness, and woe — 
I'm placed between Infeino and the fire. 
I really twist get through in May, you know, — 
This is the end of every man's desire. 

— S. Lang, in the Varsity. 

A Rebuff. 

A rustic seat, 

A cool retreat, 

Down where a brooklet flows. 

A maiden fair, 

With pensive air. 

Quite often to it goes. 

I spy her there 

And, in despair, 

Thinking my fate quite sealed; 

I venture on 

Where she has gone. 

To boldness she may yield. 

Presume to kiss 
The dainty miss? 
At least it is no harm. 
A haughty glance 
Checks my advance, 
And I remember that I have an ap- 
pointment with a gentleman at the 
hotel for this very moment. 

— The Dartmouth. 

— Doctor: " Did you take the rhubarb I 
ordered?" Patient: "Yes, sir." Doctor: 
" How did you take it?" Patient: "Inapie." 

Book and Magazine Notices. 

North Ca rolinians will be glad to know 
that Capt. W. R. Bond, of Scotland Neck, 
has written a monograph doing justice to 
General Pettigrew at Gettysburg. It is pub- 
lished by Hall & Sledge, Weldon, N. C., in 
pamphlet form entitled: "Pickett OR Petti- 
grew ? An Historical Essay, by Capt. 
W. R. Pond. Sometime Officer Brigade 
Staff Army Northern Virginia." Price 25 
cents, with a liberal discount to the book 
trade, and we hope every book and news 
dealer will supply himself with it, and every 
North Carolinian read it. We think it will 
go far toward elucidating a disputed point in 

history. Every one who knows anything of 
Gettysburg lias heard of " Pickett's Charge." 
History has given undue praise to Pickett 
and has shamefully slighted the real heroes, 
Pettigrew's Brigade of North Carolinians. 

" The world at large gets its ideas of the 
late war from Northern sources ; Northern 
historians, when the subject is peculiarly 
Southern, from such histories as Pollard's, 
Cook's and McCabe's, and these merely re- 
flected the opinions of the Richmond news- 
papers. These newspapers in turn got their 
supposed facts from their army correspon- 
dents, and they were very careful to have 



only such correspondents as would virile 
what their patrons cared most 10 lead." 

The author quotes from a correspondent of 
the Philadelphia Times, who was a Colonel 
in Pickett's Biigade, showing that for 800 
yards of that celebiated charge they marched 
as safely as if on parade. He presents the 
following statistics : The loss of the British 
infantry at Salamanca was only 12 per cent.; 
that of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, 37 
per cent.; at Gettysburg, Pickett's loss was 
26 or 28 per cent.; the North Carolina Brig- 
ade of Pettigrew's division lost 60 per cent. 
Of one of the regiments of this brigade he 
writes : 

"The 26th North Carolina, with morale 
unimpaired, met with a loss of 85 per cent., 
(Senator Vance was its first Colonel.) 
Whether any other regiment of our army 
could have done this, I know not. But thi s 
I know, that if there was such another in all 
the armies, Northern or Southern, it did not" 

The following shows what opinion General 
Lee had of Pettigrew's Brigade, composed 
of the nth, 26th, 47th, 52d and 44th North 
Carolina : 

" That this brigade had more killed and 
wounded at Gettysburg than any brigade in 
our army ever had in any battle, is not so 
much to its ciedlt as is the fact that, alter 
such appalling losses, it was one of the two 
brigades selected for the rear guard when the 
army recrossed the river." 

Sketches of Prominent Living North 
Carolinians, by Jerome Dowd. Edwards 
& Broughton, Publishers, Raleigh, N. C. 
i6mo. pp. 320. 

This book consists of short b'iographical 
notices of prominent men of this State, poli- 
ticians, lawyers, editors, preachers, educa- 
tors, manufacturers, merchants, farmers and 
a few physicians and soldiers. The sketch of 
Senator Vance contains a considerable portion 
of his excellent speech of December, ] 886, be- 
fore the G. A. R. Post in Boston ; that of 
Capt. Robert P. Waring, a full account of 
his unjust trial and conviction for "inciting 
insurrection in 1865," as an example of car- 
pet-bag rule in this Stale ; that of Mr. J. J. 

Bruner, an interesting description of the old 
Salisbury Watchman of fifty years ago, with 
illustrations of old-timey advertisements. 
There are 147 sketches in all. 

Branson's North Carolina Almanac 
for 1889 is out. Price 10 cents. 

D. C. Heath &Co., have in press Freytag's 
" Die Journalisten" edited with notes, in- 
troduction, etc., by Prof. W. D. Toy, whose 
accurate scholarship and good judgment make 
certain the success of this edition. 

Alfred Williams & Co. will soon pub- 
lish a " Child's History of North Carolina," 
by Mrs. C. P. Spencer. Its appearance will 
give pleasure to old and young, and not least 
to the readers of this Magazine, who have 
long been indebted to Mrs. Spencer for her 
delightful contiibutions to ii ^ pages. 

On Horseback in Virginia, etc., with 
Mexican Notes, by Charles Dudley War- 
ner. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. i6mo., pp. 
331- *i.25. 

This book is an account of a trip on horse- 
back through the mountains of Virginia, 
North Carolina and Tennessee, travels in 
Mexico, and a eulogy of Southern California. 
The Mexican Notes are the most instructive, 
but the account of the ride through the moun- 
tains will be more interesting to the majority 
of readers. It gives the experiences of the 
author and Prof. T. R. Lounsbury, author 
of the History of the English Language, — 
with which our Sophomores are acquainted, — 
in the North Carolina mountains mainly, in 
the summer of 1884. The book is charmingly 
written in Mr. Warner's happiest style, with 
a pleasant humor running through it, and 
human nature revealed in every page. The 
travellers ascended Mt. Mitchell, guided by 
Big Tom Wilson, who is faithfully por- 
trayed. The description of Dr. Mitchell's 
death, burial and grave, though short, is 
good. The monument to Dr. Mitchell on 
the top of the mountain was erected after 
this visit. 

The Centennial of a Revolution. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. i6mo. 
pp. 171. 

9 o 


This book is an argument against the doc- 
trine of State sovereignty. The author claims 
that September 17, 1887, is the centennial of 
a peaceful '"revolution," when the sover- 
eignty of the independent American States 
was usurped by a higher power then created. 
He holds that when the government was put 
into operation by eleven States ratifying the 
Constitution, "each and every State of the 
thirteen," including North Carolina and 
Rhode Island, " was subject to it." He as- 
serts that our government has been going for 
over one hundred years "under an alias;" 
there is no sense in saying " United States.'' 
The argument is too long for us to attempt 
to follow. It is safe to assume that the book 
will not be relished by any Calhoun Demo- 

Among the books recently added by the 
Faculty to the University Library, is the 
great French Dictionary of Litre. 

It is on one of the tables belonging to the 
"Phi "side of the Library. This valuable 
work is in four large quarto volumes, con- 
taining about 1000 pages each, and a supple- 
ment, substantially and handsomely bound in 

Prefixed to the first volume is a preface of 

39 pages giving an accurate description of the 
plan of the work. Then follows a " Com- 
plement to the preface," which is a brief 
general history of the French Language, 
somtwhat resembling the scholarly " Brief 
History of the English Language" which the 
great Hadley prepared for Webster's Dic- 

The Dictionary is arranged as follows : 
First, after each word is inserted an indica- 
tion of the proper pronunciation. Next fol- 
low the various significations of the word, 
numbered and enforced by many examples. 
Then comes a division called " Remarks," 
under which are placed peculiar or proverbial 
uses of the word in question. After that is 
added an historical paragraph, containing ex- 
amples arranged in chronological order. 
Finally, the etymology is given. 

This Dictionary is invaluable to the ad- 
vanced student of French. Of course it can- 
not claim to *be an absolute and ultimate 
authority on all points of French philology, 
(no book can make such a claim), but it is in 
general a perfectly safe guide and it contains 
a mass of learning and information to be 
found nowhere else. 

The book is an ornament to our Library. 


Haywood Parker, '87, is teaching in the 
Ravenscroft School at Asheville. 

H. F. Murphy, Rep. of '87, is at Mt. 
Vernon, Ga., engaged in selling naval stores. 

W. T. Wiiitsitt, Rep. of '88, is teach- 
ing in Gibsonville, in the place formerly held 
by J. W. Graham, who is completing his 
course here. 

Dr. Wm. B. Phi i.t.i ps, '77, has become 
a member of the firm of Phillips & Clag- 
horn, Engineers, Chemists and Assayers, 
Birmingham, Ala., and is having abundant 
success in his new home. 

" Coon " Little, '86, is in the computing 
department of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey. L. J. Battle, also of '86, is in the 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

Motley says he is going to get President 
Harrison to discharge Pickard and appoint 
some one in his place who will bring a fel- 
low some express occasionally. 

A. Nixon, '81, who has held the office of 
Sheriff of Lincoln county since 1SS3, was 
reelected this time by a handsome majority. 
He testifies his appreciation of THE MAGA- 
ZINE by renewing his subscription. 



R. Grissom, '87, is taking a medical 
course in Philadelphia. 

W. S. Wilkinson, '87, has a school of his 
own in Enfield. He is a popular teacher, 
and is identifying himself with the work in 
more ways than one. 

Dr. Henry B. Nixon, of Perquimans, 
who was here in '78, and who held a fellow- 
ship in Johns Hopkins, has been recently 
elected Professor of Mathematics in Gettys- 
burg College, Pa. 

Prof, of English: "Mr. M., who was 
Goldsmith's father?" M. scratches his head 
and " 'lows" that, to the best of his recol- 
lection,, his name was Goldsmith. (Zero, 
green lights, curtain.) 

" Ajax" Harris, '84, who has had a law 
office in Henderson since '86, was married on 
the 7th of November last to Miss Lee Mitch- 
ell, of Granville county. They will make 
their home in Henderson. 

The Sophs went down to the fair 

To take the " B. B.'s" by the hair; 

But the naughty " B. B.'s" 

Said, "Don't, if you please," 

And knocked the whole scheme in the air. 

'87. The State Chronicle says of Vernon 
W. Long: " There is no man in the State 
who would more efficiently perform the du- 
ties of the position [Engrossing Clerk of the 
House of Representatives], and no man 
more deserving. His paper did excellent 
work in the campaign, and he never flinches 
when party service is required." 

Did anybody ever see so many sportsmen ? 
And did anybody ever see so little dead 
game? Outside of this, there is very little 
done among the students in the way of pe- 
destiianism. To one who is willing to seek 
it, there is an endless variety of natural beauty 
to be found in a radius of two and a half 
miles. There is, at a distance of four and a 
half miles from the college, on New Hope 
creek, near the Oxford road, a series of sand- 
stone formations resembling caves. They are 
of surprising extent and beauty, resembling 
in some places the neighborhood of Watkins 
Glen, in New York. We can testify that 
any one will be amply repaid for atrip there. 

We have to chronicle the death of a be- 
loved and trusted alumnus and former mem- 
ber of the Faculty of this institution. Dr. T. 
W. Harris, of Durham, originally of Chatham 
county. He entered college in 1855, and 
was graduated with first distinction in the 
large class of 1859. Soon after, he went to 
Paris and pursued there the study of medi- 
cine. He then became a captain in the Con- 
federate army and served out his time. In 
1878, he was made Professor of Anatomy and 
Materia Medica in the University, which 
position he resigned in 1886. He has been 
for many years a successful medical prac- 
titioner. A true man, and a noble and blame- 
less life. 

The tennis tournament, beween five frater- 
nities, ending November 10th, resulted in a 
victory for the Zeta Psi. The score was as 
follows, (denoting the excess of serves won 
over those lost by -+-, and excess of serves 
lost over those won by — ): Zeta Psi, Toms 
and Geo. Graham, -f- 14 ; Alpha Tau Omega, 
Little and Miller, -+- I ; Phi Kappa Sigma, 
Gaston Battle and Staton, — 1 ; Delta Kappa 
Epsilon, Eure and Wood, — 6 ; '■ Sigma. 
Alpha Epsilon, Curtis and Shaffner, — 8. 

The class of '89 met Tuesday, November 
13th, and organized with the following officers: 

President. — Login D. Howell, Goldsboro, 
N. C. 

Secretary. — Herbert Clement, Mocksville, 
N. C. 

Orator. — D. J. Currie, Richmond county, 
N. C. 

Poet — Hunter L. Harris, Granville county, 
N. C. 

Historian. — Geo. S. Wills, Greensboro, 
N. C. 

Prophet.— U. R. Eure, Norfolk, Va. 

Marshal. — L~>cy L. Little, Richmond 
county, N. C. 

Well, we were beaten, and beaten fairly, 
and we say — Hurrah for Trinity ! Sixteen 
points to nothing. It's funny, but when 
we'd ask one of the team about it, he'd say — 
"we got beat, but, boys — we had the best 
time!" And then would come into his eyes 
that mellow look which fellows have when 
they talk about a certain class of beings. 

O, don't tell us anything about the Raleigh 
girls. We know them of old. 

9 2 


University Record. 

The Library. — Below is appended a list 
of new books purchased this session by the 
Faculty for the University Library. We un- 
derstand that more are on the way and that 
a few more are slill to be ordered. 

It will be observed that nearly all of these 
are technical reference books of very great 

Under ihe present arrangement, the annual 
contributions made by the Societies are, for 
the most part, books of general literary in- 
terest, and it is very properly the aim of the 
Facully to supply for eich department of the 
University the books that are needed for 
special study. 

Unfortunately, there is very little money 
for this purpose, and the add. lions to the Li- 
brary are made slowly. Here would lie an 
excellent opportunity for a wealthy man to 
make a fruitful investment. 

There is posted in the Library a list similar 
to the one given below, containing also the 
number of the alcove and shelf where each 
book is to be found. These books are also 
recorded in the Society catalogues : 

Recollections of a Minister to France. 2 
vols. E. 13. Washburne. 

Introduction to Homer. R. C. Jebb. 

Electric Lighting. Philip Atkinson, 

Three Cruises of the " Bin he." Alex. 

Ore Deposits. J. A. Phillips. 

Vetus Te stamen turn Grace ( The Septua- 
gint.) 2 vols. Tisehendorf. 

Greek Verbs Veitch. 

Greek Philosophy, Zeller. 

AZneidof Vergil. Conington. 

Odes of Pindar, E. My i- 

Diatrtiigneiism on,/ Magno-crystallic Ac- 
tion. John Tyndall. 

Origin oj Floral Structures. Geo. Henslow. 

The Common Frog, St Geo. Mivart. 

British. Wild Flowers in Relation to In- 
sects. Sir John Lubbock. 

Origin and Metamorphoses of Insects. Sir 
John Lubbock. 

Introduction to the Study of Philosophy. 
J. H. W. Stuckenberg. 

Shakespeare's Othello. Variorum Edition. 
H. H. Fumes';. 

Principles of English Etymology. Skeat. 

Recollections of Forty Years. De Lesseps. 

Dictionnaire de la Langue Francaise. 4 
vols., and Supplement. E. Litre. 

The New Astronomy. Langley. 

Life of Benjamin Peirce. 

Harper's Latin Dictionary. 

Text-Book of Chemistry. Roscoe and 

Narrative and Critical History of Amer- 
ica. Winsor. 

Lists of the accessions to the Dialectic and 
Philanthropic Libraries will be published in 
our next number. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. — 
November 2o;h, iSSS. 

References to Oil in Plutarch, and some of 
his theoiies c jncerning the Moon. Professor 
The University Observatory. Professor Love 

Report on Bac;eriology. Professor W. L. 

Mathematical Fictions. Professor Graves. 

Recalculations of the Atomic Weights. 
Professor Yenable. 

The Secretary reported three additional 
members and seventeen associate members. 
Two hundred and eighty-six books and 
pamphlets had been received since the Sep- 
tember meeting, and there were fourteen new 

December 5th. 18S8. 

Magnetic Variation in North Carolina. 
Professor Gore. 

Progress in Analytical Chemistry. Pro- 
fessor Venable. 

Action of Soil on Superphc sphates (iead 
by title). Dr. II. P.. Battle. 



Chemical Examination of some Species of 
the Genus Ilex (read by title). Professor 

Account of a Paper by Professor Amodeo 
(read by title). Professor Graves. 

The Secretary reported .one hundred and 
seventy-nine books and pamphlets received 
since the last meeting, and nine new ex- 

Shakspere Club. — The second monthly 
meeting of this club was held October 15th. 

Subject : Richard the Third. It was 
treated as follows : 

T. M. Lee : The Richard of Shakspere 
as compared with the Richard of History. 

J. Spottiswoode Taylor: Character of Mar- 
garet of Anjou. 

Professor Winston : Shakspere's treatment 
of Conscience ; while his villains triumph 
over flesh and blood they finally yield them- 
selves to conscience. 

Doctor Hume : The question propounded 
by Lowell, as to the authorship of the play. 
Dr. Hume, with a few vital strokes, con- 
futed Lowell's theory that it is not a Shak- 
sperian work. 

The third monthly meeting was held Nov. 
22d. Continuation of the subject of Richard 
the Third. 

The following side lights were thrown on 
the work : 

Professor Alexander : " The true Tragedie 
oj Richard the Third." 

Geo. S. Wills : Shaksperian Blank verse. 

C. A. Webb : History of Places mentioned 
in the play. 

Doctor Hume : The stage characterization 
of Richard. 

Subject for next meeting : Measure for 

Seminary of Literature and Philology. 

— This Association held its second monthly 
meeting on October 23d. General subject : 
The Historians. Treated as follows : 

President Battle : The Object of History. 

Professor Toy : History as a Science. 

Professor Winston: A Comparison between 

the old time Historians and those of the mod- 
ern Scientific Spirit. 

Doctor Hume : The Genesis of Carlyle's 
French Revolution. 

Professor Alexander : A list of valuable 
Greek Histories. 

The third monthly meeting of the Semi- 
nary was held December 5th. The subject 
was Sacred L iteiature. 

Mr. W. J. Battle read a paper on Mediaeval 
Latin Hymns. 

Professor Toy: Luther's Translation of the 

Rev. Geo. B. Taylor : The Greek Basis 
of the New Testament. 

Dr. Hume : The Real Basis of the Eng- 
lish Bible. 

One of the most interesting meetings yet 

Subject for next meeting : Words, their his- 
tory, variant forms, growth and decay, etc. 

State Historical Society. — Second 
monthly meeting, November 27th. Three 
valuable contributions were made. 

Doctor Mangum: The Salisbury Prison 

Doctor Venable: The Educational Ad- 
vantages of the White and Black Races of 
North Carolina. 

Mr. W. J. Andrews : History of a Por- 
trait of George the Third. 

Y. M. C. A.— Never was this old Uni- 
versity so awakened religiously as it has been 
for tjjie past few weeks. It seemed, during 
the week from November nth to November 
17th, that God's baptism of fire was come 
upon the college, as it came in the Pente- 
costal days; and those who were Christians, 
having the love of God shed abroad in their 
hearts, began to persuade their fellows to be- 
come Christians, and to pray for them con- 
stantly. And see how God blessed us! We 
don't know how it was, but we do know that 
wherein many were blind in sin, now they 
see in the righteousness of Christ, and that 
college life is made purer and nobler than 
ever before. 



During the week, eight meetings were held, 
and in that time, forty-seven (some of whom 
had been once professing Christians,) ex- 
pressed a purpose to lead a Christian life. It 
seemed for a time as though we would have 
the whole college for Christ. 

The membership of the Association is now 
very large. Sixty members have been ad- 
mitted during the present term. 

Enough money has been secured to begin 
work on the new room, for social and other 
purposes, and it should be completed early 
in the spring term. There are at present 
four worker's training classes of about thir- 
teen members each, giving at least two hours 
per week to systematic study of the Bible. 

Several Sunday schools, at some distance 
from the village, are being taught by mem- 
bers of the Association. 

We must send a large delegation to Wil- 
mington in March. 

Four Books Learned in One Reading. 

A Year's Work Done In Ten Days. — 

From the Chaplain of Exeter College and 
Houghton Syriac Prizeman, Oxford : 

Coll. Exon. Oxon., Sept. 1888. 
Dear Sir: — In April, 1885, while thinking 
of taking orders in September, I suddenly 
received notice that my ordination examina- 
tion would be held in a fortnight. I had 
only ten (10) days in which to prepare for the 
Exam. I should recommend a year's prep- 
aration in the case of any one so utterly un- 
prepared as I was; but your System had so 
strengthened my natural memory, that I was 
able to remember and give the gist of any book 
after reading it once. I therefore read Light- 
foot, Proctor, Harold Browne, Mosheim, &c, 
&c, once, and was successful in every one of 
the nine papers. The present Bishop of 
Edinhurg knows the facts. Faithfully yours, 


To Prof. A. Loisette, 237 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 
Perfectly taught by correspondence. Send 
for prospectus. 


Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina. 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

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No. 51. 

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7 46 " 

8 05 " 
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North Carolina Division 

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1045 " 

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Between Chapel Hill and University 
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No. 4. No. 2. 

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No. 3 



Gen. Pats. Agt. 





The Weekly News and Observer is a long 
ways the best paper ever published in 
North Carolina. It is a credit to the 
people and to the State. The people should 
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family. It is an eight page paper, chuck 
full of the best sort of reading matter, 
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Old Series, Vol, XXI. No. 3. New Series, Vol. VIII. 



i\mu f 



- — — -♦•♦ 




— 1 ♦•♦ 



Chief-Justice W. N. H. Smith, with portrait 95 

Blackbeard, the Corsair of Carolina S. B. Weeks 98 

Old Times in Chapel Hill, No. XII: The College Tutor. Mrs. C. P. Spencer 116 

Margaret of Anjou .... J. S. Taylor 124 

The Mocking Bird '. R, L. Uzzell 132 

Editor's Desk : — Portnt of Judge Smith ; The Shakspeare Club Library ; The Univer- 
sity Reading Room 133 

The College World : — News of Other Colleges; North Carolina Colleges and Schools 135 

Clippings from Exchanges 137 

Book Review : The Critical Period of American History 139 

Alumni and other Personals 140 

University Record: — The Holidays; Centennial Celebration; Proceedings of Societies: 
Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Shakespeare Club, Seminary of Literature and 
Philology; Young Men's Christian Association 142 




How KEMP P. BATTLE. LL. D., President, 

Professor of Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law. 


Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. 


Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. 


Professor of Mathematics. 


Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. 


Professor of General and Analytical Chemistry. 


Prtfcssor of Geology and Natural History. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 

Hon. JOHN MANNING, A. M., LL. D.. 

Professor of Law. 

Rev. THOMAS HUME. Jr.. M. A.. D. D., 

Professor of the English Language and Literature. 


Professor of Modern Languages. 


Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 

Associate Professor of Mathematics. 


S. C. UK AG AW. f Librarians - 

Professor GORE, Registrar. 

Professor LOVE, Secretary. 

W. T. PATTERSON, Bursar. 

Instruction is offered in three regular courses of study. Special and optional courses are 
provided in Mineralogy, Chemistry and other sciences relating to Agriculture. School 
of Law fully organized. The sessions begin the last Thursday in August and c\u\ the 
first Thursday in June, with a vacation of about one week at Christmas, 

Tor catalogues or other information, address 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 




iversity Magazine. 


Old Series, Vol XXI CHAPEL HILL, N. C. NO. 3. 

New Series, Vol VIII. J 


Hunter L. Harris, Wm. Jas. Battle, 

Logan D. Howell. Walter M. Hammond. 


William Nathan Harrell Smith, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court 
of North Carolina, was born in the town of Murfreesboro, in this State, 
on the 24th of September, 1812. His father was William L. Smith, 
a native of Lyme, Connecticut, who, having graduated at Yale College 
in the year 1802, studied medicine, moved to Hertford county, mar- 
ried there in 1810, and died in 1813. His mother was Ann Harrell, of 
the well known family of that name in Hertford county. 

After graduating at Yale College in the year 1834, Mr. Smith re- 
mained at his alma mater and studied law at the Yale Law School, 
after which he obtained license to practise in the courts of this State, 
and settled in his native place, where he continued in extensive prac- 
tice until March, 1870, when he removed to Norfolk, Va., without, 
however, abandoning his business before the North Carolina courts. 
Two years were sufficient to satisfy Mr. Smith that there was no place 
like home, and he accordingly returned to North Carolina to spend 
the remainder of his days, since which time he has been a resident of 
the city of Raleigh. 

The only position, in the line of his profession, held by Mr. Smith, 
previous to his elevation to the Supreme bench, was that of Solicitor 


for the State in the first Judicial District, then composed of ten 
counties in the northeastern portion of the State, to which he was first 
elected by the General Assembly at the session held in the winter of 
i848-'49. This office he held for four years, when he was again elected 
by the General Assembly for a similar term. Though often in poli- 
tics, Mr. Smith's best energies were devoted to the law. He was not 
only a finished and powerful advocate, but a master of the manifold 
intricacies belonging to the old system of pleading. He possessed a 
mind of great discrimination and admirable balance. Cool, sagacious, 
determined, he early became a most formidable opponent in the con- 
duct of legal causes. 

In political life Mr. Smith at times took an active part, and fre- 
quently held public stations. He belonged to the school of politicians 
known as Old Line Whigs. In 1840 he was elected to the House of 
Commons, as it was then called, and in 1848 was elected to the Senate 
from his native county. In 1857 he was the candidate of the Whig 
party for Congress in his district, but was defeated, though only by a 
small majority. In 1859 he was renominated and triumphantly elected. 
By this time sectional feeling between the North and South had be- 
come so strong that the old party lines were well nigh broken down. 
Upon the meeting of Congress a protracted struggle ensued in the 
House of Representatives. Neither the Democrats nor Republicans 
had a clear majority, and a small band of Old Line Whigs and Know 
Nothings held the balance of power. Mr. Smith was selected by the 
Southern Representatives as their candidate for Speaker of the House. 
After a long struggle and many weeks of tedious ballotings, in which 
he lacked only one vote of an election, he was defeated by Mr. Pen- 
nington, of New Jersey. He remained in the House until the close 
of the session, and was present at the inauguration of Lincoln. Re- 
suming his seat with the other Southern members, he was at once 
elected to the Confederate Congress, and continued a member of 
that body during its entire existence. 

In 1865 he was once more elected to the House of Commons, and 
took part in the reconstruction of the State under the plan of Presi- 
dent Johnson. The General Assembly of that year contained a very 
unusual amount of talent and ability, and was of more importance 
than any which had met in eighty-nine years. This body was to re- 
model our statutes and fit them for the altered condition of Southern 
society. In this work Mr. Smith was the leader. His first proposition 

HON. W. N. H. SMITH. 97 

which became law was to enable persons of color to testify in the 
courts and other legal proceedings. Previously they had only been 
allowed to become witnesses for or against persons of their own color. 
The other great legal change was the adoption by North Carolina of 
Lord Denman's act, by which parties to civil suits could be heard as 
witnesses at the trial; and for this, too, the praise is due Judge Smith. 

One of the most famous causes in which Mr. Smith ever took part, 
was the celebrated trial of the impeachment of Governor Holden, 
which took place in the winter of iSjCh-'ji before the Senate, sitting 
as a High Court of Impeachment, and presided over by Chief Justice 
Pearson. On this trial Mr. Smith, though a life long political oppo- 
nent, was selected by the Governor as one of his counsel, along with 
Messrs. R. C. Badger, J. M. McCorkle, Nathaniel Boyden and Edward 
Conigland. He was to lead in the defence against the astute manage- 
ment of ex-Governor Bragg, and to increase an already great reputa- 
tion. He made the closing argument for the defence, and throughout 
the whole trial, displayed an ability and legal learning that stamped 
him as one of the greatest lawyers, and one of the most acute and 
logical reasoners in his profession in the country. His closing speech 
made a pamphlet of over seventy pages. 

Under the act of Congress of February 17th, 1873, his political dis- 
abilities were removed, there being but one other person in the State 
to whom that act applied. He received the honorary degree of Doctor 
of Laws from Wake Forest College, in 1873, from the University of 
North Carolina in 1875, and again from Yale College in 1881. 

In January, 1878, he was appointed by Governor Vance, Chief Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina, to fill the vacancy caused 
by the death of Chief Justice Pearson ; and at the expiration of that 
appointment, was nominated for the same position by the State Dem- 
cratic Convention, and afterwards elected. In 1886, he was again 
nominated and re-elected. 

On the 14th of January, 1839, J uc ^ge Smith married Miss Mary 
Olivia Wise, of Murfreesboro. They have had three children, of whom 
two survive : William W., a general insurance agent, and Edward C, a 
rising lawyer and politician residing in Raleigh. 

The opinions of Chief Justice Smith will be found in the Reports of 
the Supreme Court of North Carolina from Vol. 78 to 100 inclusive, 
embracing a period of eleven years. 


These were formative years in the judicial history of the State, and 
this august tribunal has had many important and delicate questions of 
constitutional law to pass on, as well as to settle and define the lia- 
bility of corporations for their contracts and torts ; and while all may 
not agree with the conclusions reached in every case, yet the profes- 
sion cheerfully concedes that, in the large majority of cases, the de- 
cisions of the Court are correct, founded on right principles and sus- 
tained by precedent and authority, and will command the respect of 
the bar. 

Judge Smith can confidently rest his reputation as a jurist upon 
these North Carolina Reports, and the opinions delivered by him make 
a fitting crown to his long, laborious and useful life. His wonderful 
capacity for labor, for with him " labor ipse est voluptas "; his accurate 
scholarship, and his thorough knowledge of the law make him an able 
Judge — while his genial temper and fine conversational powers attract 
those whose good fortune it is to enjoy his company. 

He could not well be spared from the Bench of which he has, so long 
been the ornament. 


A Paper read before the North Carolina Historical Society at Chapel Hill, 
September 19, 1888, by Stephen B. Weeks 

During the closing years of the seventeenth century, pirates and 
buccaneers became all the fashion. Privateering had long been fos- 
tered and cherished by the English sovereigns. One hundred years 
before the date of which we are writing, England and Spain had been 
striving for the mastery — Protestantism on the one hand, Roman 
Catholicism on the other. Spain had almost sole control of the New 
World. She was all powerful in the Old. She controlled not only the 
Iberian peninsula, but the Netherlands, a large part of Italy and the 
circumjacent islands. Her influence was paramount at the court of 
Vienna, and her language was the speech of the gentleman and the 
envoy. To c ppose and counteract this mighty influence, the English 
government, during the reign of Elizabeth, was constrained to com- 


mission privateers, who were destined to act against the one enemy of 
their race and religion in the Spanish main. Westward, Ho ! became 
then the cry of adventurous seamen, and many a great galleon struck 
her colors to the flag of England. The gold of Mexico and Peru 
fell from Spanish into English hands, and hardly a city was there, from 
St. Augustine to Cape Horn, that escaped a visit from a Drake, a 
Hawkins, or a Raleigh. The power of Spain was broken on the defeat 
of the Armada, but privateering was now a paying business and 
continued to flourish, and the profession of the English, under another 
name, was assumed before many years by another race. 

Early in the seventeenth century, French adventurers, setting out 
from St. Christopher, landed on the island of Hispaniola, the Hayti of 
our day, and found there vast herds of wild cattle, horses and swine. 
Vessels were always in want of food on their homeward voyage, 
and meat was now at a premium in the Spanish West Indies. The 
Frenchmen determined to avail themselves of the market thus thrown 
in their way. They landed and began to slaughter the cattle and 
" buccaneer " the meat. At first, the Spanish settlers thought nothing 
of a few wild Frenchmen on the island, but as their numbers contin- 
ually increased, they complained, and Spanish soldiers were sent to 
drive the French away or destroy them. This caused the latter to 
unite for mutual protection, and about 1630 they firmly established 
themselves on Tortuga, a little island north of Hispaniola, and separa- 
ted from it by a channel five or six miles wide. From this island there 
poured forth for three-quarters of a century lust and murder and arson, 
and all other crimes and enormities that ever blackened the record of 
man, or were hatched in the hot-beds of the bottomless pit. The 
primary object of the buccaneers in coalition was self-defense ; but, 
just as all other irresponsible organizations, they went too far. They 
tired of the lawful business of drying meat for market, and took to 
plundering Spanish ships instead. Commerce before long was driven 
from the Spanish main, and then they took to plundering towns as 
well as ships. Their great leaders, L' Olonoise and Henry Morgan, 
with picked crews of the rags and tags of every nation, white, black, 
red, brown and yellow, captured and sacked Maracaibo, Gibraltar, 
Porto Bello, Puerto del Principe, and finally took, and after having 
plundered it of $1,500,000, burned the great city of Panama itself. 

Henry Morgan, the Welsh farmer boy, and the greatest of all the 


buccaneers, then settled down in Jamaica to the enjoyment of his ill- 
gotten treasure, honored by all, rendered famous by his deeds, made 
governor of his island home and finally knighted by his king, that 
most worthless scion of a luckless race, Charles II. With Sir Henry, 
the buccaneers reached the acme of their fame, and from that time 
began to decline.* 

Edward Teach, or Tache, or Thatch, or Theach, as the name was 
variously spelled, was born in Bristol. During a part of Queen Anne's 
war against France and Spain, he served in a privateer fitted out in 
Jamaica, and distinguished himself for his intrepidity and courage.f 
In 1706 he joined Benjamin Hornigold, or Homsgold, a pirate, per- 
haps nothing more than another privateer, and went with him on a 
cruise between the island of Providence and the continent. They 
captured a sloop, of which Hornigold gave him command. Soon after, 
he took with her a French Guineaman bound to Martinico. He put 
forty guns on board, christened her Queen Anne's Revenge, and went 
on a cruise, with the sloop as a tender, to South America and the 
Canaries, f 

Thus far, it seems all his known efforts have been directed against 
his hereditary enemies, and the name of his vessel tends to confirms 
us in this belief. Up to this time there is no proof that he has been 
a pirate. He has done nothing more than Drake and Hawkins have done 
before him. 

The treaty of Utrecht was signed April 11, 1713. By this treaty 
the long war over the Spanish succession was brought to a close, peace 
reigned, and Teach and company were without employment. His 
crew is made up of lazy and dissolute fellows; they must make a 
living ; they are accustomed to the sea ; they have had experience and 
learned skill from privateering ; and the business most like that of 
which they arc enamored is to go a-pirating. Moreover, France and 
Spain are exhausted by long and continued wars ; rich treasures are 
to be secured from Spanish ships in the shape of pearls, jewels and gold 
almost for the asking; the American coast is large, there are few 
vessels of war in its waters, and the places for harbor, defense and 
hiding are very numerous ; the power of England is far distant, and 
that power will not trouble itself much to weaken those engaged in a 

♦Buccaneers and Marooncrs of the Spanish Main. 
fMartin, 1—285. 


crusade against their ancient foes. This was perhaps the view of the 
situation held by Captain Teach and his crew, and by which he justified 
his action. And perhaps he never heard of the treaty, and went on 
in his old-fashioned way, as others have done since his time. It was 
with him, moreover, a kind of religious duty to plunder the ships of 
Spain, and when the hideous black flag has been flung to the breeze, 
and his hands have been once more dyed in blood, it is no longer diffi- 
cult for him to plunder the English as well as the natives of France 
and Spain. 

Under this kind of reasoning, piracies became so frequent, and their 
perpetrators so numerous and daring, that in 171 7 George I. proclaimed 
pardon to all pirates who would accept the king's mercy within a year. 
This was considered the easiest, surest and least expensive way of 
getting rid of a dangerous class of marauders, and bringing them back 
into the pale of civilization and citizenship. Master Teach was at the 
Canaries when he heard of the proclamation, but never a bit did he 
surrender. He now commanded a small fleet, consisting of a 40-gun 
ship with 140 men*, and six sloops — Stede Bonnet, Charles Vane and 
Richard Worley being his lieutenants. They left the Canaries and 
worked for a while in the Spanish main.* In the bay of Honduras 
he captured the Protestant Ccesar. He burned her and a sloop with 
her because they were from Boston, where some men had been hanged 
for piracy. He captured twenty-eight vessels in little more than a 
month*, and in May, 171 8, the famous freebooter appeared off Charles- 
ton harbor. He lay to and overhauled all vessels he met. Among his 
prisoners was Samuel Wragg, a member of the Provincial Council of 
South Carolina, a Mr. Marks and thirteen negroes. He plundered the 
vessels of about ;£ 1,500 in gold and pieces of eight ; completely de- 
stroyed the commerce of the place, "and after that, they had the 
most unheard-of Impudence to send up one Richards, and two or three 
more of the pirates with the said Mr. Marks, with a message to the 
Government, to demand a Chest of Medicines of the value of Three 
or Four Hundred Pounds, and to send them back with the Medicines, 
without offering any violence to them, or otherwise they would send 
in the Heads of Mr. Wragg and all those prisoners they had on board, 
and Richards, and two or three more of. the Pirates, walked upon the 

*State Trials, 6 — 162 ; 6 — 163 ; 6 — 163. 


Bay, and in our public Streets, to and fro in the Face of all the People, 
waiting for the Governor's Answer. And the Government, for the 
Preservation of the Lives of the Gentlemen they had taken, were 
forced to yield to their Demands." Thus wails Richard Allen, Esq., 
the King's Attorney General, at the trial of Bonnet and his crew.* 

This effrontery exasperated the good folk of Charleston. They 
fitted out two sloops and gave the command to Col. Wm. Rhett and 
Governor Johnson. They pursued Bonnet and Worley into the Cape 
Fear River, and owing to superior skill and bravery captured them. 
All the crew of VVorley's six-gun sloop were killed, except two; these, 
Worley and one more, surrendered. They were tried and immediately 
executed lest they should die of their wounds. f Bonnet and his 
crew were taken to Charleston, tried, and twenty-two executed. Bon- 
net escaped, but was retaken and executed December 10, 1 7 18.^; He 
was a man of letters and had been a Major in the British army. 

Teach, in the meantime, having gained betwen seven and eight 
thousand dollars, and having declined the king's pardon, which was 
offered him by the Governor of South Carolina, bade the people of 
Charleston farewell and sailed merrily away to North Carolina. Then 
he, as many others had done, began to cudgel his brains for means to 
cheat his followers out of their share of the spoils. At Topsail Inlet 
he ran his own vessel aground as if by accident. Hands, the captain 
of one of the consorts, pretending to come to his assistance, also 
grounded his sloop. Nothing now remained but for those who were 
able to get away in the other craft, all that was now left of the little 
fleet. Blackbeard and some forty of his favorites secured the sloop 
and sailed away, leaving their companions on the sand to await their 
return in vain. But still the pirate had too many to share his treasure, 
so he marooned seventeen more on a sand-bank, and went up to Eden 
House and surrendered to Charles Eden, Esq., Governor of North 
Carolina, and was allowed to take the oath of allegiance. •[ 

A part of the crew dispersed, some going to Pennsylvania and New 
York, while "others betaking themselves to their former villainies, 
under the command of Major Bonnet Thatch, with about twenty more 

♦State Trials, vol. 6 — 162. 

fHewit's South Carolina and Georgia, p. 210. 

instate Trials, vol. 6. 

'iPyle, State Trials, Colonial Records. 


remained in North Carolina, and kept one of the sloops, pretending 
to employ themselves in trade."* 

This Bonnet Thatch mentioned by Governor Spotswood is evidently 
Edward Teach. This may have been a nickname given him because 
of some physical deformity, or possibly because of his relations with 
Stede Bonnet. The same letter states that Bonnet Thatch was killed 
at Ocracoke Inlet. Teach was idle and lazy. When on shore he 
spent his time in gambling, drinking and debauchery, having recently 
married a sixteen-year-old girl as his thirteenth wife,f and in a short 
while was penniless again. His mind, moreover, weighed down by its 
terrible load of guilt and crime, could find no rest in calm reflection, 
and must seek distraction in confusion worse confounded. Having 
spent some time on Pamlico, he enlisted a picked crew of some twenty 
scoundrels and cleared for the island of St. Thomas as a common 

He set sail in the sloop Adventure. In a few weeks he returned, 
bringing with him a French ship laden with sugar, coffee, cocoa, and 
similar goods. He and four of his men made a solemn affidavit before 
Tobias Knight, who was the Collector of Customs for the town of 
Bath, that they had found this ship adrift at sea, deserted and without 
papers. The ship and cargo were condemned as a lawful prize, and 
the ex-pirate was allowed to land his goods, while Knight kindly stowed 
twenty barrels of sugar and two bags of coffee in his own barn for safe- 

From depositions made by Hesekias Hands and four others before 
the Admiralty Court held in Williamsburg, Virginia, on March 12, 
1719, for the trial of a part of Teach's crew, it appeared that Teach, 
on August 22, 1718, fell in with, to the eastward of the Bermudas, 
two French ships, one loaded with sugar, cocoa and similar goods, 
the other in ballast. Teach put the crew of the laden vessel on board 
of the one in ballast and brought his prize to Carolina. He unloaded 
her and then burned her as leaky and unseaworthy. 

The oath of Teach was accepted without hesitation by Governor 
Eden and Secretary Knight, and there are those who say sixty hogs- 
heads of sugar to the former, and twenty to the latter, was the price 

*Colonial Records, 2 — 325. 

f Martin says thirteenth, Abbott and others say fourteenth, that the ceremony was per- 
formed by Governor Eden himself, and that twelve of his former wives were still living. 


of their acquiescence. However the authorities might view the trans- 
action, the people were disposed to view it as a piratical venture. 
They had suffered from the depredations of the outlaw before. They 
had seen the carelessness, supineness and criminal indifference of the 
government to Teach and his cut-throats on former occasions, and a 
secret application for aid was soon sent to Governor Spotswood of 

Teach, now considering himself safe under the aegis of the Governor 
and his Secretary, hove his ship down at the place since known as 
Teach's Hole, near Ocracoke Inlet, for the purpose of cleaning her 
bottom and refitting. When this was done, he remained in the vicinity 
trading with the planters and passing vessels, and at times was very 
courteous, presenting his neighbors with sugar and rum ; but his heavy 
contributions occasionally levied, and his total want of honesty in 
trade, soon excited the hostility and unrelenting hatred of all. 

The Virginia Governor was, in the meantime, preparing an expedi- 
tion as secretly as possible. One hundred pounds sterling was offered 
for Teach, dead or alive, by the Virginia Assembly ; ^40 for every 
other commander of a pirate ship; .£13 for each of his officers, and 
£$ for each of his men.* 

Captain Ellis Brand, of H. B. M. ship Lyme, was then commanding 
in the Virginia waters. He fitted out two sloops to hunt the pirate, 
and gave command to Robert Maynard, a lieutenant in the royal navy. 

The little squadron left its moorings in Hampton Roads, November 
17, 171S, and on the evening of the 21st passed through Ocracoke 
Inlet. Here they found the enemy, who had been apprised of their 
movements and was now ready to play his part in this, his last great 
game of hazard. Because of the shallow water, Maynard was forced 
to come to anchor and wait for the morning. Teach sat up all night, 
drinking deep and long, to fortify his spirits and increase his despera- 
tion. On the morning of November 22, Lieutenant Maynard sailed 
toward the pirate craft, and in so doing received her broadside. He 
then stood directly for her, endeavoring to make a running fight. At 
this critical juncture his sloop ran aground. Teach leaped upon the 
round-house, drank a glass of liquor to the two captains, and cried 
damnation on him that asked for quarter. 

The Adventure was armed with eight guns, and poured in a terribly 

♦This proclamation is dated at Williamsburg, Nov, 24, 1718, and is signed by Governor 


raking fire on her adversary, cutting down twenty men at a single 
broadside, while Maynard could reply with only two forward guns. 
All seemed lost, when Maynard suddenly ordered his men below, but 
to be ready, on signal, for boarders and fighting hand to hand. The 
ruse succeeded. Teach saw the decks deserted and ordered his men 
to board. They boarded, and were met face to face and hilt to hilt 
by the British regulars. The two chiefs rushed at each other with the 
fury of madness and discharged their pistols. Teach was shot through 
the body, but noticed it not. They drew their cutlasses and the 
sword-play was quick and sharp. The crews were as closely engaged, 
and soon the vessel was a crowded charnel house. Nine of the seven- 
teen (Martin says fourteen,) boarders fell, and with them fell Edward 
Teach, the Corsair of Carolina.* Maynard turned his attention to 
the pirate sloop, which discharged one more broadside. When this 
fire was returned, her commanding officer fell. Teach had stationed 
a gigantic negro at the powder magazine, a lighted torch in his hand 
and instructions to blow her up as soon as boarded. He, faithful to 
the master, now no more, could hardly be restrained from his purpose 
even when the rest of the crew had surrendered. He, too, in a nobler 
cause, had been worthy of an immortal song. The body of Teach 
was found covered with wounds. Villain and robber as he was, he had 
fought with an energy and desperation worthy of a better fate. Had 
he remained in the paths of peace, he might have received high honors 
from his king. " The way of the transgressor is hard." 

Maynard sailed up to Bath town for rest and refreshment, the head 
of the pirate fixed to the bowsprit of his vessel. He had lost twelve 
men killed and twenty-two wounded. f The pirate had nine killed, 
while nine more were made prisoners.;}: These were carried to Virginia, 
tried, condemned and executed.^ 

Lieutenant Maynard, after resting a few days at Bath town secured 
all plunder belonging to the pirates, including the goods stored in 

* Abbott says Maynard's sword broke in the fight; that Teach was cut in the neck from 
behind and shot at the same time by Maynard. But he is not trustworthy, for he says further 
on that Governor Eden was so terrified by the capture of the pirate and the danger of the 
discovery of his own complicity, that he sickened and died in a few days, when, in reality, he 
lived until March 26, 1722. 

fColonial Records of North Carolina, 2 — 326. 

^Colonial Records of North Carolina, 2 — 325. 

^[Campbell says thirteen of his crew were tried and executed. It seems Hands, by plead- 
ing that the King's pardon had been prolonged, escaped. Johnson's Lives. 


Knight's barn, and with them returned to Virginia, the gory head of 
the fallen chief still at his bowsprit. The goods were condemned by 
a court of Vice-Admiralty, and being of a perishable nature, were sold 
at public auction bringing 447 ounces Spanish gold, making in the 
currency of this country, at £$ per ounce, £2, 235. From this the ex- 
penses of the expedition, the transportation from Carolina and the 
cost of sale having been deducted, the remainder was held subject to 
the King's order.* 

Serious legal complications were now about to arise. The Govern- 
ment of North Carolina suddenly set up a claim to these goods, as 
being taken within the seas of and off the soil of the Lords Proprie- 
tors. When the goods were tried before the Vice-Admiralty Court 
in Williamsburg, the attorney of North Carolina put in a plea of juris- 
diction by the courts of his Province. This was overruled, and he 
threatened to sue Capt. Brand in England for trespass, and make him 
responsible to the Lords Proprietors for all goods taken from the 
pirates. To prevent Capt. Brand from suffering in this emergency, 
Gov. Spotswood remitted the whole sum to England to await the ac- 
tion of the King.f The Government of North Carolina had not 
been active enough or strong enough to suppress the pirates them- 
selves. They had allowed these freebooters to enter the goods at the 
custom house and to store them in the houses of their officers, they 
had even surrendered them peaceably to Capt. Brand, but when they 
are taken out of the Province, the plea of the Lords Proprietors' 
rights is put up ! Valiant Carolinians ! As the world knows, in those 
days one tenth of the booty captured from pirates went to the King 
and the remainder to the captors. 

A Court of Admiralty was held in Williamsburg, Virginia, March 
12, 1719, for the trial of the five negroes, still remaining, who were 
taken on Teach's sloop. It seems the other four prisoners had been 
tried and executed already. During the trial, testimony very damag- 
ing to the character of Knight, was given. 

(1.) Hesekias Hands testified, that when Teach returned to Ocracoke, 
he went with four of the prisoners, Richard Stiles, James Blake, James 
White and Thomas Gates, in a periauger, to Knight's house ; that 
Teach carried him a present of three or four kegs of sweetmeats, some 

♦Colonial Records of North Carolina, 2 — 338. 
■^Colonial Records, vol. 2. 


loaf sugar, a bag of chocolate and some boxes, the contents of which 
they did not know; that they got to Knight's house about 12 or 1 
o'clock at night, and carried up all the goods, except one keg of sweet- 
meats ; that Knight was then at home and Teach stayed with him until 
about an hour before daybreak and then returned. 

(2.) William Bell, merchant, of Currituck precinct, testified that on 
that very night, September 14, he was robbed at Chester's landing 
some three miles below Knight's house, by a white man, who, he has 
since understood, was Teach, of £66 10s. cash, one piece of crape con- 
taining 58 yards, one box of pipes, half a barrel of brandy and several 
other goods, among them a silver cup of remarkable fashion, being 
made to screw in the middle, the upper part resembling a chalice, the 
lower a tumbler, which he learns was found in Teach's sloop after the 
battle. This testimony was essentially corroborated by the pirates on 
trial. Bell said Teach passed him unmolested on the way up and ex- 
pressed the belief that he had obtained information of his money 
while visiting the Secretary. 

(3.) There was produced a letter found on the dead body of the pirate 
and proven to be in the handwriting of Knight: 

Nov. 17th 1718. 
My ffriend 

If this finds you yet in harbor I would have you make the best of your way up as soon as 
possible your affairs will let you I have something more to say to you than at present I 
can write the bearer will tell you the end of oar Indian Warr and Garret can tell you in fact 
what I have to say to you so ref err you in some measure to him 

I really think these three men are heartily sorry at this difference with you and will be 
very willing to ask your pardon if I may advise be ffriends again, its better than falling out 
among your selves 

I expect the Governor this night or tomorrow who I believe would be likewise glad to see 
you before you goe, I have not time to add save my hearty respects to you and am your real 

And Servant 

T. Knight. 

(4.) Capt. Ellis Brand declared that, having received information of the 
goods stored in Knight's barn, he asked him for the same, as they 
were a part of the cargo taken from the French ship. Knight, with 
many asseverations, positively denied that any such goods were about 
his plantation, but when the matter was urged home to him on the 
next day, and when Brand told him of the proofs he could bring by the 


persons concerned in the landing, and by the memorandum found in 
Teach's pocket book, Knight confessed, and the goods were found in 
his barn, covered with fodder. 

From these depositions, it seemed to the Virginia court that Mr. 
Tobias Knight, Secretary for the province of Carolina, had given just 
reasons to be suspected of being privy to the piracies of Teach and 
accessory to the same. A copy of the evidence was therefore trans- 
mitted to the Governor of North Carolina, that he might have the said 
Knight arrested and tried according to law. Knight was furnished 
with a copy of the charges. May 27, 17 19, was the day, and the house 
of " ffred Jones, Esq.," in Chowan, was the place for the trial. 

Against these charges, T. Knight, Esq., " humbly remonstrateth," 
as follows : 

(1.) That Hesekias Hands swears positively that Teach went from 
Ocracoke to his house with a present, while he at the same time 
acknowledges that he was at the Inlet thirty leagues away ; that Hands 
had been lying in prison under the terrors of death for some time 
before giving his evidence, and there appears in the evidence more of 
art, malice and design than of truth ; that as to the next four witnesses, 
they are utterly false, and " Ought not to be taken against him, for 
that they are no other than four Negro Slaves, which, by the Laws 
and customs of all America, Aught not to be Examined as Evidence, 
neither is their Evidence of any Validity against any White person 
whatsoever, and further that the s d Negroes at the time of their giving 
the pretended Evidence afs d (as the s d Tobias Knight is informed) was 
upon Tryal for their own lives for the supposed piracy by them com- 
mitted on Board the s d Thache, and that what they did then say was 
in hopes of obtaining mercy tho' they were then Condemned and since 
Executed, so that had they been never so Lawfull Evidences the s d 
Tobias Knights debarred from his right and benefit of an Examination 
of them." 

(2.) That the testimony of Wm. Bell can affect him only in that it 
"cunningly suggests " that Teach was at Knight's house; that Bell at 
the time the robbery was committed suspected other persons, and has, 
since his depositions were taken before the Virginia court, expressed 
himself so. 

(3.) That Brand's evidence is not on oath and therefore not to be 
taken, and he, moreover, in the most solemn manner, declares it to be 


false ; that when he heard Brand intended to send his people to search 
his house, he spoke to Brand and told him that the goods were stored 
there only until a more convenient place could be found for them by 
the Governor ; that Brand made answer, and said some evil-minded 
persons, intimating Mr. Maurice Moore and others, had said some 
spiteful things against him, but that he had always found him very 
ready in the service of the Crown, as became a gentleman. 

(4.) He did write the letter at the Governor's order, but denies there 
was any evil intent in the same ; he believed Teach at that time a free 
subject of the king ; that when Teach and his men came into the 
province and surrendered themselves, he had been confined to his bed 
by sickness for a long time, and during Teach's whole stay in these 
parts he never was able to go off his plantation, nor did Teach, or any 
of his men, frequent his house, except on business with him as Secre- 
tary or Collector of Customs ; nor did any of his family form any 
acquaintance with Teach or his men, or buy anything from them, or 
sell anything to them during their whole stay, except two negro slaves 
purchased for other persons ; that from Teach's departure for St. 
Thomas, he saw nothing of him until September 24, when he came 
and reported the wreck. 

Edmund Chamberlain was sworn and examined. He said he had 
lived at Knight's house since the end of August last ; that on and about 
the 14th of September he never left the house by day or by night, and 
was particularly watchful because of an expected attack from the 
Indians, and he verily believes that nothing could have happened 
about the house, by night or by day, without his knowing it ; that 
Teach came up about September 24 and reported the wreck, and he 
believes Teach had not been there before ; that Knight was very unwell 
just about this time ; he could not get out of the house, nor could he 
have communication with anyone without the hazard of his life ; that 
his own lodging room was very close to that of Knight, and he must 
have known if any one entered it ; that Wm. Bell had been at Knight's 
house on September 14; had been examined by him, and desired a 
" Hue and Cry " after parties other than Teach ; that he knew of no 
presents from Teach to Knight or his family, except a gun worth 40s.; 
that he had since asked the said Bell if he knew of Teach's being at 
Knight's house, and Bell replied by saying that " Tobias Knight was 
a Civil Gent., and his wife a Civil Gentlewoman."* 

*The Colonial Records of North Carolina, volume II, has the whole evidence. 


This is the evidence pro and con, and the venerable fathers of Caro- 
lina in council assembled, and presided over by his Excellency, Gov. 
Eden, " Haveing taken the whole into their serious consideration and 
it appearing to them that the four evidences called by the names of 
James Blake, Richard Stiles, James White and Thomas Gates, were 
actually no other than four negro slaves, and since executed as in the 
remonstrances is set forth and that the other evidences so far as it re- 
late to the s d Tobias Knight are false and malitious, and that he hath 
behaved himself in that and all other affairs wherein he hath been in- 
trusted as becomes a good and faithful officer, and thereupon, it is the 
opinion of this Board that he is not guilty and ought to be acquitted 
of the s d crimes and every of them laid to his charge as afors d *. 

Such was the verdict of the Governor and his council when the Sec- 
retary, Collector of Customs, Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court, 
Member of the Council and Chief Justice of the aforesaid Province 
was brought before them to defend himself against the charge of 
piracy. Tobias Knight was honorably acquitted, but this verdict has 
not been accepted by posterity. Let us examine the evidence: Cham- 
berlain's oath should be suspected, for it was impossible for him to 
have kept such a strict surveillance over Knight's movements without 
special efforts in that direction. The five men testifying against him 
were pirates and on trial for their lives, but their testimony seems to 
be more of the nature of confessions than King's evidence, and Knight 
finally pleads a technicality : that they have been already executed 
and he has not had the right of the accused, a cross-examination. He 
pleads their unreliable character. This may be true, but Knight al- 
lowed men of the same class and members of the same crew to make 
affidavit that the French vessel was a wreck and allowed them to con- 
fiscate her goods to their own use. If they are not allowed to testify 
in the Courts of justice, how can he clear himself of the charge of 
corruption in office as collector of customs ? If these men are allowed 
to swear that goods were found by them abandoned at sea, why are 
they not allowed to swear that a part were presented to Tobias 
Knight Esq r ? The oath of a pirate is as good in one place as in 
another. Knight says the evidence of Wm. Bell is not good because 
he at first suspected some one else of the robbery ! And when his 

*Colonial Records, vol. 2. 


silver cup of " remarkable ffashion " was found in Teach's sloop. This 
goes for nothing towards proving that Teach was the original thief ! 
The evidence of CaptamBrand is convincing ; his character has not been 
questioned ; he could have no object in defaming the Secretary, and, to 
rebut his testimony, Knight brings out a tale flimsy in itself and a flat 
denial Knight says his letter was indited at the command of the 
Governor; and yet a third, and, most likely, irresponsible party can tell 
the recipient more of state affairs than can be entrusted to paper! 
What means the "falling out among yourselves?" What business 
have honest, law-abiding citizens of banding together in time of peace ? 
and why would men of the stamp of Teach write at all? And why 
does a Chief Justice, when addressing a thief, murderer and ^-pirate, 
at least, sign himself, " your real ffriend And Servant "? 

The goods were found in the Secretary's barn ; the letter was 
acknowledged to be his, and these two facts have consigned him to an 
eternity of infamy. At the time, "guilty" was the almost unanimous 
verdict. The people of North Carolina have clung to it for one hun- 
dred and seventy years, and although it compromises the character of 
a Secretary of State and a Governor, they are likely to be of the same 
opinion still to the end of time. 

Governor Eden prepared and laid before the Council a narrative of 
his proceedings in regard to Teach and his crew. This narrative has 
been, unfortunately, lost. On it hung his hope of acquittal, and with 
its loss his name, fame and character sunk into infamy and disgrace. 

Teach gets the name " Blackbeard " from a heard of immoderate 
length and of a very dark hue. This he cultivated and tended with 
great care, adjusting it in such a way as to cause aversion, disgust and 
horror. He was accustomed to twist his mustachios and hang them 
over his ears. In battle, he carried three brace of pistols in holsters 
hung over his shoulders, and lighted matches under his hat, protrud- 
ing from over his ears. No pirate chief could challenge rivalry with 
him in his outrages on humanity. Once, in a drunken ecstacy, while 
seated in his cabin, he took a pistol* in each hand and, cocking 

*There is now in the possession of the North Carolina Historical Society, a pistol with 
dagger attachment, supposed to have been used by one of Teach's crew. The barrel is of 
brass, nine inches long, with a muzzle three-fourths of an inch in diameter, blunderbuss 
fashion, mouth enlarged for scattering bullets. It was evidently intended for use at short 
range, and is an excellent boarding weapon. The hammer is so arranged that when the flint 
becomes dull, it may be sharpened with no danger of an explosion. It was made by Grice, 


them under the table, blew out the lights, and with hands crossed fired 
on each side at his companions, maiming his subordinate, Hands,* for 
life. He frequently personified a demon for the amusement of his 
followers, and on one occasion gratified them with a representation of 
hell, and nearly stifled them all by the fumes of brimstone under the 

Such is the Teach of history; but around this real personage there 
has grown up another and fabulous being, and the former is now fast 
giving place to the latter in the minds of men. 


Teach ranged from Ocracoke Inlet to Holliday's Island, in the 
Chowan River. It is said he buried vast sums of money ; none of it 
has yet been recovered. Many holes may be seen here and there in 
that section, where the metallic rod of the digger has told him of hid- 
den wealth. There they remain, a yawning monument of human folly. 
Teach always buried his treasures at night, and in a strong iron chest 
protected by iron bands. The money was carried to the spot in bags. 
When the pit was ready, Teach cried out in stentorian tones, "Who 
will stay here and watch?" Some bold, fearless rover of the sea 
steps from the ranks and answers, "I will." His head is immediately 
chopped off, and the parts of the body thrown into the chest together ; 
silver and gold are poured in on top, and here the silent watcher still 
lies waiting for the judgment morn, while his restless spirit hovers 
near, terrifying all bold, bad mortals who would come with shovel and 
spade at the dead hour of night to disturb his last lonely resting place. 

or Griee, of London, and was presented to the Society in i83o by J. D. Miller. Extreme 
length with bayonet open, 2o£ inches: length of bayonet from muzzle 6£ inches, handle of 
walnut, works are in good order, springs are strong, ramrod alone is wanting. 

The reasons for believing it a pirate pistol are: 

Teach at one time surrendered to the authorities. His men scattered throughout Eastern 
•Carolina; some settled and became law-abiding citizens. This pistol was found near Kins- 
ton, a section doubtless visited by them; its age and origin unknown. 

A pistol of similar pattern, save that the dagger was attached beneath, instead of at the 
•right side, was taken from pirates in the Mediterranean. 

The perfection of workmin^hip and character of weapon show that it was made for an 
organ zed body. The makers could not have depended on a chance sale alone. 

While the pistol has all the characteristics of a weapon of war, the /Wa/ York Journal of 
Commerce, after having made examination, says it has never been used in the navy of a civ- 
ilized p;ople. It must, therefore, have been made for the buccaneer trade. 

♦Johnson's Lives. 

fGrahame, vol. 2 — 54, 55. 



Teach had thirteen wives, at least. He had three on Symon's Creek 
alone. It is said he married a new one every time he went ashore. 
His name is sometimes called " Bluebeard " by the historians, and the 
fact that he had so many wives and treated them so cruelly, may be 
assigned as one of the many origins of our world-renowned nursery 
tale. I have heard that there are now persons living in Raleigh, who 
claim to be his lineal descendants by his first and lawful wife, whom he 
left when he first went a-pirating. 


When the battle with Brand was over, the head of the dead pirate 
was cut off and the body thrown overboard. Yet his tenacity of life 
was so great that the decapitated trunk swam three times around his 
vessel, striving once more to reach the decks he loved. It is said to 
have been buried at Teach's Hole. 

teach's ship-yard. 

There is a small island, about a quarter of an acre in extent, at the 
mouth of Symon's Creek, a small tributary of Little River, which in 
turn pours into Albemarle Sound and forms the dividing line between 
Pasquotank and Perquimans counties, called Buzzard Island. Teach's 
ship-yard was here, and he himself said the owner of Buzzard Island 
would be the richest man in Carolina. The island rises abruptly out 
of the creek and river, and is above high water. Three large beech 
trees once stood there, forming a triangle. Within this enchanted 
spot, legend says, great hordes of pirate gold were hidden. The whole 
island has been upturned and one of the beeches uprooted in the fruit- 
less search. 


The real name of the pirate was not Teach, but Teekes Commander. 
He was born and reared on Symon's Creek, in Pasquotank county. 
Being of a wild disposition, he ran away when about twenty and went 
to sea. He is said to have had Hocklefield, a colonial worthy o£ 


prominence, as a partner in the nefarious traffic. Intelligent people 
now living in the county claim to be his collateral descendants. Mr. 
Joseph Commander says he is one of these, and that Teach was reared 
on a plantation now owned by him and by his father before ; that as 
many as five hundred holes have been dug on the place looking for 
money, and that the bodies of his own parents have been almost ex- 
humed in the mad greed of gold. 


At one time went to some part of the South Carolina coast to dig 
up a chest he knew to be there. Just as he neared his destination, he 
was taken violently ill. He was removed to a poor man's house and 
cared for in his last hours. Out of gratitude he gave his benefactor 
his papers, and among them was a plat of the place where the buried 
booty lay. The poor man had a son who was wooing a nabob's daugh- 
ter. The aristocrat was opposed to the match. By some means he 
heard of the treasure and went himself to dig for it by night. His 
neighbor discovered his movements, played the hobgoblin role and 
scared the Shylock away. The next day the poor man went to the 
spot, secured the treasure and gave it to his son, who was then allowed 
to marry the rich man's heir, and they lived happily ever after. 


The name Ocracoke is frequently written Ocracock, and got this 
name in this way : Teach had some chickens on board his vessel, and 
among them a fine cock. When going into a battle that was to prove 
successful, the cock would crow lustily and long. As Teach was pre- 
paring to go into the fight with Brand the cock was silent. Teach 
saw his silence ; knew it foreboded him evil, and in the extremity of 
despair cried out, " O crow, cock! O crow, cock ! " 


One chest of Tcach's money, at least, is certainly known to be in 
existence. It is lying in the sand at the mouth of Symon's Creek, 
Teach's old home'; is a square, iron-bound chest, and exceedingly 


heavy. It has been often seen at low tide, and tradition has always 
pointed to it as the resting place of large piratical wealth. Many 
efforts have been made to secure it ; vessels have stayed on the spot 
three weeks at a time; but heaven and hell here always work together 
against human efforts. The wind begins to blow, the tide rises, the 
sky grows dark and dense, thunder roars, lightnings flash, and imps, 
hobgoblins and disembodied souls of the damned come howling and 
shrieking around. Ropes have even been put around the chest and 
one end lifted from the sand, but the end is invariably the same : the 
would-be captors are driven from their prey by direful and subterres- 
trial agencies. 

In these days of whitewashing and rewriting of characters, many a 
man famous for his evil deeds has been proven to be no monster at 
all. Judas Iscariot was an enthusiast, and Henry VIII a gentleman 
and scholar, and poor Captain Kidd has been relegated to the domain 
of semi-respectable people at least ; but not so with Blackbeard ; he 
still remains a ranting, roaring, swaggering, swearing pirate, towering 
high above his brethren of the craft, like some tall mountain peak, in 
the solitude of his grandeur. 


" He left a Corsair's name for other times, 
Linked with one virtue and a thousand crimes." 


Abbott, John S. C, Capt. Kidd and others of the Pirates and Buccaneers. i2mo. New- 

Campbell, Charles, The Colony and Ancient Dominion of Virginia. 8vo. Philadelphia, 
i860., James, LL. D., Colonial History of the United States. 2 vols., 8vo. Phila- 
delphia, 1846. 

Hargrave, Francis, State Trials and Proceedings for High Treason. 11 vols., large 4to. 
London, 1777. 

Hawks, Francis L., D. D., LL. D., History of North Carolina, 1584-1729. 2 vols., 8vo. 
Fayetteville, i857-'s8. 

Hewit, Dr., Historical Account of South Carolina and Georgia. 8vo. London, 1779. 
(In Carroll's Collections.) 

Howison, Robert R., History of Virginia. 2 vols., 8vo. Philadelphia, J846. 

Johnson, Charles, Lives and Actions of Most Noted Highwaymen, Street-robbers and 
Pirates. i2mo. London, 1839. 

Magazine of American History, note on Teach's death in number for September, 1878. 


Martin, Francis Xavier, LL. D., History of North Carolina. 2 vols., 8vo. New 
Orleans, 1829. 

Mooke, John W., History of North Carolina. 2 vols., 8vo. Raleigh, 1880. 

Pyle, Howard, Buccaneers and Marooners of the Spanish Main, Harper's Magazine, 
August and Sep:ember, 1887. 

Saunders, Wm. L., Editor, Colonial Records of North Carolina. 6 vols., 4to. Raleigh, 

Spotswood, Alexander, Official Letters of, now just printed with Introduction and Notes 
by R. A. Brock. 2 vols., 8vo. Richmond, iS82-'8s. (Parts relating to North Carolina 
reprinted in Colonial Records of North Carolina.) 

Wheeler, John Hill, Historical Sketches of North Carolina, 1584-1851. 8vo. Philadel- 
phia, 185 r. 

Williamson, Hugh, LL. D., History of North Carolina. 2 vols., 8vo. Phila'a, 1812. 


No. XII. 


Among the regulations that long prevailed in our Universities, was 
one that seems to have been a relic of monastic days. It was the 
setting apart a class of men among the officials, who were condemned 
to be celibates as long as they retained their office. The Fellowships 
of the English Universities are still under this law, and in this country, 
where all things were modeled from the beginning after the ways of 
the father-land, the College Tutors were forbidden to marry. 

And it is plain why. The monastic notion of isolating a large body 
of scholarly young men in buildings erected for the purpose, where they 
were required to sleep and eat and spend their time, and were sup- 
posed to be more favorably situated for study and moral and intellec- 
tual improvement than if they lived among other men — this system 
necessitated the creation of a body of officials whose duty it should be 
to maintain law and order in the buildings. 

Our College Tutors in the early days, were expected to room in col- 
lege, to live among the students, and to be on hand there day and 
night, and to play the part of a detective police. It was not a pleasant 
position for a young man, and our records show that a year or two 


was the average length of a Tutor's stay. Rev. Dr. Phillips, who is 
the best authority now living for information about the early days of 
the University, tells me that in sixty-eight years they had sixty- 
eight successive Tutors. 

There was something ridiculous attached to the terms of the office. 
No young man likes to go about ticketed " forbidden to marry." And 
time has shown that the seclusion of a cloister is not especially favora- 
ble to the improvement of either morals or manners, however it may 
advantage a man's scholarship. 

Besides, North Carolina took care that no temptations should as- 
sail these young color-bearers or chain carriers of hers, in the field of 
letters, such as might arise from too luxurious living. She doled out 
their pay with no liberal hand, and what with the restrictions, and 
what with the slender emolument, and what with the unpleasantness 
of the office, and what with the sort of contempt that inevitably fell 
upon him who was found willing to grow old in a position made so 
studiously inferior, the bright young fellows who might have stayed on 
and formed in time a strong battalion in the cause of science, fled one 
by one to other ambitions and interests. 

Our Tutors were always chosen from our alumni and were the 
honor-men of their classes, and most of them became distinguished 
in their various vocations in after life. An interesting and valuable 
paper might be made concerning them, and I commend the enterprise 
of writing up their biographies to some of our young book-makers. 

Applying to Dr. Phillips for some of the traditions, or his own 
recollections of this department of former days in Chapel Hill, he kindly 
made out a list of the best known of these University "Fellows," 
some of whom I gladly present here, with such comments and side- 
lights as are in my power. 

Archibald DeB. Murphy leads off in the procession. Tutor, 1798- 
1800, and afterwards Professor of Languages for a short time. He 
turned to the law, and became a Judge of our Superior Court and a 
Trustee of the University. He was a man of brains, a fine writer ; 
something of a schemer in a visionary way. He thought, for instance, 
that a seaport might be made of Haywood, on Deep River. A nota- 
ble man in his day. 

Gavin Hogg, 1808. Became a prominent lawyer and amassed a 


Hon. Lewis Williams, i8io-'i2. Entered political life ; in Congress 
for many years, and known as the " Father of the House." A Trustee, 
and distinguished for good judgment and common sense. 

Rev. Dr. Wm. Hooper, D. D., LL. D., 1810. Professor of Ancient 
Languages here and in Columbia, South Carolina. President of Wake 
Forest College. A fine scholar, writer, preacher; of wide culture and 
refined literary taste. 

Hon. John M. Morehead, 1817. Became a prominent man in law, 
politics and business. Trustee. Governor of North Carolina. First 
•President North Carolina Central Railroad. Cotton manufacturer. 
Popular, wealthy, influential. 

Hon; W. D. Moseley, 1817-18. Went to Florida and became the 
first Governor of that State. Highly esteemed. 

Hamilton C. Jones, 18 18. A popular and noted lawyer and editor. 
Man of wit and genius. 

James H. Otey, i820-'2i. Became Episcopal Bishop of Tennessee. 
Notable and useful in that communion. His name still echoes here 
in " Otey s Retreat" on Morgan Creek. 

Hon. Anderson Mitchell, 182 [-'23. Member of Congress, lawyer, and 
Judge in Superior Court ; an upright man. 

Rev. Jos. H. Saunders, 1821— '25. Became a minister in the Epis- 
copal Church. Died in Florida while doing his duty by his people 
during a season of yellow fever; useful and beloved. Father of our 
present Secretary of State. 

Hon. M. E. Manly, 1825-26. Lawyer, and Judge in our Superior 
and Supreme Courts. 

Edward D. Sims, i825~'27. Afterwards Professor in Randolph- 
Macon College. 

Rev. Thompson Bird, 1 829— '3 1 . An esteemed and useful minister 
of the Presbyterian Church. Went West and grew rich from purchase 
of lands at Fort Des Moines, before the Fort became a city. 

John DeB. Hooper, 1 83 1— '33. Professor in the University ; after- 
wards teacher in various towns in the State, and re-elected professor 
here on the resuscitation of the institution in 1875; a fine scholar, of 
elegant literary culture. 

Hon. Jacob Thompson, 183 1 — 33- Entered political life; Congress- 
man for a number of years; Secretary of War for the Confederacy. 
Went West and died a rich man. His public career severely criticised. 


Giles Mebane, 1832-33. Lawyer, legislator, farmer; an excellent 
citizen. I believe he is still living. 

Abraham F. Morehead, 1835. Died early ; a young man of genius 
and great promise. 

Wm. H. Owen, 1835— '43. Left to become Professor in Wake For- 
est. I remember this gentleman as one of the friends of my early 
youth. He remained a Tutor long enough to acquire old bachelor 
tastes and habits and never married. He was an excellent son and 
brother to a widowed mother and four or five sisters. A good scholar 
and a good man. 

R. H. Graves, i837-'43. Left to accept Professorship in Caldwell 
Institute. Became a prominent teacher in the State. His specialty 
was mathematics, but he was of good general culture, a most useful 
and excellent character. Father of our present Professor Graves. 

Rev. Dr. Charles Phillips, D. D., LL. D., 1844-53. Afterwards 
Professor of Mathematics here and at Davidson College. Re-elected 
to his old chair upon the revival of the University in 1875. This gentle- 
man recalls yet with triumph that he was the first to break the record 
as to the marriage of a college Tutor. He had the temerity to take a 
wife, in the face of all precedent and authority. His insubordination 
was winked at and allowed, and thenceforward the ban was removed, 
and a married Tutor living in the village, like other gentlemen, was no 
longer thought impossible. 

Hon. K. P. Battle, LL. D., i850-'54. Became a leading lawyer; 
Treasurer of North Carolina ; President of railroad ; President of Uni- 
versity, 1876: and long may he remain. 

R. H. Battle, 1854-58. Prominent and successful lawyer. Chair- 
man State Democratic Committee. 

Hon. John W. Graham, i857~'6o. Leading lawyer. 

Thad. C. Coleman, 1856— '58. Civil engineer. 

Wm. L. Alexander, i857-'6o. Killed in the war. 

Robert W. Anderson, 1858-61. Killed in battle. 

Wm. C. Dowd, 1858— '59. Fine promise. Died early. 

E. G. Morrow, 1859-60. Killed at Gettysburg. 

Fred. A. Fetter, 1859— '6r. Went through the war. Teacher since. 

Geo. P. Bryan, 1860-61. Killed in the war. 

Geo. B. Johnston, i86o-'64. A descendant of our Colonial Gov- 
ernor, Gab. Johnston. Died a soldier. 


Iowa Royster, i86o-'64. Killed at Gettysburg. A fine fellow; 
most promising. Killed as he was leading his company into action, 
singing " Dixie." 

The University was closed in 1868 by order of Governor Holden. 
The office of Tutor, or, at any rate, the name, has, I believe, been 
unknown here since the revival. 

It will be seen from the above, that of the eight who were Tutors 
here at or about the beginning of the war, all volunteered in the ser- 
vice of the Confederacy, and seven laid down their young lives for the 

I remember George B. Johnston's sad fate with peculiar interest. 
He had just married a daughter of Dr. Charles Johnson, of Raleigh, 
and the young pair were established in the house now occupied by 
Mr. H. H. Patterson. I saw them in i860 returning their bridal calls, 
so happy, so buoyant. When I returned from Alabama in the winter 
of i86i-'62, he was in the army, and the wife and baby were waiting, 
as many another wife and baby throughout the land waited in those 
sad days. He came once or twice to see them. Then the baby died. 
Then he came home to die of disease contracted in camp, result of a 
wound. He lingered a month or two. Then the young widow re- 
turned to her father's house, and soon we heard that she and a second 
baby were both gone. And so ended that little story, that had opened 
so charmingly. 

I was present accidentally at the unpacking of a box in a neighbor's 
house that had been forwarded from Lee's army, and contained various 
articles belonging to various Chapel Hill soldiers, now sent home to 
their friends. Some of the things had been George Johnston's, and 
among them was a baby's blue silk shoe. None of us who were present 
had ever spoken to George Johnston, but as we tenderly lifted these 
things out, there were some tears shed over that blue shoe. 

These young men, as before said, were all honor-men. They were, of 
course, chosen for their character, ability and proficiency in their several 
departments. As the number of students increased, the number of 
the Faculty kept pace, and the Tutors had their several specialties. 
For more than fifty years a Tutor was expected to hold himself in 
readiness to teach anything demanded, to supplement any depart- 
ment. Latterly, this absurdity disappeared, with others, and we had 
Tutors in all the various branches of science and of language. Their 


position gradually rose to a higher level. There was less of the 
detective required from them. Their opinions were asked and re- 
spected, and their merits were recognized. 

In the list before me are many ministers of the church, men whose 
names are yet revered in their various denominations. Time and space 
forbid to enumerate them all. It is notable how few became Professors 
at their alma mater. 

There was a third class of teachers employed from time to time who 
were called Instructors, being neither Tutors nor Professors, nor having 
even the dignity that doth hedge a teacher who has a share in the 
disciplinary department. They were neither fish, flesh, fowl nor good 
red herring, and kept themselves pretty much to themselves. These 
were the teachers of French and modern languages generally; they 
were commonly Frenchmen, and must have had an unhappy time of it. 
They could seldom learn to pronounce the names of their pupils, and t , 
their calling the class-roll was irresistibly comic. Of course, it became 
the rule when Atkins was called, for Jones to jump up and pretend 
it was he who was meant. One of them appealed to the President for 
protection. He said that the young gentlemen did shoot little black ^ 
balls at him continually. On inquiry, these were found to be chinca- 
pins skillfully directed from all parts of the recitation room. Some 
of these teachers were gentlemen, and some were not. Their stay 
was always brief. 

One of the first of these foreigners was a M. Bourgevin, who came 
here from New Bern. I remember him more especially, as he had a 
room at Dr. Mitchell's and undertook the instruction in French of • 
my father's and Dr. Mitchell's children. He took a good deal of pains 
with us, which we repaid by laughing at him without stint. I think 
our lessons, given in Dr. M.'s parlor, lasted only one winter. My 
brothers used to draw me thither over the snow in a little sled they 
had made, and I was as proud of going to say a French lesson as ever 
Miss Morleena Kenwigs could have been. 

The most accomplished Frenchman we have had here was a M. 
Marey, who was really a gentleman, a highly educated, well-bred and 
handsome man. Among other accomplishments, he was a fine draughts- 
man and painted well in water-colors. I was one of a class to whom 
he taught drawing, and recall him to this day with affection. He 
made a sad end. 


North Carolina young people in those days had a good deal to learn 
on the subject of " manners." To laugh at a foreigner to his face, to 
treat him with obvious disrespect and inattention, was considered 
allowable. Even teachers "native and to the manor born," found it 
hard at times to enforce order in their recitation rooms, and were fre- 
quently (especially if at all unpopular), subjected to indignities outside 
of them. 

We have improved within thirty years. What would be thought 
in college now of the student who should throw a shower of stones 
through the window of a teacher's room at night? Imagine such a 
thing! Yet it was done here in the "forties" over and over again, 
and neither law nor gospel, nor that awful tribunal, public opinion, 
availed to put down or to punish the atrocity. 

The last foreigner employed by the University was a M. Herisse, a 
very handsome, well-varnished and alert member of the Gallic nation. 
He left a year or two before the war, and has since become a man of 
some note in the literary and political world of Paris. 

Peace be with the memories of all those unhappy gentlemen of 
France, who thought to instill some sense of the elegancies of their 
language into the average North Carolina youthful mind, — and failed. 
What barbarians they must have thought us. 

After the melancholy end of M. Marey, it was judged best for a 
time to employ an American teacher of French ; and a young gentle- 
man from New Bern, who had the unusual distinction, as it was felt to 
be in those days, of having spent a year in Paris, was elected to that post. 
This was Mr. Jno. J. Roberts, who afterwards became a useful and es- 
teemed minister of the Episcopal Church. He filled his place here 
well, I believe. My chief recollections of him areassociated altogether 
with his courtship of and marriage to a very beautiful young widow 
then living in Chapel Hill. She was a sister of Prof. J. DeB. Hooper, 
and widow of Rev. Daniel Cobia, of Charleston, S. C. She possessed a 
remarkable share of the beauty and the intellect of that branch of the 
Hooper family. 1 don't know that in all my life I have seen a more 
strikingly beautiful woman. Something of the French blood of the 
De Bernieres showed in her brilliant dark eyes and hair. Her com- 
plexion was dazzling; she had been to Cuba and wore her magnificent 
crown of hair in the Spanish fashion. She sang to the guitar with a 
thrilling voice ; in conversation she could be eloquent and was fasci- 


nating ; her air and manner, her very walk, were full of expression, 
grace, magnetism. 

That Mr. Roberts who had travelled — and with what awe we all 
looked in those simple days upon a man who had actually been to 
Paris — should fall a victim to such charms, was the proper thing of 
course. We felt that it was appropriate, and we took the keenest in- 
terest in the romance as it unfolded, and in the wedding. I believe 
it was the influence of Mrs. Roberts that led him to resign his place 
here and study for the ministry, as he soon did. She lived but a few 
years after their marriage. 

One is always glad to have known at least one very beautiful woman. 
Few can say they have known several ; women who in any assembly 
would have been singled out, who might have challenged and would have 
stood the severest criticism. How tenderly we touch our memories of 
these favorites of nature when they are gone. 

Their beauty gave so much and such innocent pleasure; and it 
shone on all alike. There is something of "the pathetic light of set- 
ting suns " round each fair head as we turn to salute them once more. 
Adieu ! and yet again, Adieu ! 

In the earliest years of the University, there was a still lower deep 
than that assigned to Tutors and Instructors, namely: the "Prep." ■* 
department, a sort of nursery for the college, rendered necessary by 
the absolute want of schools throughout the State. The gentlemen 
who taught in this, must have had a more independent, and therefore 
a more comfortable, position than the Tutors. It is better to be first 
in the village than second or third in the University. 

In Dr. Hooper's admirable alumni address, " Fifty Years Since," he 
photographs one of the Prep, teachers of the year i8o4-'5 : 

" Mr. Troy was given to the grandiloquent style. On one occasion, 
Miss Hay, who was the belle of the day, and was afterwards Judge 
Gaston's first wife, was visiting the Dialectic library. You may judge 
of the tumult that was excited by such a visitation, and how many 
frightened boys ran to the neighboring rooms and shut the doors, all 
but a small crack to peep through. On this memorable occasion, 
Troy had fixed himself in a corner of the room whence he could con- 
template the beautiful apparition in silent ecstacy. After the lady 
was gone, the Librarian called him out of his trance and said : ' Well, 
Troy, what do you think of her?' ' O, she's enough to melt the 


frigidity of a stoic, and excite rapture in the breast of a hermit.' To 
which he might have added : 

'And like another Helen, has fired another Troy.' 

"A man who could talk in that way appeared to me, in those days, 
to have reached the top of Parnassus." 

This paper began among the bachelors (of more or less Art), and 
is about to end with a dream of fair women. The transition is per- 
fectly natural and easy, for these two topics stand side by side in the 
eternal fitness of things. C. P. SPENCER. 


Who can contemplate the character of Margaret of Anjou, without 
being moved to pity ? Her heroic fight against destiny, the terror and 
the gloom of her fall, present a sublimely tragic picture which must 
always rouse the deepest emotion in the heart of the beholder. And 
yet when we pity Margaret, it is not for her failure that we feel dis- 
tress, so much as that she was what she was. There is so much misery 
in store for every woman who is not a woman in the true sense. Per- 
sons like Margaret are not destined to enjoy the sunny side of life : 
they have none in their own character. Had she succeeded in her 
wild career, there would yet have been a grim melancholy crowning 
her success. If we analyze our feelings, we find, then, that our sym- 
pathy for Margaret is bestowed upon her as a misguided woman of 
perverted character. For the rest, her failure, her sorrows, her broken 
heart, only suggest the frailty of humanity, and the awful thought of 
her soul — a soul has no sex — how it must have perished ! 

Margaret of Anjou was the daughter of that strange old Provencal, 
King Ren6, who stands out in such pleasing and marked contrast 
from the number of his compeers in those wild and troublous times. 
Fierce strife surrounded the mild, inoffensive man at the very time 
when the young Margaret was acquiring a most wide-spread reputa- 
tion for the beauty of her person, the charm of her manners and the 
very high order of her attainments. Indeed, his little kingdom was 
occupied and fast held by English troops, so that there remained 


scarcely a town or castle in the King's possession, and he became 
reduced to a state of penury, the very opposite of what was fit for 
one of his rank, titles and ancient name. Rene, however, was by 
birth a poet, by nature a philosopher ; and the madness, which in the 
daughter led to insatiable ambition and thirst for power, took, in the 
father, the harmless direction of love of minstrelsy and wine. Pos- 
sessed of some musical talent, and a devoted admirer of la belle seance, 
there was no time in his life when he did not prefer composing an air 
for the violin to obeying the trump of war, and singing the deeds of 
mighty warriors to performing them himself. It is evidently not from 
her father, whom the most painful circumstances, the worst strokes of 
ill fortune, seemed never to affect if he could but gather around him a 
gay party of troubadours, but from her high-born, high-minded mother, 
that Margaret derived those qualities for which she is chiefly famous. 
Though the preliminaries for her ill-fated marriage with the King of 
England had all the appearances of a true love affair — at least on 
Henry's part — it was, for all that, a matter in which the diplomatists 
of the day did not fail to take a deep interest and seek a part, advo- 
cating or opposing it. To the King of France, the event was highly 
advantageous, and as such he eagerly sought to promote it ; but the 
interests of the parties in England were sharply divided. In spite of 
hearty opposition from many sources, Henry VI celebrated his marriage 
with Margaret by proxy, in November, 1444, when the lady was yet at the 
tender age of fifteen years. From the date of her becoming a member 
of the royal family, commences a chapter in English history never 
equalled before or since for the strange and horrible way it reads. 
How unspeakable the crimes of that reign, disturbed by so many 
rival factions, broken by the interposition of so many strange fates, 
dishonored by such heartless butcheries and wholesale slaughter. The 
country was nominally under the government of Henry VI, at once 
the most besotted and the kindest monarch that ever sat upon the 
throne ; but, in reality, Margaret reigned. To do this, she had both 
the will and the ability. Her hand was strong to guide the ship of 
state and hold the helm amidst the battling waves of party strife, 
when her sisters never rose above the demure level of virtuous 
embroiderers and weavers of tapestry, or fell lower than the depth of 
degradation engendered by wandering from the path of honor. 

With each fresh indication of incapacity on the part of the Lancas- 


trian head, the rival claims of the Duke of York to the throne grew 
in importance. He had, too, among his ranks those who were already 
embittered against the Queen, by her arrogant conduct and the force 
and resoluteness of her will. It was not long before the birth of his 
son, that the King was seized by a fit of insanity, which utterly pre- 
cluded the possibility of his having any share in the affairs of state, 
and his royal duties devolved upon Margaret. As soon as he began 
to show signs of recovery, Margaret took most prompt measures to 
have him restored to power, and this was so noxious to the prospects 
of the Duke of York, who had in the interim been Lord Protector, 
that he retired to the West of England and raised an army with which 
to take London and assert his claims. With that began the Wars of 
the Roses, which covered a period of thirty years. Ere it was con- 
cluded, eighty princes of royal blood had fallen, and most of the 
nobility of England became obliterated forever. Now red and white 
roses are sported as cockades by Lancastrians and Yorkists, respect- 
ively, and everywhere bloody frays are of daily occurrence, and every- 
where the battle-cry resounds. All the horrors of a civil war filled and 
desolated the country. Though treaties and agreements were con- 
tinually made, the feud still lasted, while battle succeeded battle and 
the gulf between the two parties continued to widen and deepen. 
First, St. Alban's, then Blore-Heath, Northampton, and Wakefield. 
Picture to yourself here, Margaret as the Amazon commanding the 
Lancastrian forces in person, ordering all their movements and watch- 
ing the battle with all the determination, courage and coolness of a 
general. When the battle had at length ended in her favor, she ordered 
the head of the Duke of York, who had just fallen, to be wreathed 
with a crown of paper flowers and impaled upon the gates of York ! 
She becomes from now on the chief motor, the chief director in her 
party; her foresight and knowledge of affairs are almost beyond be- 
lief. In the full enjoyment of her victory at Wakefield, her army 
elated by its success, her friends aroused and encouraged, she pushes 
her way on to London in the hope of securing its partisanship. The 
son of the Duke succeeds to the leadership of the Yorkists at his 
father's death. He is described as a youth in every way possessing 
those qualities calculated to win the hearts of the people, and secure 
for himself their favor and support. 

As the struggle waxes fiercer, more difficult, more terrible, the 


Queen's wonderful powers seem to increase ; her efforts are redoubled ; 
she strives with more than masculine energy for the success of her en- 
terprise. Though she had great magnetic influence on those who 
came near her, to those who could not see her and feel her presence, 
her actions spoke with warning. By her ruthless conduct in ex- 
ecuting prisoners, and by permitting her soldiers to plunder and 
pillage the land, she prejudiced many against her and decided the vote 
of the citizens of London, who forsook her, and chose Edward king. 
Now the disasters of the house of Lancaster are full upon it. With 
every succeeding struggle the queen's character becomes more mani- 
fest, and we are better able to understand and appreciate Shakes- 
peare's admirable rendering of it. Henceforth, till his death, Henry 
disappears from sight and takes no part in public affairs, but is hustled 
about by Margaret from one place of concealment to another till his 
final capture and imprisonment, while many are the insults and deg- 
radations he endured. Twice Margaret takes flight into Scotland, suf- 
fering privations and humiliation's of every kind ; twice she seeks in 
France fresh troops and more money for her enterprise. With the 
waning of her cause, this indefatigable woman redoubled her activity, 
and strove with all the energy of which she was capable to strengthen 
it and raise the now drooping spirits of her supporters. At last, such 
was her extremity that she was compelled to compromise with the 
Duke of Warwick, her bitter enemy of so many years standing, though 
her whole nature must have revolted at such a humiliating overture. 
She had long been making others humble themselves and endure ig- 
nominy and self-reproach in her service, and now for the execution of 
her plans she herself becomes humbled — yea, unto the dust. So bitter, 
indeed, was her hatred for Warwick that fifteen days in which she 
struggled continuously with her pride and dislike, passed ere she suc- 
ceeded in overcoming her prejudice to an alliance which was yet her 
last chance forever. Upon this last venture all their force was ex- 
pended and the Queen and her friends entertained great hopes of its 
success, but all was forever lost on that fatal field to which she alludes 
with such bitter regret in the play, Tewkesbury. Here fell the lovely 
boy whom she called "the gallant, springing Plantagenet," and all 
was Over. She herself was taken prisoner and carried to the tower 
and while there the remains of her husband, Henry VI, who for some 


time had been an inhabitant of that dread abode, were borne to 
their last resting place at Chertsey. 

Old King Rene, though free from all ambition and desire for vast 
territories, was not devoid of affection for his daughter, and he exerted 
himself so much to procure her liberation, that at last with the aid of 
Louis XI, he succeeded in ransoming her for the sum of 50,000 crowns. 

The remaining years of her life were passed in a convent in the ut- 
most seclusion, having laid aside forever the role of high-tragedy 
Queen. What bitter unpalatable food she must have had for reflection 
in the events of her past life ; what terrible scenes on which to have 
her mind rest. Still it is not to be supposed, from the spectacle of her 
character afforded by her former actions', that the grief which possessed 
her soul in her deep retirement, was for the injuries she had done to 
others, or for the misery she had inflicted upon her people by the 
intestine wars which she had commenced and so heartily prolonged at 
every cost ; on the contrary, we fancy her brooding with bitter enven- 
omed heart over the lost cause upon which had been expended all her 
powers of mind and body ; still burning with hatred for her enemies 
and taking a morbid pleasure in recalling all her woes and pondering 
upon the cruelty of her fate. To suppose that Margaret of Anjou 
lost hope, even in her last years, is to do her memory and the faithfulness 
of history injustice, for it is certain that while she transferred her 
hopes for success from herself to the Earl 01 Richmond, she never 
doubted that her sympathizers would win and her great enemy, the 
house of York, be crushed. Nor did her expectations fail to be veri- 
fied, as we see in the play under consideration. Her death occurred 
in 1480. 

The bare facts of her life are the best commentary on her character. 
She was of a kinglj- race, and had the blood of kings. She had the courage 
of an Amazon and the ambition of the great First Consul himself, while 
at heart she was not less cruel than the most ruffianly soldier of her 
age. Alas ! that her life was not only a signal failure, but that its record 
shouldhave been blackened by so many crimes and marred by the evil 
fruitage of freaks of unrestrained passion and undying hate. It is even 
recorded that to her other faults she added that of unfaithfulness to 
her husband. Certainly, rumors to that effect were numerous in her 
own day, and statements have survived in reliable histories which com- 
promise her honor. Agnes Strickland, in her biography of this prin- 


cess, refutes with indignation any imputation against her honor, and 
goes so far as to maintain that the Queen' entertained for Henry 
feelings of highest regard and devotion. Margaret's care for his wel- 
fare was indeed most assiduous, but this was more than anything else, 
due to the fact that he was the chief link that connected her with the 
English throne, and that while he lived she could be regent and en- 
deavor to establish the royal power on a firm basis till her boy should 
receive the sceptre from her hands. Is it consistent with our other 
ideas and information about her, to suppose that she could really 
bestow her affections upon the King who by nature and by his training 
was only fitted for a secondary place ; to expostulate rather than to 
command ? Margaret and the King present a contrast as marked as 
it is painful to observe. Such qualities as each possessed, each had 
in a marked degree. While Margaret was all fire and temper, her 
spouse was mild and calm. She had a strong and virile mind, his was 
weak and foolish ; one was firm and unyielding, the other as shifting 
as a quicksand ; one quiet, contemplative, peaceful, the other active 
lively and pugnacious ; one mild and kind, the other fierce and cruel. 
Miss Strickland, with a desire to make her heroines appear as virtuous 
as Victoria, sees facts with the pitying eyes of a woman, rather than 
with the impartial view fitting a historian. One womanly instinct she 
did indeed possess, a mother's love, and Shakespeare very rightly 
makes her lament her son's death in unequivocal terms. 

Margaret's appearance in this play is not warranted by history. In 
reality, she died a year before the events of the first act, so that it was 
a bold stroke for the author to introduce so palpable a mistake and 
seeming fault. It is remarkable that Scott likewise takes the liberty 
of making the facts suit himself in connection with the history of this 
personage, for in " Anne of Geierstein " he gives an account of her 
death, making it precede that of Rene, who, in reality, was the first 
to depart. Scott and Shakespeare differ somewhat in their treatment. 
Scott shows a truly admirable tenderness of heart towards the memory 
of this ill-fated woman, and writes of the soft and sunny side of her na- 
ture, as though she really possessed such. We see her first weeping in the 
Cathedral of Strasburg ; regretting the losses her followers have suf- 
fered, and lamenting her inability to repay them. She admits on that 
occasion with faltering voice : " I am no longer the same firm and 
rational being." It is sweet to see how tenderly, how considerately, 


she treats young Arthur Philipson, who had been the playmate of 
her lovely boy, and who brought back to her mind more vividly than 
ever the memory of what she had lost. Here, and in other places, 
then, we catch a glimpse of a better nature, but so hidden amid selfish 
cares as rarely to come to view. What could be meaner or baser than 
the spirit in which she persuaded her infatuated, doting father into 
signing away his kingdom to Burgundy, that she may have the means 
supplied for another attempt on England? Still, Scott portrays her 
in a cheerful and more pleasing light, calculated to arouse in the reader 
pity and admiration. She is the queen of a novel, and partakes of 
the more tranquil and quiet nature of narrative. Shakespeare's queen 
is the queen upon the stage :' savage, bitter, terrible to see and hear. 
The former gives us a more natural picture ; she is an easier concep- 
tion of good and bad mixed. But with Shakespeare it is different. His 
character sketch is drawn in the boldest lines : Margaret stands out with 
every evil trait conspicuous, and partakes of the action of the drama. 
Here the conception is more difficult : she presents the terrible result 
of a man's nature in a woman's body. Not always so bad, so arro- 
gant, so resentful, but grown so with the whirling rush of years. His 
is the strongest picture ; his makes the saddest impression. Behold ! 
deprived of every hope ; hemmed in by physical and moral barriers, 
which force inaction upon her, she resorts to her last — but, being a 
woman, by no means least — weapon, her tongue. Still, she claims the 
respect due a monarch, and with the voice of authority, which had 
long since ceased to enforce obedience, demands the most deferential 
and honorable treatment. Such was her boldness, such her tenacity. 
In Scott, she longs for revenge upon her enemies, and then, for herself, 
the grave. In the play, she intimates a great scorn for death, and 
prays that it may be averted from her enemies till by their crimes they 
are ripe for eternal damnation, and that when death comes, it may be 
as quick as a stroke of the headsman's axe to light upon their impeni- 
tent heads. 

Why did Shakespeare introduce Margaret into the play of Richard 
III, when by so doing he had to sacrifice truth? Because he 
saw in her a means of exercising with effect his great and subtle 
power. He did not do this merely for the presence of a ranting 
old woman upon the boards, or for the mere impression that a 
fine actor could produce with that character, but he saw a chance 


to combine ocular and scenic effect with conveying something 
of a moral, teaching a lesson and enforcing greater truths than those 
he violated. Margaret's presence in Richard III is required for the 
unity of conception and execution of the several historical dramas 
which treat this particular period in history. In the play of Henry 
VI, she is to be contrasted with her husband. Here she offsets Richard. 
They are two companion pieces, and truly, if she did not equal him in 
the number of cruel butcheries she committed, she rivals him in her 
power of uttering bitter imprecation and foul curses. Whether com- 
pared with Henry or Richard, she appears to equal disadvantage. 
We despise the simple King's weakness, but are overcome with disgust 
at Margaret's overweening strength. According to what seems to be 
the modern standard of virtue, which allows a man to be worse than 
a woman and yet retain his good name, we could almost declare 
Margaret's offences greater than those of Richard himself. The poet 
paints in her the demoralization of her age, and nothing could be 
more happy than choosing a woman's character in which to do so, for 
verily that age is truly vile which produces wicked women. 

In the first scene in which she appears, she utters a fearful maledic- 
tion against those around and invokes heaven's direst curse upon them. 
Her words at once suggest to the reader the lamentable events which 
have already occurred, and seem to form an awful introduction to 
what follows. That solemn warning rang in vain in Richard's ears, so 
determined in his evil ways, so hardened to humane feelings was he. 
In the next scene, she has the savage pleasure of seeing prophecies 
partially realized, and detailing her losses one by one, matches them 
with those of Elizabeth, against whom her chief resentment is now 

The critic Ulrici says that Margaret represents the horror of the 
past ; Edward IV and Clarence the gloom of the present, and the chil- 
dren of Edward and Clarence hopes of a better future, which, how- 
ever, cannot be realized, inasmuch as they are offshoots of a race 
burdened with the curse of the past. Truly that past was horrible, 
and we seem to hear the piteous wail of many a bereaved mother and 
wife, lamenting loved ones lost, as the loved of Margaret had been. 

The reader who knows that Margaret died before the time when 
these scenes are laid, experiences a sensation of awe when she appears 
as alive once more. She is seen among the living when, in reality, she 



is already undergoing the sentence of condemnation. We feel as 
though there was something supernatural in her reappearance from 
amidst the dead, with a curse upon her lips for those chief causes of her 
woe. Verily, though her body had been laid away for its long rest, 
her spirit was present in their midst. Could any of the actors in those 
bloody scenes of former years forget her? Who doubts that when 
Edward IV died, his widow reflected upon the loss her rival had also 
sustained, or that when her lovely babes were so ruthlessly slain, she 
failed to think of Margaret's child? She doubtless remembered, too, 
that the anger of heaven was said, in Scripture, to descend unto the 
third and fourth generations of them that broke its laws. 

J. S. Taylor. 


The exultant warbler near his nest does sing, 
And mocks the other birds the livelong day. 
On fluttering wing he rises with his lay, 
And with it falls, and makes the echoes ring. 
O tuneful bird, of joy melodious thing, 
Trembling, laughing forth thy heart of May, 
With wistful thought I, wearied by the way, 
Sigh out a wish for thy light sprite and wing. 
Of lark's, of nightingale's, of cuckoo's note 
The praise let other bards in verse prolong, — 
Our pride in thee, from whose delicious throat 
A sweet confusion pours the breeze along, 
Sweet poet of the South, as thou dost float 
On summer airs, the epitome of song. 

R. L. Uzzell. 



Editor's Desk. 

We present this month a steel engraving 
of the present Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of this State, Hon. Wm. N. H. Smith. 
We are sure that our readers will welcome 
the engraving with much heartiness. During 
the coming Spring, we shall present other 
engravings of distinguished North Carolin- 
ians, among them General Bryan Grimes, 
who was one of Carolina's most gallant sol- 
diers in the late war, and Judge R. P. Dick, 
the able jurist who now holds the position of 
U. S. District Judge for the Western District 
of North Carolina. 

The Shakespeare Club Library. — It is 

a thing to be regretted that the Shakespeare 
Club has not a great fund to draw from, for so 
anxious is it to promote a study of Shake- 
spearean literature, that, were it able, it would 
present each member with not only a com- 
plete set of Rolfe's edition, but also of the 
Harvard edition, and all books relating to 
the subject, such as Dowden's Mind and Art, 
Hudson's Life, Art and Character, Shake- 
speare as a Physician, Furness's editions, etc. 
But being dependent for its fund upon us 
(and some of us do not pay very promptly, as 
a former Treasurer testifies), it has with diffi- 
culty started a Library of Shakespearean Lit- 
erature, which is beginning to do very nicely, 
and if every one will heed a suggestion we 
are going to make, will surely be of great 
service. It hopes in this way to furnish 
every one with access to the works mentioned 
as desirable to present to them if it only had 
the means. It seems, however, that the 
members, or some of them, or some other 
persons, are determined to defeat it in its 
undertaking, for many of the books have 
been taken away and no indication left as to 
where they are. Now, it is permissible, we 
believe, in an extreme case, to remove 
a book from the library if one leaves notice 
on the table as to what the the book is, who 

has it, and how long it will probably be kept 
out. Two days is the furthest limit. The 
following books are now gone, and probably 
many more: Rolfe's King Richard III, 
Love's Labor 's Lost, Henry VI, parts I, II, 
III, Measure for Measure, As You Like 
It, Tempest; Hudson's Tempest, Antony and 
Cleopatra, Henry IV, part II; Harvard 
Shakespeare, vol. II; Green's History of 
England, vol. I ; Wright's Te?npest. 

We would respectfully suggest that they be 
returned, and each one consider it a little be- 
fore he removes them unlawfully hereafter. 

The University Reading Room. — We 

desire to call the attention of the Faculty 
to the present condition and management of 
our Reading Room, or, rather, not to call 
their attention to it, for they know it already, 
but to give the matter publicity, in the hope 
that in this way a change may be effected. 

As at present constituted, each of the two 
Societies contributes fifty dollars annually 
and the University the same amount. A 
committee of the Faculty have complete con- 
trol, and so we look to the Faculty for redress 
of grievances. Under the system now in 
vogue, the Reading Room is open all day 
every day in the week, and there is no effort 
to keep any librarian or other officer there to 
prevent mischief. The absence of such 
officer gives opportunity to much that ought 
not to be. We do not mean that there is 
any boisterous conduct, or loud talking, for 
there is remarkable freedom from these. 

The first great evil is, that the periodicals 
are taken out of the room, frequently kept 
out for months, and often never returned. 
The newspapers, too, are removed almost at 
random. Whenever any one wants a paper 
for any purpose whatever, he goes to the 
Reading Room and gets one without the 
slightest compunction. The second great 
evil is the mutilation of papers and periodi- 



cals. Some persons, when they see a picture 
in an illustrated paper, or an article in a 
magazine or paper which amuses or pleases 
them, deliberately cut it out, without regard 
to the fact that in cutting out one picture, or 
one article, they are destroying the value of 
two printed pages, and, often, ruining the 
whole paper. Under the head of mutilation 
we must mention also the outrageous practice 
of v. riting comments and remarks on the 
magazines. People do net seem to grasp the 
idea that the papers are not their private 
property. They forget entirely that the 
Reading Room is for anybody's benefit but 
their own. 

Again there are other evils, such as smok- 
ing, putting feet on the tables, keeping on 
hats, scribbling on the walls, spitting on the 
floor, breaking out window-panes. These 
are deplorable, they aie offences against the 
laws of decency and propriety. But under 
the present system there is no strong check 
upon them. It is all very well to talk about 
public opinion, and the general standard of 
honor being sufficient to prevent such things, 
but in a case of this kind they will surely be 
found too weak, unless they be assisted by 
restraint of another sort. The difficulty is 
just this, that the boys have gotten to re- 
garding the things we have mentioned as 
such little things as not to matter, and it is 
almost impossible lo get this idea out of their 

We have spoken of the misdemeanors of 
the students. Let us turn to the wrongs 
chiefly of omission, but also of commission 
by the Faculty. First, the room is often not 
properly heated. This winter the evil has 

been less : because the weather has not been 
so cold. Second, the treatment of the pa- 
pers. The custom now is, to remove a daily 
paper as soon as it is a day or so old, and a 
weekly when it has been there a week. This 
is a great mistake. The dailies should be 
left for at least a week, and the weeklies for 
a month. Moreover, there is extreme care- 
lessness in the insertion of the illustrated pa- 
pers in the holders. The truth is, that the 
present holders are not the proper things for 
papers which have illustrations extending 
over two pages. A broad band over an inch 
wide is taken from view right down the 
width of the picture. Often it is completely 
spoded. Either the leaves should be securely 
sewed together, and the paper left loose, or 
else a new species of holder should be de- 
vised. Other evils are that rickety chairs 
are left in the room, the papers are brought 
late from the mail, broken panes are left in 
the windows, and others of a like character. 
For all these evils the remedy is simple : 
To keep some one as librarian in the Reading 
Room whenever open, and to exercise a little 
care in attending to the Koom and its con- 
tents in other respects. If the Faculty can- 
not afford with the co-operation of the So- 
cieties to provide a keeper all day long, then 
let the room be kept open only part of the 
day, and have a warden who will attend to 
his duty, and prevent misconduct of all sorts. 
There must be a change. The complaints 
are loud and deep, and it is not unlikely that 
unless something is done, the Societies at the 
expiration of the current year will decline to 
renew their subscription. Is this desirable? 



The College World. 

Harvard spent $25,000 on its various 
athletic organizations last year. — The Cam- 

At Wellesley, (female college), twenty 
hours of recitation are required a week. — 

At Washington and Lee University 
morning prayers in the chapel are conducted 
by the students. 

The College of Mexico is the oldest 
American college, being fifty years older than 
Harvard. — Ex. 

George Washington was the first person 
to receive the degree of LL. D. from Har- 
vard. — Pennington Review. 

Johns Hopkins publishes seven maga- 
zines : one devoted to mathematics, one to 
chemistry, one to philology, one to biology, one 
to historical and political sciences, and three 
of local interest. — Owl. 

President Hyde, of Bowdoin, is the 
youngest college president in the United 
States, while President Fairchild, of Oberlin, 
is the oldest. The former is thirty and the 
latter ninety. — The Campus. 

The expedition which was sent out by the 
University of Pennsylvania to enter upon a 
systematic search for the site of the cities of 
Nineveh and Babylon, has been wrecked in 
the ^Egean Sea, near the island of Samos. 
The accident will, however, not prevent the 
expedition from continuing its investiga- 
tion. — Ex. 

When Matthew Arnold was at Oxford he 
spent all his time coursing foxes, shooting, 
and in general, enjoying himself. Four 
days before examination, however, he com- 
menced to cram, and it is said that he cram- 
med unceasingly for four days and nights, 
with a huge consumption of wet towels, 
strong cigars and hot brandy and water. — 

The Harvard Nine will hereafter be al- 
lowed to play practice games with profes- 
sionals. — Columbia Spectator. 

It is estimated that in England one man 
in every 500 gets a college education, and in 
this country one in every 200. — Ex. 

Campbell, late shortstop on the Harvard 
Nine, is said to have been offered a position 
with the New Yorks. — Columbia Spectator. 

That new departure at Cornell, which 
has caused more comment than any recent in- 
novation, has passed from a thing of fancy 
into an assured fact. We feel no hesitation 
in saying that the Cornell School of Journal- 
ism has proved a most pronounced success. — 
Cornell Era. 

The largest University in the world is 
Rudolph Albreits, of Vienna. It has 5,22a 
students and 285 professors. The richest 
University is that of Leyden, in Holland. It 
has real estate to the value of $6, 000, 000. 
And the oldest is the University of Bologna, 
which has celebrated its 800th anniversary. — 

At Yale, whose students have been wonder- 
fully successful in athletics, only 16 per cent, 
of the Freshmen smoke. The babyish, vile 
and deadly cigarette will, it is to be hoped, 
lose its charm for students. It is said that 
Edwin Booth replied to a friend, who had 
offered him a cigarette : "jNo, I thank you — 
I am strong enough to hold a pipe." 

The Forum is a periodical of the high- 
est class, and always contains articles of 
direct interest to college men. By special 
arrangements with the publishers, we can 
furnish it, with The University Magazine, 
for $5 a year, the subscription price of The 
Forum alone. In order that our present sub- 
scribers may not be at a disadvantage, any 
of them wishing to have The Forum can 
obtain it by sending us $4. 




Graham College has decided to change 
its home to Mill Point, near Burlington. 

Efforts are being made to raise an addi- 
tional endowment of $50,000 (or Wake 
Forest College. 

The question of moving Trinity College 
to Raleigh is being seriously considered. A 
committee of Raleigh citizens has been ap- 
pointed to make proposals to the trustees of 
the college. 

A Shakspere Club has recently been or- 
ganized at Peace Institute, with Prof. C. D. 
Mclver as President. It has about thirty 
members. Dr. Hume, President of the 
University Shakspere Club, is to deliver a 
lecture before it soon. 

The young ladies of Statesville Female 
College have a " Timely Topic Club," which 
meets weekly, and the time is spent in dis- 
cussing the events of the past week. The 
object is to encourage its members in reading 
newspapers, and to give them an intelligent 
idea of the condition of the world. 

During the second week in January the 
students of St Mary's enjoyed a series of his. 
torical lectures by Prof. A. Trippe, the 
well known lecturer. They were on great 
events in Europe since 1848, such as the 
French coup d'etat of 1852, the Crimean War, 
and the War of Italian Independence. He 
gave a good sketch of the life and character 
of Louis Napoleon. The young ladies must 
be making a specialty of history just now : 
for we learn that the Senior Reading Class 
which meets three times a week, has lately 
been studying the ancient Hindu, Assyrian, 
Persian and Greek writers. 

One of the editors of the Wake Forest 
Student took occasion in i:s January num- 
ber to exhaust his vocabulary of abuse upon 
the editor of the College World Department 
of The University Magazine, because the 
MAGAZINE had stated the fact that it was 
not due to superior playing, but to unfair and 
peculiar rules that the Wake Forest team got 

the credit of a victory in the game played with 
our Soph. Class team, on Thursday of Fair 
week. We will make no reply to the person- 
alities of the article. {Proverbs, xxvi: 4). 
Though he may become "wise in his own 
conceit," still this writer does not care to rival 
the Senior Editor of the Wake Forest Stu- 
dent in his sophomoric style 6f invective, nor 
does this Magazine lower itself by lending 
its columns to personal abuse. 

But, though the event is so old, and the 
game of little importance, we do feel called 
upon to vindicate what the Magazine has said 
in regard to it, and to do justice to our Soph. 
Class team, who lost it through no fault of 
their playing. We do not know whether 
Editor H. A. F. saw the game or not — from 
his writing about it we think not, and cer- 
tainly not on the team. This writer was 
present at both inter-collegiate games at 
Raleigh, and wrote the facts about both as he 
knew them to be. The newspapers had 
already told which side beat. It was our 
province to analyze the games, and see where- 
in victory consisted each time. 

The Magazine made the statement that 
" the University boys were better organized, 
and played better in running, dodging, kick- 
ing and tackling, than the Wake Forest." 
The Student admits that they were better or- 
ganized, and nowhere in his article of more 
than a page and a half, does the Editor deny 
any part of this statement, as regards either 
running, dodging, kicking or tackling. "Our 
team had had a ball only three days," says 
the Editor of the Student. We made no 
attempt in our account of the game to ex- 
plain why the Wake Forest team was inferior 
to the University, — perhaps it was not their 
fault, — but the fact of their inferiority in 
that game remains. Then why was Wake 
Forest successful? Owing to rules that were 
entirely new to the Chapel Hillians. The 
ball could not be thrown; Wnke Forest got 
both its goals by punts, from a free kick, 
when the ball had been given them by a foul, 
ami played men behind the University's goal. 
We call these very peculiar rules. Besides, 



there were some minor ones about the ball 
going in touch, etc., that were different from 
the Chapel Hill ways. Certainly, there was 
nothing in the playing of the Wake Forest 
team to excite " jealousy." 

A fair-minded man likes to see merit win, 
whoever possesses it, and can admire it in an 
opponent. The University team has played 
but one game of foot-ball, and was then 
beaten fairly, as this Magazine cheerfully 
acknowledged. It wished to show that, while 
in the game with Trinity merit won, in that 
on Thursday of Fair week it did not. 

We have no quarrel with Trinity, as the 
Editor of the Student asserts, as to who 
originated the Intercollegiate Foot-ball move- 
ment. If the Senior Editor of the Wake 
Forest Student -were, a foot-ball man, he would 
know whence came the proposition for a con- 

ference. He simply does not know what he 
is talking about on this whole subject. The 
next time he has to " fill up " the Student's 
editorials, let him take a subject which he 
can deal with better; try " The New South," 
" The Future of Our Country," or "Beyond 
the Alps Lies Italy." 

Trinity has a mock Congress. The Ar- 
chive says: " It has been thoroughly organ- 
ized, and is now ready for work. Those in 
the Academic department constitute the 
House, and those in the Scientific, the Senate.'' 

Read the article in the Wake Forest Stu- 
dent for January, entitled, •' The Debt I Owe 
My Society," by Rev. Thomas Dixon, Jr. 
Mr. Dixon is a fine speaker and elocutionist, 
and therefore fully competent to give advice 
upon the subject. 



We sat in cozy confidence, 

Myself and fairy Kate, 
In the charming little parlor, 

Before the glowing grate; 
Our theme was evolution, 

And laughingly she asked, 
" Do you, a man, acknowledge 

The highest types were last ? " 

" For, if you do," she added, 

" You must confess it, then, 
That women rank up higher 

In scale of life, than men." 
My arm stole softly round her waist, 

And then with merry laughter, 
I proved to her 'twas womankind 

That men were always after. 

— The Targum 

"Say, Sam! When you proposed to Miss 
Shekels, did you get down on your knees ?" 
" No, old man, I couldn't. She was sitting 
on them." — Columbia Spectator, 

A Winter's tale — an icicle.— The Muhlen- 

De Gustibus Non Est Disputandum. 

Some like a hand that's long and slender, 
Tipped with pink nails like the sea-side 

And sing its praises so sweetly tender, 

In those amorous words poets love so well. 

But others, thinking this deceit, 
Lay their affections at the shrine 

Of her whose hand is plump, petite, 
And think that that's the hand divine. 

But I to either of these things 
Prefer, I speak without a blush, 

A moneyed hand, — well, say three kings, 
An even full hand or a flush. 

— Record. 

Sweet but expensive laughter — the laugh- 
ter of the sleigh-belle. 

Harry (cautiously): " What would y o 
Fannie, if I were to kiss you ? " 

Fannie: "Nothing. Harry. You could 
attend to it, couldn't you?" — The Muhlen- 




Kent Dunlap, ( Wellesley.) 

Oft, when we watch a queenly day 
Walk in the West in her bright array, 
In crimson draperies fold on fold. 
Scarfs of violet fringed with gold, 
Flashing in fire from gems untold, 
We think e'en while we lingering gaze, 
'Twill be the fairest of all days, 

Or, when a half-blown bud we find 
Among the dark leaves intertwined, 
With petals opening to disclose 
A heart within that deeply glows 
With promise of the perfect rose, 
We stoop and kiss it lovingly, 
Thinking how fair a thing 't will be 

So ever in our human eyes 
The fairest just beyond us lies; 
With eager gaze we seek to trace 
The future's dim and dream-like face, 
And miss the present's subtle grace; 
We pour the sweet wine out, and think, 
Of living waters I shall drink. 

— The Collegian, 

She : "I have just read that women feel 
where men think." 

He: "Yes, that's the reason so many men 
are bald." — Columbia Spectator. 

Big Brother College Graduate: "Are you 
in favor of wool being free of duty?" 

Undergraduate (with conditions): " Yes, 
and sheep-skins too." — Ex. 

The Evening Star. 
The East is rosy, prophesying dawn; 

Like golden fleece the wind-strewn cloud- 
lets are; 
The West is barriered with a golden bar; 
But soon the glory from the cloud is gone, 
From all the sky the golden is withdrawn 
To make one quivering drop — the Evening 

Thus into one the beauties of the earth 
Do concentrate by subtle alchemy; 
I gaze on lake and river, flower and tree, 
Of golden sun how well I know the worth, 
But all their glories fading bring to birth 
One evening star — the face and eyes of 

— The Varsity. 

Up in arms — the midnight baby. 
A big mistake — marrying a fat girl. 
Something new in stockings — a cork 
leg. — Ex. 

My love (alas! she is my love 

In no possessive sense), 
Said: "Sir, I saw you gaze upon 

Another maid too tenderly; 
Is that all you care for me ?" 

(Well, here's a pretty mess!) 

Whilst I, with tender gaze and sigh, 

Protest my love does never die; 
Yet dare not say in repartee: 

" How, then, about those young men 
To whom you fly when each you see, 
Is that all ihut you care for me? " 
(Alas! she might say "yes ! ") 

— The Yale Record. 



Book Review. 

Owing to an unusual amount of literary 
matter in this number, there is not the room 
for book reviews that we should like. But as 
the class in Political Science is just begin- 
ning the study of Constitutional Law, we 
desire now to call their attention especially 
to "The Critical Period of American History, 
1783-1789," by John Fiske, and to recom- 
mend it to the Library Committee. It is 
published by Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Bos- 
ton. Crown 8vo. pp. 368. $2.00. 

The book throws valuable light on the least 
known period of our history, and is written 
in such an attractive style, that whoever be- 
gins it will read it through. 

" I have aimed especially at grouping facts 
in such a way as to bring out and emphasize 
their causal sequence," says the author in the 
preface. He succeeds admirably in this, so 
that in imagination we live through the 
almost anarchical period of the Confederacy, 
and can understand how naturally the Fed- 
eral Constitution was evolved. 

" Thomas Paine was sadly mistaken when 
(1783) he declared that the trying time was 
ended. The most trying time of all was just 
beginning. It is not too much to say that 
the period of five years following the peace 
of 1783 was the most critical period in all the 
history of the American people. The dangers 
from which we were saved in 1788 were even 
greater than the dangers from which we were 
saved in 1865." 

The thirteen independent commonwealths 
— independent de facto, if not de jure, of 
the Congress as well as of one another, — 
with their mutual jealousies and hostilities; 
the absolute inability of Congress to enforce 
obedience upon States or individuals', and the 
great opposition to a stronger government, 

clearly justify this statement. Congress was 
driven from Philadelphia June 2r, 1783, by 
a handful of drunken soldiers. "At one 
moment, early in 1782, there was not a single 
dollar in the treasury." The only coin was 
the clipped and debased foreign coins. 

"In the absence of a circulating medium, 
there was a reversion to the practice of barter. 
Whiskey in North Carolina, tobacco in Vir- 
ginia did duty as measures of value; and 
Isaiah Thomas, editor of the Worcester Spy, 
announced that he would receive subscrip- 
tions for his paper in salt pork." 

By the short, vivid accounts of the con- 
dition of affairs in each State separately, we 
can appreciate the compromises that had to 
be made to agree upon any Constitution. 
Great praise is due to Washington for his 
judicious advice at critical moments, and to 
Madison and Hamilton for championing the 
Constitution. The reason why so many able 
men opposed the Constitution is explained. 
It was revolutionary. 

" To the familiar State governments which 
had so long possessed their love and alle- 
giance, it was superadding a new and untried 
government, which it was feared would swal- 
low up the State and everywhere extinguish 
local independence. Nor can it be said that 
such fears were unreasonable. Our federal 
government has indeed shown a strong ten- 
dency to encroach upon the province of the 
State governments, especially since our late 
civil war. Too much centralization is our 
danger to-day, as the weakness of the fed- 
eral tie was our danger a century ago." 

No one can read the book without having 
his love and admiration for the Union in- 



Alumni and Other Personals. 

'41. — Dr. Richard B. Haywood, who re- 
cently died in Raleigh at quite an advanced 
age, was a member of the class of '41, to- 
gether with, Dr. Chas. Phillips, Solicitor 
Samuel F. Phillips, Dr. \Vm. McPheeters 
and many others whose names are as familiar. 

'41. — Col. R. R. Bridgers died at Colum- 
bia, S. C on the 10th of December. He 
had gone to Columbia on business. From 
the time of his graduation he has been prom- 
inent in North Carolina as a legislator (be 
was elected to the Legislature when only 
twenty-three years old), lawyer, planter, 
Congressman and railroad President. 

The State Chronicle says of him : " He 
would have been the leader in any vocation 
or profession. He was a man of big brain 
and wonderful versatility. Successful rail- 
road president as he was, Col. Bridgers 
would still have preferred public life and the 
practice of law. His mind was moulded to 
grasp great questions, and questions of State 
and the public good occupied much of his 
thought. If he had continued in politics, 
there was no honor in the gift of the people 
which he might not have won." 

'46. — F. A. Shepard, of the older alumni, 
subscribes for the Magazine and shows 
great interest in the University. He is a 
prominent merchant in Nashville, Tenn. The 
Magazine likes to receive letters from those 
who have gone before. 

'47. — Hon. M. W. Ransom has been 
again chosen U. S. Senator. The other 
leading candidates for the nomination were 
Col. A. M. Waddell, of the class of '53, and 
Capt. S. B. Alexander, of '60. 

'50. — Hon. Thomas Settle died at Greens- 
boro, Dec. 1st. He had for many years been a 
leading man in this State, and was well known 
beyond its bounds. He was a member of 
the Legislature in '54, '55 and '56, being for 
two years Speaker of the House of Commons. 
For nine years (except one year, when he 
served in the Confederate Army), he was So- 
licitor of the fourth circuit. In '65 he was 
Speaker of the Senate. In '68, he was 
elected Associate-Justice of the Supreme 

Court. After occupying for one year the 
post of Minister to Peru, he resigned in '72. 
He was President of the Republican National 
Convention of '72. During the next four 
years, he was again on the Supreme Bench. 
In '76, he was defeated for the office of Gov- 
ernor by Hon. Z. B. Vance. Since '77, 
Judge Settle has been Judge of the U. S. 
Court for the northern district of Florida. 
These facts are taken from the funeral ad- 
dress delivered by Rev. Egbert W. Smith, 
who said of him : " At the time of his death 
he was probably the foremost man of his 
party in the South, and the end came when 
his fine abilities were in their prime. Many 
eyes, all over the country, were looking for 
him to be called to Washingtou as a member 
of the new administration. With his knowl- 
edge and ability and, above all, with his kind 
heart, how much good could he have accom- 
plished for theSouth ! " 

'52 — Maj. J. W. Wilson has returned 
from Canada, whither he had been sum- 
moned to give expert testimony in a suit in- 
volving $6,000,000, between the Canadian 
Government and the Canada Pacific R. R. 

'57. — Hon. Hamilton McMillan published 
in January, a pamphlet on Sir Walter Ral- 
eigh's Lost Colony, setting forth his reasons 
for believing that the Croatans of Robeson 
county are descendants of the lost colonists 
and the tribe of friendly Indians of that name. 

'79. — James S. Manning was married, 
December 12th, to Miss Julia Cain, of Dur- 

'So.— Thos. H. Battle is President of the 
Rocky Mount Mills, and Vice-President and 
actual manager of the Bank of Rocky Mount. 

'81. — R. B. Albertson is prominent in pol- 
itics as Chairman of the Republican Com- 
mittee at Seattle, Washington Territory. 

— Rev. R. P. Pell, of Wilson, was mar- 
ried, January 2d, to Miss Nannie H. Shep- 
herd, of Fayetteville. 



— Eugene L. Harris has resigned his 
office as General Secretary of the Raleigh 
Young Men's Christian Association, and has 
been appointed to that office in Winston — 
Salem, where he makes his home. 

— Dr. H. B. Battle is now Director Gen- 
eral of the N. C. State Experiment Station 
at Raleigh, and the assistants, with one ex- 
ception, are University men. 

'82. — C. W. Worth has become a partner 
with his father, D. G. Worth, in the commis- 
sion business in Wilmington. 

'83. — W. K. ("Widow") Brown has re- 
moved to Birmingham, Ala., and become 
principal of a high school there. 

'84. — S. G. Nevill, after graduating at the 
Normal College of Tennessee, at Nashville, 
has taken charge of a large school at Hen- 
ning, in that State. 

— S. M. Gattis has been appointed, by 
Judge Gilmer, Superior Court Clerk of 
Orange county. His office is at Hillsboro. 

— J. D. Miller is now honored in becom- 
ing principal of the Caldwell graded school, 

— S. B. Turrentine is a Methodist preacher 
and a member of the N. C. Conference. He 
is stationed at King's Mountain and his pre- 
siding Elder makes a good report of him. 

'85. — St. Leon Scull is a lawyer. 

— A. D. Ward is in the practice of law at 

— H. A. Latham was chosen as Reading 
Clerk of the House of Representatives. Other 
of our University men were strongly sup- 

— A. W. Long gives great satisfaction as 
professor of English at Wofford College, S. C. 

'86. — P. B. Manning, teacher, and Presi- 
dent of the Y. M. C. A., at Wilmington, 
will eventually study law. He carries weight 
wherever he goes. 

— Pierre B. Cox, attends medical lectures 
in New York, after taking a course in law. 
He is becoming quite a savant. 

— R. L. Uzzell gets a good salary as 
teacher of English Literature in a high school 
at Roanoke, Va. 

'87. — We are glad to state that W. H. 
McDonald has recovered his health and is 
now acting as bookkeeper for a commisson 
house in Raleigh. 

— H. R. Starbuck is with Eller in a law 
office at Winston. 

— Simmons has been appointed to conduct 
the class in History here until Dr. Mangum 
becomes strong enough to resume his classes. 

'88. — Maxcy John has assumed the dignity 
of Principal of the Sherwood High School of 
Cumberland county. His school is open to 
boys and — young ladies ! 

— G. W. Edwards, Junior of '88, is in Ne- 
braska. He is a teacher in a finely equipped 
school at Cowles, and intends making a trip 
to California. He will return to North 

— L. B. Edwards is teaching fn the Graded 
School at Asheville. 

— Headen has become a druggist at Pitts- 

— Henry Johnston, Junior of '88, was at the 
Hill on a visit of a few days. He had to 
leave sooner than he expected on account of 
a return of sickness. 

— Egerton, Junior of '88, is reading law 
at Hendersonville. He made some speeches 
in the, late campaign, taking a prominent 

— Among the Legislators we notice names 
of a number of University graduates and 
students. Among those of later years we 
note that Z. B. Walser, '84, received a fair 
support from the Republican side, for 
speaker. John A. Hendricks, Junior of '88, will 
doubtless stand in all his height for the right, 
as will also M. E. Carter, here in '67, and 
R. A. Doughton, here in '83. 

—The lecture of Dr. K. P. Battle, 
President of the University, on Tuesday 
night, was particularly stimulating and in- 



structive. The various judicial trials of the 
New Testament were treated with thorough- 
ness, intelligence and acuteness. The lec- 
ture was prepared with marked care, and 
was elaborate, strong and learned. The dis- 
tinguished gentleman had evidently devoted 
much time to its preparation. * * * The 
clearness, the comprehensiveness, the minute 
information, the copious details, all showed 
patient study and refleciion. It was indeed 
a capital lecture, and does great credit to the 
author. So long as such masterly discussions 
as that can be heard from native men of 
culture, there is no need to go abroad for 
men who can can do better. What is said of 
lectures, may apply to commencement ser- 
mons and addresses. It is a mistake to go 
brain hunting in other States, when at home 
there are gentlemen of cultivation, ability 

and scholarship, who are fully abreast with 
the times, and are well able to entertain and 
interest an audience. — Wilmington Star. 

— Thousands of old students will hear 
with sorrow of Professor Fetter's death at 
Pulaski, Va., January 27th. His body was 
brought to Chapel Hill on the 29th and laid 
to rest here. Professor Fetter occupied the 
Chair of Greek in the University from 1838 to 
1S68. We hope to give some account of his 
life in a future number. 

" The gods give no great good without 
labor," is an old proverb, and a true one; the 
hardest labor is not always that which is 
best paid however. To those in search of 
light, pleasant and profitable employment, 
we say write to B. F. Johnson & Co., Rich- 
mond, Va. 

University Record. 

The holidays passed very pleasantly at 
the University. Of the students some twenty 
or more stayed on the Hill, ?..nd the Profes- 
sors remained here, with the exception of 
Prof. Holmes, who was engaged in Geologi- 
cal work along the W. and W. R. R., Prof. 
Toy, who spent Christmas with his brother, 
Dr. C. H. Toy, of Boston, and Dr. Hume, 
who was visiting in Virginia. 

The last examination was on Thursdiy 
December 20th. For several days everything 
was very quiet; the girls all occupied them- 
selves with baking cake::, and the boys — 
shifted as best they might. Christmas day 
was beautiful, but unusually quiet. 

There was the usual service in the Epis- 
copal church, which was very tastefully dec- 
orated. At night a sociable at Mrs. Long's 
broke the monotony. There the young men 
and maidens congregated in large numbers, 
and their gaiety continued far towards mid- 

night. Wednesday, Thursday. Friday passed 
with little to mark them. On Saturday the 
young people were busy preparing for the 
" Grand Art Gallery and Tableaux," which 
came off that night with great eclat. 

The great masquerade on Monday night 
was, however, the crowning event of the 
season. Many of the costumes were elegant, 
and all were interesting. After the removal 
of the masks, the company indulged in the 
intellectual pastime of pinning tails, blind- 
folded, on a tailless donkey. The games 
lasted till the darkest hour of night, when 
with the ringing of a bell the old year was bid- 
den goodbye, and welcome given to the new. 
A delightful evening at Dr. Manning's on 
Wednesday, closed the festivities of the holi- 

Quite a number of ladies and gentlemen 
spent Christmas on the Hill, adding much to 
the charm of the season. Among them must 



be mentioned especially Mr. James S. Man- 
ning and his beautiful bride ne'e Miss Julia 
Cain, Dr. John M. and Mr. Isaac H. Man- 
ning, Mr. Ernest P. Mangum, Dr. and Mrs. 
H. B. Battle, Dr. K. P. Battle, Jr., Prof. 
Aug. W. Long, and Mr. V. W. Long of the 
Winston Sentinel. 

The students will all congratulate our 
friend, the Rev. G. B. Taylor, on the acqui- 
sition of a charming wife. He was married 
during the holidays to Miss Cabell, of Nor- 
wood, Va. 

The new Rugby "egg" goes all right 
when you kick it on the end. What's the 
matter with foot-ball any how ? Sick ? 

Centennial Celebration of the Grant- 
ing of the Charter of the University. — 

In 1789 the charter of the University was 
* granted by the General Assembly of North 
Carolina, so that this is the centennial anni- 
versary of that event. 

An appropriate centennial celebration will 
be held at the University during commence- 
ment week next June. 

An attractive program is now maturing 
and there is every promise of a celebration 
worthy of the occasion and full of entertain- 
ment. The general outline of the program 
is, as follows : 

Tuesday : Centennial Celebration by the 
Dialectic and Philanthropic Societies ; Senior 
class-day exercises ; Speeches by Society 

Wednesday :. Celebration by the Alumni, 
address in Memorial Hall, Reunion of the 
Alumni by Classes in Memorial Hall, Special 
Exercises by each Class of Alumni ; Re- 
union of the Alumni by Classes at dinner 
with speeches, toasts, reminiscences, &c. 
Address at night, special exercises by the 
Alumni. Besides the two addresses to be de- 
livered on Wednesday, the other permanent 
literary contributions will be a complete His- 
tory of the University and a complete Cata- 
logue of all Students of the University from 
the beginning. 

Thursday : Annual Commencement; at 
night, Alumni Reception in the Library ; 


Costume Ball by the Alumni and Students in 
the Gymnasium, the costumes to be those of 
one hundred years ago. 

Last year's plan of offering special courses 
of instruction for the benefit of the teachers 
of the State, will be continued this spring, 
beginning February 18, 1889. Courses 
adapted to the needs of teachers will be 
offered in each department of the University. 
Classes will be organized on application from 
five teachers. No charge is made for tuition. 
The only fee is one of $5, which includes 
matriculation, room-rent, servant's hire, etc. 
The courses will continue for three months. 

The election of Ball Managers for '89 
was hotly contested, but with perfect good- 
feeling throughout. Gaston Battle, Rocky 
Mount, was chosen Chief Manager. The 
Sub-Managers are, from the Dialectic : A. 
S. Williams, Wilmington, R. G. Vaughn, 
Madison, and R. W. Bingham, Bingham 
School ; from the Philanthropic : J.J. Phil- 
ips, Tarboro, Paul Branch, Wilson, and 
Henry Staton, Tarboro. 

New Portrait. — Our pride in the collec- 
tions of paintings of eminent men belonging 
to the two Literary Societies increases con- 
tinually. The Di's have just received an 
addition in the shape of a fine portrait of our 
President, Hon. Kemp P. Battle. It was 
painted by William Garl Browne, the well- 
known Washington artist, and is both an 
excellent likeness and an elegant piece of 
work. The portrait was presented, at 
the request of the Society, by Mrs. 
Battle, entirely without the knowledge of the 
President, and his astonishment on first see- 
ing the picture was something really amusing. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. — 
Forty-first Meeting, January 8th, 1889. 

Vice-President Graves presided. The fol- 
lowing papers were read: 

Report on Progress in Geology: The Uni- 
fication of Nomenclature and Symbols. Pro- 
fessor Holmes. 

Report on Progress in . Physics and En- 
gineering: The Application of Electricity 
to Street Railways. Professor Gore. 



Report on Progress in Mathematics: Pro- 
fessor Love substituted an historical sketch of 
mathematical training in the University of 
North Carolina for this report. 

History of Mathematics in the Middle 
Ages. Professor Graves. 

Early Legislation against Food Adultera- 
tion. Professor Venable. 

The Secretary exhibited the watch of Rev. 
Dr. Mitchell, which was worn by him when 
he met his death. This watch has been pre- 
sented to the Society by Rev. Mr. Summerell, 
the grandson of Dr. Mitchell. 

The Secretary reported three additional 
exchanges and eighty-seven books and pam- 
phlets received. 

Messrs. Patterson and Roberson were re- 
ceived as associate members. 

The Society's Journal, Vol. V, Part II, 
has been issued with commendable prompt- 
ness. The period covered is July-Decem- 
ber, 1888, and the contents include: " The 
Erection of the Monument to Elisha Mitch- 
ell on Mitchell's High Peak," W. B. Phil- 
lips; "Soaring of the Turkey Vulture," G. 
F. Atkinson; "Of the Three Crystallogtaphic 
Axes," W. B. Phillips; "Chlorination of 
Auriferous Sulphides," E. A. Thies; "A 
Method of finding the Evolute of the four- 
cusped Hypocycloid," R. II. Graves; " Mica 
Mining in North Carolina," W. B. Phillips; 
" Recalculations of the Atomic Weights," 
F. P. Venable; " The Change in Superphos- 
phates when they are applied to the Soil," 
H. B. Battle; "A Partial Chemical Exam- 
ination of some Species of the Genus Ilex,'' 
F. P. Venable; "Report of the Recording 
Secretary," J. W. Gore; List of Exchanges. 

Shakspere Club. — January 15th, 1889. 

Mr. W. M. Curtis presented the first of a 
series of readings on the contemporaries of 
Shakspere, choosing for his subject Kyd's 
Spanish Tragedy. A tragedy of blood, the 
theme being the workings of revenge. 
Structure of the verse is good, though it can- 
not compare in power with parallel situations 
in Shakspere. 

The regular subject for discussion was 
Measure for Measure. 

Mr. Hayne Davis was unfavorably im- 
pressed with the play. He criticises the ex- 
cercUe of mercy here, and does not uphold 
the maxim: " Better that ninety-nine guilty 
men escape, than one innocent should per- 
ish." We are plunged here into a sea of 
vice and immorality out of which the poet 
does not rescue us. An original criticism. 

Mr. J. E. B. Davis compared the plot of 
Measure for Measure with that of All 's 
Well that Ends Well, and the Merchant of 
Venice, in a very suggestive manner. 

Mr. Geo. S. Wills gave as a gleaning from 
this drama, that it is characterized through- 
out by hypocrisy, comparing with it the real 
state of affairs, under Elizabeth especially. 

Dr. Hume : Shakspere 's Use of the Bible. 
Shakspere's whole works show him to have 
been very familiar with the teachings of our 
Savior. The very frequent quotations and 
references to the Scriptures, and his setting 
forth of the main points of the received the- 
ology, attest this. 

The subject for next meeting is the Win- 
ter s Tale. 

The Seminary of Literature and Phi- 
lology discussed the subject of Words, at the 
meeting held January 30th. 

Mr. J. S. Taylor presented a paper treat- 
ing the geographical names upon the map of 
Europe, which show Roman influences. 

Mr. C. A. Rankin read a paper containing 
much curious information about Christian 
names from the Greek. 

Professor Winston, the President of the 
Seminary, discussed the prevalence of agri- 
cultural words in the Latin vocabulary, 
plainly showing that the Romans were, first 
of all, an agricultural people. 

Professor Alexander discussed certain 
words used in ecclesiastical terminology — 
most of them from the Greek. 

Professor Toy gave an account of the gene- 
sis of words, and their growth and meaning. 

A report on Archaeology was presented by 

Professor Alexander, with an account of 
recent discoveries in antiquities. 

The subject for the next meeting is Dra- 
matic Literature. 



The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion now has a membership of about ninety- 
five, two-thirds of whom are active, and 
the remainder associate members. This is 
by far the largest membership this Associa- 
tion has ever had. Over a hundred dollars 
is now in hand for the furnishing of the ad- 
ditional room, and the work is in the hands 
of a committee. Nearly a hundred more is 

Mr. S. M. Sayford, who recently visited 
us, won the hearts of many by his manly, 
honest bearing, and his strong, yet prudent, 
manner of address. His work is directed, 
first, toward raising the standard of Christian 
life, among college students especially, be- 
lieving that if the Christian's life is what 
it should be, the unconverted cannot long 
withstand it. Why should not every Chris- 
tian student take as his motto, " High 
ground," and put the religion of Christ above 

Mr. Sayford represents a movement started 
among the Christian students of Amherst, 
and his purpose is to visit the Universities of 
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and the 
Pacific Coast States. 

Mr. R. P. Wilder, of Princeton, who is 
one of the originators of the Students' Vol- 
unteer Mission movement, will arrive here 
about February 5-6. 

The State Convention at Wilmington, 
March 21-24, promises to be the largest ever 
held in this or any Southern State. The 
General Secretary at Wilmington sends word 
that " not less than twenty-five delegates are 
invited and expected " from Chapel Hill. 

Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, the world re- 
nowned specialist in mind diseases, says : 
" I am familiar with various systems for 
improving the memory, including, among 
others, those of Feinaigle, Gourund and Dr. 
Pick, and I have recently become acquainted 
with the system in all its details and applica- 
tions taught by Prof. Loisette. I am there- 
fore enabled to state that his is, in all its 

essential features, entirely original; that its 
principles and methods are different from all 
others, and that it presents no material analo- 
gies to that of any other system. 

"I consider Prof. Loisette's system to be 
anew departure in the education of the mem- 
ory and attention, and of very great value ; 
that, it being a systematic body of principles 
and methods, it should be studied as an en- 
tirety to be understood and appreciated ; 
that a correct view of it cannot be obtained 
by examining isolated passages of it. 

"William A. Hammond. 

" New York, July 10. 1888. "• 


I expect to be in Chapel Hill during the 
month of April to make 


Cabinet and Card Photographs. 

I trust that all will bear this in mind, and 
give me a liberal patronage. 

Being grateful for former favors, 
1 am, very truly, 



Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina. 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

The MAGAZINE has six departments, each conducted by a student 
selected with a view to his qualifications for the work in hand. 

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT is mainly intended to exhibit 
the character of the work done in the Societies, to encourage literary 
efforts and co-operate with the chairs in the University in developing 
a critical appreciation of the masters of the language. It is a vehicle 
of communication between the Alumni of the Institution, a repository 
of interesting bits of history, important results in scientific investiga- 
tion and discussion of leading questions in general. 

THE COLLEGE RECORD will chronicle the events of college 
life. The proceedings of the Mitchell Scientific Society, the Histor- 
ical Society, the work of the Shakespeare Club, the Y. M. C. A., the 
Temperance Band, and the other organizations, social and literary, 
which find a footing in the University, will be given in detail. 

THE PERSONAL DEPARTMENT will tell what "Chapel Hill- 
ians " are doing here and elsewhere, and give expression to whatever 
of wit the funny editor may possess. 

THE EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT will give the opinions of a 
student on the current periodicals, latest books, &c, together with 
such items as may be of interest to those living in the college world. 

Sketches of distinguished North Carolinians, Notes of Travel, Essays 
by members of the Faculty, Original poems and other papers are 
being prepared for subsequent issues. Our popular Senator, HON. 
Z. B. VANCE, will contribute a very interesting article to the MAGA- 
ZINE during the year. 

The Magazine is warmly endorsed by leading men of the State, 
has bona fide subscribers all over the country, and a growing advertis- 
ing patronage. It appeals for support to all the Alumni of the Uni- 
versity, to lovers of education everywhere, and especially to those im- 
bued with the spirit of progress that now pervades our land. 

Subscribe and persuade your friends to subscribe. 


One copy one year $i oo 

One copy six months 75 

Six copies one year 5 OO 

Business men will find the MAGAZINE a good advertising medium. 


W. M. HAMMOND, Business Manager, 





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OXs'&ls, '\bo~LLGLs'u!ls, faudrffAis cuvl>cL fbUs&~esbs 

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6Hfred Wittiams & &o/s 


fi^" Largest stock in the State and Lowest Prices Guaranteed. 



(Opposite the Entrance to the Campus), 


Books, Stationery, Students' Supplies, 


Pure Candies, Nuts, Foreign Fruits. 

Prescription Department Equipped with Special Care. 







25 Popular Brands of Cigars. 


Fancy and Staple Groceries, 



Gents' Furnishing Goods 




1000 Bargains in Books 


Archway * Bookstore, 


<fc7R 2c2 tf» <£9Rn 00 A MONTH can 
vP I v/i LU \P/L\J\Ji'~~ *"* be made working 

for us. Agents preferred who can furnish a horse 
and give their whole time to the business. Spare 
momeuts may be profitably employed also. A few 
vacancies in towns and cities. B. F. JOHNSON & 
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School, College and Fraternity- 
Work to order. 

Fine Watches, Diamonds, Solid 
Silver and Plated Ware, Jewelry, 
Clocks and Spectacles. 

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Old Series, Vol. XXI. No. 4. New Series, Vol. VIII. 












Old Times in Chapel Hill, No. XIII: Professors Fetter and Hubbard Mrs. C. P. 

Spencer ...'. 147 

A Chapter in Modern History ... George S. Wills 154 

Inscription on Gov. Benjamin Williams's Monument 158 

A Mountain Tramp: From Highlands to Blowing Rock. ...W. J. B. 159 

Robert Paine Dick, LL. D.: With Portrait (Frontispiece) Kemp P. Battle 166 

Biographical Sketches of the Confederate Dead S. B. Weeks i 76 

Editor's Table: — Portraits; A Sunday Nuisance; History of Education in North Carolina 180 

The College World : — News of Other Colleges; North Carolina Colleges and Schools; 

Inter-Collegiate Foot-ball 182 

Clippings from Exchanges 185 

Alumni and Other Personals _'■ 186 

BOOK Reviews : — First Steps in North Carolina History; Our Phil, and Other Stories; 
The Plantation Negro as a Freeman; Light of Two Centuries ; Politics as a Duty and 
as a Career; How to be Successful on the Road 188 

University Record-. — New Trustees; Notes; A Sprynge Fanceye; February Twenty- 
Second; The Luckless Lover; Proceedings of Societies : Elisha Mitchell Scientific 
Society, Shakspere Club, Seminary of Literature and Philology, Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association 190 




Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 

Professor of Political Economy. Constitutional and International I.a\v. 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. 

Rev. ADOLPHUS W. MANGUM, A. M., I). !>.. 
Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. 


Professor of Mathematics. 

Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. 


Professor of General and Analytical Chemistry. 

Professor of Geology and Natural History. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 

Hon. JOHN MANNING, A. M., LL. L).. 

Professor of Law. 

Rev. THOMAS HUME. Jr., M. A., D. D.. 

Professor of the English Language and Literature. 


Professor of Modern Languages. 

Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 

Associate Professor of Mathematics. 

T. L. MOORE. } , ., . 
S. C. BRAGAW, \ L'brar.ans. 

Professor GORE, Registrar. 

Professor LOVE. Secretary. 

W. T. PATTERSON. Bursar. 

Instruction is offered in three regular courses of study. Special and optional courses are 
provided in Mineralogy, Chemistry and other sciences relating to Agncuhure. School 
of Law fully organized. The sessions begin the last Thursday in August and end the 
first Thursday in June, with a vacation of about one week at Christmas. 

For catalogues or other information, address 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President. 





niversity Magazine. 


Old Series, Vol. XXI. 
New Series, Vol VIII. 


No. 4. 


Wm. Jas. Battle, Hunter L. Harris, 

Walter M. Hammond. Logan D. Howell. 


No. XIII. 


Since the publication of the twelfth number of these papers in our 
MAGAZINE, a funeral servicejhas been held in Chapel Hill which, to the 
older members of society, strongly recalled the days " before the war." 

On Sunday morning, January 27th, 1889, Prof. M. Fetter, who held 
the chair of Greek in this University from 1838 to 1868, died at the 
residence of his son Charles, in Pulaski City, Va. His remains were 
brought here and interred with Masonic ceremonies on the 29th. A 
large gathering of our population at the Episcopal church, where the 
religious services were held, testified to the kindly remembrance in 
which the community still holds Mr. Fetter. He had lived here thirty 
years, and I venture to say had not an zmfriend in the place. Not a 
man or woman who had known him in the old days but had some- 
thing kind to say of him and of his wife, who died here in 1867, and 
by the side of whose grave his was made. 

Exactly twenty years ago, in January, '69, Mr. Fetter left his home 


in Chapel Hill, having been, with all his colleagues in the University, 
unchaired in 1868 by the action of Gov. Holden and his Radical council. 
Upon the news of that action, most of the Faculty remained quietly 
in their own homes, waiting to see what the next move of the govern- 
ment wise men would be. 

On the 11th of August, Mr. Fetter was driving Gov. Swain in a 
buggy to which was harnessed Gov. Swain's wild " Sherman mare." 
As before related, on their return home the mare ran away and both 
the gentlemen were thrown out. The injuries received by the Gover- 
nor resulted in his death on the 27th. Mr. Fetter was a good deal 
hurt, but recovered in the course of a week or two. 

The Governor's unlooked for death dissipated any idea that may 
have been entertained that the old order of things would be restored 
here. Every man had now to look for a new home. At their time of 
life, teaching was, of course, their sole resource. Mr. Fetter resolved 
to assume the charge of a boys' school in Henderson, in conjunction 
with two of his sons, all four of whom had been soldiers in Lee's army. 

Thenceforth he taught at various points in the State, welcomed and 
befriended wherever he went by old students of the University, who 
are always loyal to their old Faculty after they leave Chapel Hill, 
whatever discord there may be between them while in college. 

On the first day of last September, died in Raleigh, the Rev. Dr. 
Hubbard, Professor of Latin in the University from 1850 to 1868, 
and colleague, therefore, of Prof. Fetter for eighteen years. He was 
born in 18)0. / 

These two gentlemen, thus so long and closely associated, were 
always good friends and good neighbors. They have both gone over 
now to the great majority, and we may write of them, nil uisi bonum. 

Mr. Fetter was of German blood, born in 1 809 in Lancaster, Pa., where 
he was a protege, and afterwards a pupil of the late Doctor Muhlen- 
berg, of the Episcopal communion. Mr. Fetter was designed for the 
ministry of that church, and was educated partly at Flushing, Long 
Island, and partly at Andover, Massachusetts. He proved himself an 
excellent linguist, becoming well accomplished in the Hebrew, Greek, 
Latin, German, and French languages ; and in the end these attain- 
ments led him to a professor's chair rather than to the pulpit. 

He came to Chapel Hill in 1838, bringing his bride with him, neither 
of them supposing this would be more than a temporary banishment 
to the wilds of North Carolina. Yet here they lived, and were useful 


and influential, here their children were born and reared, and here 
they now rest. 

Dr. Hubbard was a. native of Connecticut, a graduate of Williams 
College, and a minister of the P. E. Church. His wife was a daughter 
of Hon. Isaac Bates, for many years United States Senator from 
Massachusetts. He was rector of the church at Newbern, N. C, be- 
fore his appointment at the University. 

He was essentially a man of letters, loving books and all that a 
library implies, and especially well read in the Latin and English liter- 
atures. He was also an elegant and forcible writer. Whenever Gov- 
ernor Swain wanted anything particularly well written, that should 
call attention to and reflect the highest credit upon the University, he 
was accustomed to bespeak Dr. Hubbard's pen. 

The Doctor took his ease in his study. There was his nest of de- 
lights. He was a disciple of Coleridge, and said that he owed more to 
him than to any other master, ancient or modern. 

An hour of rare and tranquil pleasure awaited the friend who should 
step into his well-furnished study, and find him comfortably seated 
with a long-stemmed pipe in hand, surrounded by old books and new 
books, reviews, magazines and papers, ready to discourse or equally 
ready to listen. Always courtly and genial, always deliberate and 
dignified, he still possessed a vein of good humored but thoroughly 
effective satire that on occasion gave a decided edge to his talk. 
Withal a slight air of pensive reflection attended him, as of a philoso. 
pher who finds some of life's problems too hard for him. 

He carried his elegant and recherche tastes into all his surroundings, 
as far as he could. He built the house on Cameron avenue, on the 
west corner of the Chatham road, and surrounded it with a dense 
growth of rare and beautiful shrubbery. 

In a quiet and dignified way he took great pains with his yard and 
garden, enjoying choice flowers and choice fruits equally with choice 
books and choice friends. I saw him enter his house one day during 
the war with a basketful of the edible mushroom which he had col- 
lected in his morning's walk. He would delight in such a dish as that 
perhaps because it was rare, while few of his neighbors had tastes suf- 
ficiently refined to appreciate it. 

His house was noted for abundant and elegant hospitality. Mrs. 
Hubbard was a woman " of resources," who had seen a great deal of 


good society, and well understood the art of entertaining. She was 
an admirable housekeeper and enjoyed her preeminence. All the 
distinguished people went to Doctor Hubbard's as a matter of course — 
(and some other of our housekeepers were privately thankful that 
such was the established custom). 

Doctor Hubbard wrote a good deal for the papers and for literary 
journals. He was a fine preacher — that is, he wrote fine sermons. 
He was no orator ; he read quietly and impressively, but rather monot- 
onously. He published nothing of permanent value. Of all his 
varied reading and study and acquirements for more than fifty years 
nothing remains. 

How much to be lamented is the indifference to literary achievement 
and fame which seems to possess our learned men in North Carolina. 
They are not " producers." A few good lectures, a few magazine 
articles — just enough to show what they might do — and there an end. 

" A book" says Rufus Choate, " is the only immortality." 

Prof. Fetter was really a more inactive man than Doctor Hubbard, 
though he had a brisker gait and air, and went up and down the town, 
and was in and out of the stores and places of business much more 
frequently. Still he did not accomplish as much. He, too, delighted 
in a garden and kept a good one, though he did not lay himself out 
on ornamental things. He loved company too, and was eminently 
social in his habits, but cared for no laudations of his hospitality. He 
was content to let other people reap such laurels. He had a large 
family, while Doctor Hubbard had but one child, and this circumstance 
alone would have differentiated the two men. Mr. Fetter, however, 
lived handsomely and well, and no one could preside over an elegant 
entertainment with a better grace than Mrs. Fetter, who was exceed- 
ingly popular, admired and courted by everybody. 

The years between '50 and '60 were surely pleasant years (or Chapel 
Hill. There may have been some lotos-eating among its people ; 
there was certainly 

" The torrent's smoothness ere it dash below." 

How agreeable an evening on Mr. Fetter's piazza! He would have a 
cigar of exquisite quality for a favorite guest, for he was a connoisseur 
in tobacco, and also knew a good glass of wine when he saw it. When 
the topic suited him he talked well, and showed good judgment in the 


affairs of life. His advice was often sought. He was sympathetic, 
good-natured, and full of bonhomie. A better neighbor to live near 
there could hardly be. 

It now remains to consider and contrast the work of these two 
Professors, prominent members of a group of teachers whose com- 
bined service to the State was unusually prolonged, faithfully per- 
formed, and not insignificant in its results. 

They were both good scholars in various languages, but on very 
different lines of scholarship. Dr. Hubbard's attainments in language 
were neither so varied nor so accurate as those of Mr. Fetter, who was 
well versed in the history and forms of words, in the construction and 
in the idioms of a language. Dr. Hubbard would be better acquainted 
with what that language conveyed, with its literature, and with all 
matters relating to culture and taste. Mr. Fetter referred you to the 
grammars and the lexicons, the authorities and the various readings. 
He was like the miner who brings the ore from the hills in its native 
strength and richness. Dr. Hubbard was a refiner of the metal. He 
dwelt on the thoughts, the facts elicited, — on the fancies of the poets, 
on the dogmas of the philosophers. 

For a lazy pupil, or a dull one, I do not think Dr. Hubbard had 
much inspiration. He would not be bothered with him. But for a 
bright, ambitious young man he would be an attractive and judicious 
guide into fair fields and pastures new. 

It was a rule of the Faculty in those days that each professor should 
in turn spend a couple of hours or so of every night in a week in or 
around the college buildings. This was undertaken as a disciplinary 
measure. It was known that a professor or the President was some- 
where inside the campus, and measures had to be taken accordingly. 
The different ways in which the Faculty spent these evenings were 
generally characteristic of each man. Dr. Mitchell was very apt to be 
in his laboratory. Governor Swain would go to the University 
Library (then his recitation room). Dr. Phillips walked about a good 
deal, went from room to room, now and then sitting down in some 
good fellow's room for a few minutes' chat. So would Professor 
Fetter. Dr. Hubbard, if not found in a library, was generally seated 
for the evening in some senior's room, where a pipe would be offered 
him, and where the talk would flow quietly, and be prolonged late into 
the night. 


Good scholars, who were honestly making the most of their time at 
the University, would say of these evenings that they were more 
instructive and inspiring by far than the Doctor's recitation hours. 
I have heard "old students" speak very fondly of these visits from 
their Professors — visits highly prized, and conferring considerable 
dignity on those oftenest favored with them, and leading, in some 
cases, to far-reaching effects. 

The practice appears to me, even yet, a good one ; good for both 
parties, and productive of good feeling and a good understanding all 
round. Perhaps in the inevitable reactions of time, the ebb and flow, 
the ever recurrent swing of the pendulum in human affairs, to which 
Burke so often alludes and declares necessary to the " drawing out the 
full harmony of the universe, — "perhaps many of these old, proscribed, 
forgotten regulations will be revived and resorted to once more. 

Both of these old friends may be said to have been useful citizens of 
North Carolina. What more, what better, can a man get out of life 
than this: to be useful in his day and generation? They were diligent 
students ; they were exact and thorough teachers according to the 
lights of their day ; they were good disciplinarians. Both were stanch 
churchmen of the old school. 

On the whole, and considering seriously the routine of a college 
professor's life, it cannot be said to be as favorable to the all-round sym- 
metrical expansion of his faculties as that of him who heads a large 
school. The professorship may have more of dignity, and may afford 
more" learned leisure," but the tendency of confinement to one speci- 
alty in teaching is to make the mind run in one rut ; and the professor 
himself, if he be not careful, is apt to slip into a perfunctory way of 
doing his work. Two things will save him : if he loves teaching per se, 
and delights to gather that he may impart ; also, if he has a keen 
literary taste, and leaps easily from time to time into other fields than 
his own. He who reads much will never drop into formality or 

A teacher in a large school has this advantage, that he is compelled 
to turn his mind to a variety of subjects. He cannot go round and 
round in a treadmill, nor is he likely to be found asking in 1889 the 
same questions upon the same line of Homer that he asked in 1879, 
or making precisely the same statements about the Greek digamma or 
the adversative conjunction. 


When a professor is turned out of his office at the " past-meridian " of 
life, he finds himself stiff and rusty in many mental exercises that were 
once familiar. He does not know how to adapt his instructions to the 
minds of children. Besides, as Dr. Hubbard himself said, nobody 
wants an elderly man these days. They must go to the wall. This is 
preeminently the age of the young man (and also of the young woman). 

Our old professors then stood quietly aside. They no doubt felt 
the guilt of being over fifty years old. Neither Dr. Hubbard nor 
Mr. Fetter imagined for themselves that more than twenty years of 
struggle for a living lay yet before them. Dr. Hubbard went North 
at first. His church and her schools opened their arms to him, and he 
found employment as both preacher and teacher at St. John's school 
in Manlius, New York. While there he was so unhappy as to lose not 
only his devoted wife but his only child, the wife of T. M. Argo, now 
our Solicitor for the Fourth District. Mrs. Argo was handsome, 
accomplished and most amiable. She was the light of his eyes. 
From this blow he never recovered. 

After some years he returned to North Carolina to be with his 
grandson at Mr. Argo's house, where he was attended with all the love 
and honor that should accompany old age. He taught in the church 
school of St. Augustine to nearly the last of his life, and was found 
dead on his knees at his bedside. 

Mr. Fetter also was happy in receiving during his last months of 
infirmity the tender care of good children and grand-children. Death 
came gently to them both, and was not unwelcome. 

" From the world's bitter wind, 
They have sought shelter in the shadow of the tomb." 

C. P. Spencer. 



When Napoleon Bonaparte was on St. Helena, he expressed it as 
his belief that Italy was " one sole nation: the unity of customs, of 
language, of literature, in some future, more or less distan: , will unite 
all its inhabitants under one sole government, and Rome is undoub- 
tedly the capital that will be selected." 

Bonaparte was the acutest statesman of his time. He had fought 
in Italy, and studied its inhabitants thoroughly. Still, few looked 
upon this prophecy as more than a dream. And nothing in the condi- 
tion of Italy, at this time, would lead the casual observer to believe 
that it would ever be a united nation. It was divided into a great 
number of petty States, each independent of the other and governed 
by its own ruler. Many of the rulers were foreign-born, all of them 
satellites of the Austrian court, who kept their places only when 
surrounded by Austrian soldiers, and, like puppets, moved when the 
Viennese ministry pulled the wires. 

The people were ignorant, imposed upon by the clergy, and heavily 
taxed for the benefit of the ruling despots. Prince Metternich had 
characterized Italy as a " geographical expression," and Italian unity 
as a " dream." 

Church and State were united. The Roman Catholic Church was 
Austria's right arm in keeping Italy in the blackest darkness. The 
Pope had both temporal and spiritual power. Shut up in the mediae- 
val air of the Vatican, he strenuously opposed everything that did not 
savor of the musty past. 

The father confessors everywhere kept the consciences of their parish- 
ioners, and those whose views did not accord with the Roman Church 
were quietly informed on, and as quietly disposed of — how, their 
friends might imagine, but could never know. 

The press was subject to the strictest censorship of both Church 
and State. Agents of the Austrian Government, on the one hand, 
Roman Catholic priests on the other, with hawk-like vigilance, watched 
o see that no measure was advocated, no sentiment expressed, that 
would arouse in the Italian heart a desire for higher and better things. 
Many of the noblest of the Italians, who advocated a change, were 
exiled, consigned to the galleys and prisons, or executed. 


A spirit of unity, incited by the writings of Manin, Mazzini, and 
others, whose object was a united Italy, with Rome for its capital, 
arose, and grew until the whole land was moved by it. The memory 
of the day when Roman citizenship was a passport of safety through- 
out the civilized world, when Caesar led the Roman legions to victory 
in Gaul and Germania ; of later days, when Venice was the favored 
" Queen of the Adriatic," when Parma, Verona, and Mantua were 
beautiful cities, while England and France were wildernesses of barba- 
rians, aroused in the breasts of the Italians a longing to be lifted out 
of their degraded condition. 

What at first was a mere hope for freedom, for unity, had grown 
into an intense desire, and only lacked a leader to give the movement 
definite shape. Charles Albert, King of Piedmont, undertook this and 
failed. At Novara, on the 23d of March, 1849, ^ e was defeated, and 
the Piedmontese arm}/ almost annihilated. The whole plan of the 
Italian question was changed. Charles Albert abdicated in favor of 
his son, Victor Emmanuel. The last- spark of liberty seemed to be 
extinguished. The new king felt his throne quiver and totter as he 
ascended it. Heart-broken on account of his father's misfortunes and 
his country's woes, he had to bear, single-handed, the blame of the 
Novara defeat, and the humiliating armistice that followed. During 
the succeeding ten years, nothing advanced, directly, the Italian cause. 
But slowly, silently, surely, the great movement was assuming a defi- 
nite shape, crystallizing around Piedmont as the centre and Victor 
Emmanuel as the one leader. At the expiration of the ten years' 
armistice, in answer to Austria's demand for an unconditional sur- 
render, Victor Emmanuel chose war. The people were thoroughly 
aroused. Italians of all classes pledged themselves to Victor Em- 
manuel and their country's cause. Venice declared that "the silver 
of the churches, the bronze of the bells, the gold and jewels of the 
wealthy, the copper vessels of the kitchen, the very bullets and bails 
of the enemy," would be used to defend the city, and drive the 
foreigner from Italian soil. Women of all classes aided in fitting out 
volunteers. Those who were too poor to do anything else gladly sold 
their beautiful hair, and gave the money. 

An alliance was formed with Napoleon III., and at the double battle 
of Solferino and San Martino, in J 859, Austria was finally driven from 
Piedmont. Then followed a scene unparalleled in the world's history. 


One after another the Italian States drove out their rulers, and quietly 
united their fortunes to Piedmont and Victor Emmanuel. 

In i860, the king addressed the first Italian Parliament with the 
words : " Italy is not the Italy of the Romans, nor that of the Middle 
Ages, nor must it remain any longer a field open to foreign ambition, 
but rather must it be the Italy of the Italians." 

But the kingdom could not be complete without the Romagnon 
Provinces. They were still under the pontifical rule, and the Catholic 
part of Europe determined to keep them there. The question 
demanded the greatest diplomatic skill, and Victor's most valued 
counsellor was Camillo di Cavour. The work was progressing slowly, 
but surely, and on the 9th of October, 1870, Rome was annexed, the 
capstone of the Italian " Temple of Liberty " laid in place. Long 
years had this temple been in building. The architects, with Victor 
Emmanuel as the master-builder, had worked silently, fitting every 
part of the great mansion, so that when it came to be put together, 
like Solomon's Temple, every stone, every beam, every column, fitted 
in its place perfectly. 

No history of Italian unity without that of Victor Emmanuel is 
complete. Descended from a family whose history dates back to the 
tenth century, and v/hose men were always noted for their firm purpose 
and determination, whose women were virtuous, brave and intelligent, 
and brought up under his father's strict physical and mental discipline, 
he was well qualified to lead the Italians to victory. Rugged in 
appearance, plain in his dress and manners, he disliked court etiquette, 
and, above all, hated hypocrisy. When he first ascended the throne 
of Piedmont, he stood almost alone. Manin was in exile; Cavour 
not yet come into prominence ; Garibaldi and Mazzini doing more by 
their rash and unwise measures to retard than to advance Italian unity; 
moved by an extreme revolutionary spirit, the people were angry and 
suspicious on account of the recent defeats of the Italian armies. 
This served only to develop Victor's powers. One after another he 
solved the diplomatic and military questions that confronted him. 

Private business or pleasure never interfered with his duties as ruler. 
The toil, the anxiety, the heart-burnings of all those years when Italy's 
destiny hung in the balance, we can never appreciate. We know that 
they shortened his life. 

He was the patron of education, of social and political liberty, and 


especially of that personal dignity and self-respect so necessary to a 
nation's high standing. A man of the people, he moved among them, 
sympathizing with them in all their interests and pleasures. When 
Dr. Bruno, who attended the king in his last sickness, announced to 
the waiting crowd that " the first King of Italy was no more," his 
people wept as for a common father. With his death, Italy's youthful, 
romantic days ended, and with her new sovereign she entered upon 
her period of staid maturity. 

Humbert has been on his father's throne eleven years. Has Italy 
progressed or retrograded ? What is her present condition and out- 
look? Did Garibaldi, Cavour and Victor Emmanuel live, work and 
die in vain ? Is the result attained by long years of suffering, impris- 
onment, exile and death — years marked by toil and sacrifice — a thing 
of a day, a passing shadow? Think of the tendency to a strong, 
centralized government at Rome, and the loss of local self-rule and 
liberty; the ballot extended to an ignorant, vicious and idle populace, 
utterly unfit for free suffrage, and who never avail themselves of this 
privilege ; of the firm hold the E.oman Church, with its superstitions, 
has upon them ; of the demagogues, keeping politics in the front, to 
the detriment of all other interests. On the other hand, the Italians 
are united in language ; one law governs them, — the Roman law, 
which has been called " the most perfect exponent of the grand prin- 
ciples of universal jurisprudence." Education will prepare the people, 
unused to suffrage, for the responsibilities that belong to liberty. The 
Roman Catholic religion is daily losing its influence. Protestant mis- 
sionaries teach the inhabitants what it is to have a conscience freed 
from the constant scrutiny of the parish priest. 

The history of Italy has been the history of advancement and union. 
From a great number of petty States existing at the fall of the Western 
empire, Tuscany, Piedmont, and a few others were formed, and now 
but one State, and that the Kingdom of Italy, including the entire 
Italian peninsula, stands out as the result of thirteen centuries of 
aggregation. The end that Dante, Petrarch and Machiavelli yearned 
for and worked for is accomplished, and Italy is to-day one of the 
first nations of Europe. 

Geo. S. Wills. 



Benjamin Williams, of Moore county, was Governor in 1799 and 
again in 1S07. He was State Senator from his county in 1807 ar) d 
1809. As none of the books, except Mrs. Spencer's History, give the 
date of his death, we print the inscription on his monument in the 
burial ground on the plantation on Governor's Creek, which was the 
place of his residence. It was copied for us by the courtesy of one of 
our alumni, Wm. J.Adams, attorney at law, of Carthage. 


To the Memory 
COL. BENJAMIN WILLIAMS, who departed this life 20th day of July, 
18 14, aged 63 years and 7 months. 
In his youth he fought in the battles which procured the indepen- 
dence of his country, — In his riper years he was repeatedly called to 
preside as its Governor. 

Providence blessed him with a large share of its bounties, and he 
acted as her faithful steward ; 

" Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere ;" 
In his manners, with the open frankness of the Soldier, was the 
dignity and urbanity of the Gentleman. 
His hospitality and beneficence, in his several public and private 
relations, gained him the respect and warm attachment of all who 
knew him. 


To the memory of Mrs. Eliza Williams, relict of the late Gov- 
ernor Benjamin Williams, who died at Newbern 24th November, 1817, 
aged 54 years and 10 months. 

Reader ! 
Under this marble are the mortal remains of an affectionate wife, a 
tender mother, and one whose memory is now embalmed in the hearts 
of the poor of this extensive neighborhood. 



(Continued from the December Number.) 

At Highlands, we spent the night with Mr. Rideout, the leading 
merchant of the place, who is well known long before you reach the 
town. For some ten or twelve miles in every direction, at every mile is 
a sign setting forth the excellences of the store, and concluding with 
a statement of the number of miles to Rideout's. Getting off about 
seven, we walked to Clayton, twenty-five miles, along a very rough, 
uninteresting road. Long distances were entirely without dwellings, 
and it was late in the day before we found a dinner house. This we 
did, a mile or so within the Georgia line, with a man named Kelley, 
an old soldier in Ransom's brigade. He was sick for a long while in 
Wilmington, and was tenderly nursed by a Raleigh lady, whose name 
he had forgotten but was anxious to recover. 

Four miles from Clayton, we met a tramp like ourselves, who turned 
out to be a New Yorker named Dolge — son of the man of felt-shoe 
fame — who had walked all the way from Florida, and intended to 
keep on tramping till he reached his home. A little farther on we 
were caught by a violent thunderstorm, and almost knocked down by 
the lightning. The bolt struck within thirty yards of us, producing 
a sensation of having been hit with some force on the head with a 
stick. Clayton is a wretched village, the county-seat of Rabun county, 
the most lawless, disreputable county in Georgia. The Rabun roads 
are especially bad, exceeding any in North Carolina -except those of 

On the morning of Saturday, the 23d, we set off about half-past 
five for Tallulah, Son on a miserable nag and I in the mail carrier's 
buggy. The old mail carrier, a great fool, diverted himself all the 
way swearing at his horse, but, with all that, it took us nearly six hours 
to go seventeen miles. Stopping only a few minutes to refresh our- 
selves, we hastened onward on foot for Toccoa, some sixteen miles 
away. The famous Toccoa Falls are certainly very beautiful — a perfect 
gem, of a hundred and eighty-four feet clear pitch. Toccoa, it is said, 
means beautiful, while Tallulah signifies grand. 

We lingered long at this lovely spot, but soon the setting sun 


warned us to depart. Toccoa City, where we intended to take the cars 
back to Tallulah, was but a few miles off, but to our intense chagrin 
the cars had left us. Our information as to the schedule had been 
wrong. About eight, a man agreed to take us in a hack as far as 
Turnerville for a dollar and a quarter apiece, and we accepted his 
offer. From Turnerville to Tallulah, four miles, we walked by the 
light of the full moon, a, id arrived at the hotel about two, bringing 
down upon our devoted heads the deep curses of the proprietor and 
guests for having so rudely broken their slumbers. 

Sunday at Tallulah! what more delightful? Here the Tallulah 
river, quite a large stream, breaks through the mountain district down 
into the upland hills. Within a mile it falls over a thousand feet, 
thundering through a narrow chasm hundreds of feet deep. The falls 
themselves are five in number, all fine, but none of any great height, 
the highest not being over ninety feet, but taken with the surround- 
ings, the scene is truly sublime. Taking advantage of the civilized 
customs with which we came in contact — for Tallulah is a summer re- 
sort, and boasts three large hotels — we breakfasted late, but at once 
went to the falls and spent several hours around them. In the after- 
noon I went again, alone. The sun now cast his beams aslant, leaving 
one side of the canon in deep shadow, the other still brilliantly lighted. 
The roaring river drowned all other sounds, and long I was utterly 
alone, save for a few great birds which now and then flew over me. 
As I sat on a projecting rock on the side of the cliff, looking down at 
the Tempestia, there came over me thoughts too deep for utterance. 
But at length my reverie was broken, when I saw far beneath me a 
couple laughing and talking as they came suddenly around the wooden 
tower by the falls. 

On the following day we entered again within the gate of that para- 
gon of towns — Clayton ; almost worn out, but cold lemonade was very 
refreshing. While resting at Clayton, the Western mineralogist, Dr. 
C. D. Smith, came in. He, like ourselves, was going to Franklin, and 
we soon agreed to stop for the night at the same house, but as he was on 
horseback and we afoot, we started first. When we reached the stop- 
ping-place, however, what should the woman do but refuse to receive 
us ! She evidently thought we were genuine tramps, and was about to 
set the dog on us, when we remembered to have heard something 


about discretion being the better part of valor and beat a retreat. 
The house was just inside the State line, and we accounted for the 
woman's lack of hospitality by her proximity to the State of Georgia. 
We were helped to this conclusion by the fact that about two hours 
before we had had to pay for the buttermilk, which hitherto had inva- 
riably been given to us, often with real pleasure. I may say just here, 
though, that we afterwards got rid of this exalted notion of North 
Carolina hospitality. Speaking of being considered tramps, the various 
personages we were taken for was really amusing. At Tallulah we 
were thought professional base-ballists. Later, we were classed as sur- 
veyors, and at another place the people threw stones at us, regarding 
us as revenue officers. Yet, through all this, we had consoling satis- 
faction in the fact that nobody thought we were book-agents. 

When we were turned off by the woman with the bull-dog, we had 
already walked twenty-six miles, but stern necessity forced us four 
miles further. At this station there was a kitchen and one room with 
three beds, and two women and an old man dwelt there. They 
informed us that they usually retired early, and we, after thirty miles, 
didn't seriously object. But there were the women ! How were we 
to go to bed while they remained in the room ? Suddenly they dis- 
appeared, and we rushed under cover before they could come back. 
The old man then blew out the lamp, and I knew no more; but Son 
says he afterwards heard their fairy forms moving around, preparatory 
to bestowing themselves to rest. In the morning they had arisen 
before we awoke. 

By ten next day we reached Franklin, a pretty, growing town, the 
county-seat of Macon. Crossing the Cowee Range, we came to Web- 
ster that evening. Webster is three miles from the railroad, and, like 
all such towns, is utterly dead. But, instead of accepting the situation, 
and moving the county-seat to the railroad, the people have just built 
there a handsome court-house. Passing Sylva, we followed the rail- 
road to Waynesville. It was a most horrible walk. With the track 
muddy and slippery ; with rain, rain, rain all day long, not even rubber 
coats and umbrellas kept us dry. Once at Waynesville, a hot fire and 
a large batch of letters from home put us in a good humor. Recover- 
ing on the following day from our disappointment at not being able to 
go to Pisgah, a trip which the lowering clouds told us would be useless, 


we took the train for Asheville, and thence to Black Mountain, where 
the hotel was opened for our special benefit. 

The Murphy branch of the Western North Carolina Railroad is a 
very sorry road. The track is in a wretched condition, and there are 
evidences of neglect on every hand. The freight and passenger trains 
are combined, and it is very ludicrous to see the engine not able to 
pull the whole train up the steep grades, but take it up in installments. 
The engineers are paid so much for every mile they run, and so they 
double — as the installment plan is called — as often as they can find 

At breakfast at Black Mountain on the 30th, we were astonished to 
see Dolge, the fellow whom we had met near Clayton, and who, hav- 
ing gone on to Asheville, had waited two days to go to Mt. Mitchell 
and the Roan with us. He was a bright fellow, amusingly Northern 
in sentiment, but quite agreeable. Glad to have a new companion, 
we sauntered along till we came to the house of Charlie Glass, who 
was to be our guide. He could not start at once, so we went fishing, 
but had no luck. We at last got off about three, but stepped on the 
way to admire Senator Vance's elegant country home, Gombroon, 
set on a knoll right at the foot of Mt. Mitchell in a dense wood. 

It was getting late, so we hurried on up the mountain. Glass went 
very slowly, and appeared to feel the walk more than we did. He 
certainly puffed and blew far more. It grew more and more foggy 
every minute, and we soon perceived that it would be impossible to 
reach the top by sunset or even night. The fog became so dense and 
wet that we could have seen nothing had we been there, so rather 
than climb the mountain in the dark, we stopped to camp in a grassy, 
open place a mile from the peak. Coats were now very comfortable * 
and a fire was demanded. After much effort we succeeded in build- 
ing one in spite of the fog which had now become rain, and the want 
of an axe which Glass had neglected to bring up. Water was near by. 
so we had no trouble on that score. The spring was very cold : 46 F., 
colder than the one at the Half-way House, which was 49 F. 

It was now dark, and we were hungry. Glass made the coffee and 
we prepared supper. Suddenly we found that our vigilant guide had 
brought no cup out of which to drink the coffee. Consequently, we 
had to drink from the spout, passing the pot from one to the other — 
the coffee being without sugar, which Glass did not even possess. 


Nevertheless, we enjoyed supper hugely, biscuits and half a chicken 
apiece. We sat around the fire, expecting Glass to narrate thrilling 
bear stories to us, and tried in every way to bring him out, but he 
remained obstinately silent, gazing lazily at the fire. Cutting balsam 
boughs, we dried them over the fire and made a bed, then lay down 
with our feet to the fire and attempted to sleep, with only two thin 
blankets for all four of us. Weariness closed our eyes, but ere long 
the patter of rain and a sensation of great cold awoke us. A rousing 
fire warmed us up, and a cessation in the rain enabled us to sleep once 

Day came at last, but no rosy-fingered Aurora, goddess of the morn, 
greeted our expectant eyes. One blank, impenetrable wall of white 
mist on every side was all we could see. Breakfast — scanty, for 
Glass didn't bring enough — and a good fire, but chiefly the brisk walk 
to the Peak, set our blood in circulation once more. By the cairn over 
Dr. Mitchell's grave we waited two hours before we could obtain a 
bit of view, and then only towards the North. In an hour more all 
was again cloudy, and, fearing rain, we hurried down the west side of 
the mountain to Dolph Wilson's, parting from Glass with unfeigned 


Our ascent of Mt. Mitchell was thus disagreeable to the last degree. 
We could say that we had been to the top of Mt. Mitchell and seen 
Dr. Mitchell's grave, but that was all. And yet, the trip was far 
from being altogether joyless. The great forests of towering balsams 
which covered the mountain to its very top, almost inspired us 
with awe ; breathing that delicious odor, which seemed to banish 
as if by magic all feeling of sickness and weariness. The magnificent 
"purple laurel, entirely out of bloom in the valleys, was in full 
flower on the summit of the highest peak of the Appalachian 
chain. It grew in very large clusters, every separate flower perfect, on 
bushes which were almost trees. A species of purple lily, of which there 
were great beds, struck me as being particularly pretty. It showed a 
mass of small flowers on a tall, stiff stalk, making a pale purple cylin- 
der of from two to four inches long, and from one to two in diameter. 

Sunday, July 1st, at Dolph Wilson's. I had rested all Saturday 

afternoon, so I thought myself justified in going to Mitchell and Blue 

Sea Falls on Sunday. Son was unwell, and Dolge didn't care to go, 

so Wilson and I started alone soon after breakfast to go up the creek 



on which were Mitchell Falls. Verily we had rather a rough time of it. 
There was no path, and we picked our way as best we could, first 
going along a cattle trail, then taking to the bed of the stream, next 
through laurel thickets to the Falls. It is a very dark, dismal spot, 
and its associations make it a sad one to visit. After cutting sticks 
and collecting mementoes, we retraced our steps four miles and sat 
down on rocks in the stream to eat our dinner. O, that dinner! 
Chicken, biscuit and honey, of excellent quality and very satisfactory 
quantity. The afternoon we devoted to the Blue Sea Falls, pretty 
but not remarkable. 

The road to Bakersville next day was rough, hot and hilly. We 
stopped to call on Big Tom Wilson, but, greatly to our regret, he was 
not at home. Yancey county, through which we were now passing, 
was worse even than Rabun county. Georgia, and that is saying much. 
The inhabitants are miserable looking, inhospitable and poverty 
stricken. We were refused dinner no less than three times, and the one 
we did get made us sick. Then, too, the people lied so outrageously 
about distances. Within a quarter of a mile, three people said the 
distance to Bakersville was nine, eighteen and twelve miles. All were 
wrong. It was really fifteen. 

Next morning, on the way to the Roan, we went to the Clarissa 
Buchanan mica mines, the only mines in Mitchell county then being 
worked. But even they were mined only a little. The industry has been 
ruined by foreign cheap mica. We went down into the shaft of this 
mine, with lamp on finger, climbing with great care down the ladders 
and clinging to ropes to avoid falling. Nobody was actually at work, 
and we soon got enough and came up. covered with mica mud, which 
is nothing to be sneered at, for it is almost impossible to get rid of it. 

Loading ourselves with specimens, we set off for the Roan over a 
mountain, small but very steep. But, alas! when the other side had 
been gained after much labor, we found that we were still only at the 
foot of the Roan. And it began to rain! Delightful ! delightful ! 
We trudged on, though, and at last got to the top. But what good 
did that do us ? We couldn't see two steps away — nothing but clouds, 
clouds, above, below, all around us. Such a thing as a glorious sun- 
set was out of the question. We gave that up, and only longed to 
reach the Cloudland Hotel. It seemed to us that after reaching the 
top, the road went down, and we feared we should be overtaken 


by night before we could find shelter. But suddenly the big barn-like 
hotel loomed up into view, and we had gained the haven where we. 
would be. Next day we found that, in some mysterious way, we had 
gone round the hotel and come up on the Tennessee side. How it 
happened is strange. Never can the writer rest satisfied, till he inves- 
tigates the matter when he can see. The Cloudland Hotel is a great 
box, built entirely of balsam, cut and sawed near the top of the moun- 
tain. It is remarkable for two things : first, its great size, and, second, 
for the vast number of knots in the walls. The great amusement is 
to knock them out by a sharp blow with a cane. It is possible to 
become very dextrous at this. The hotel has never paid well. It is 
too inaccessible, and, besides, it is too cold; and half the time it is 
hardly possible to see anything. It is, however, a paradise to sufferers 
from hay-fever. 

About twelve on the following day the fog lifted, and we had a 
tolerable view. In clear weather, the view is far the finest and most 
extensive in the eastern part of the United States, and the mountain 
itself is the most interesting in the Alleghanies. It is so immense and 
so peculiar, with its round peaks, treeless, and covered with a thick, 
beautiful grass ; with its hundreds of acres of dense laurel thickets ; its 
remarkable flora, which, in number and variety, exceeds that found in 
any one locality in America. 

Going down on the Tennessee side, we spent the night at Burbank 
with Mrs. Tappan. On the Roan, as at Mt. Mitchell, the sun shone 
out in all his splendor just as we came off the mountain. At ten next 
day, we took the narrow-gauge to Cranberry at Roan Mountain Station, 
parting there with our friend Dolge, to our mutual regret. The Cran- 
berry magnetic iron mines are very extensive, but at that time little 
ore was being mined, only enough in fact to keep the furnace at work. 

That afternoon we went on to Banner's Elk, getting very wet by a 
hard shower along the way. A night at Mr. Dugger's, with hot fire, 
excellent maple syrup and buckwheat cakes, and we followed the new 
road to Blowing Rock, passing by the foot of Grandfather, and arrived 
at our journey's end about four in the afternoon. The crowd of hotel 
visitors gazed at us in amazement as we came in, for we were in truth 
a dilapidated pair. We found our trunks all safe, and robing ourselves 
in the dress of civilization, ceased to be a novelty. Our tramp was 
over. W. J. B. 



ROBERT PAINE DICK, Judge of the United States Court for the 
Western District of North Carolina, is the son of John McClintock 
Dick, a Judge of the Superior Court of this State for twenty-six 
years. His mother was, before her marriage, Parthenia P. Williamson, 
of Person county. Robert, the second of ten children, was born 
October 5th, 1823. 

Young Dick was prepared for college at the Caldwell Institute, in 
Greensboro, of which that eminent teacher, Rev. Dr. Alexander 
Wilson, was principal. Rev. John A. Gretter, a divine of strong mind 
and extensive learning, was also one of his teachers, so that young 
Dick entered the Sophomore class of the University of North Caro- 
lina with excellent preparation. He graduated with distinction in 1843. 
Among his classmates were Col. John L. Bridgers, Rev. Dr. Jos. C. 
Huske, Mr. Jas. A. Leak, of Anson, Capt. Walter W. Lenoir, Hon. T. S. 
D. McDowell, Judge Samuel J. Person, Mr. Thos. D. Walker and Major 
Clement G. Wright. He was faithful to every duty, a close and 
successful student, an elegant writer and good speaker. To secure 
greater retirement, he arranged for himself a pleasant seat by a lovely 
spring in the University forest, and there, in the cool shade, on pleasant 
days, was accustomed to prosecute his studies and occasionally make 
the forest ring with his declamations. He was diligent in the perform, 
ance of his duties as a member of the Dialectic Society. Being an 
honor graduate, he was entitled to a speech on the stage at his gradua- 
tion. His subject", "The Resources of North Carolina," and his treat- 
ment of it, showed that he began life with the enthusiastic love of his 
native State which he still possesses. 

He chose law as his profession, preparing with industrious ardor 
under his father and Mr. George C. Mendenhall, a noted practitioner 
of that day. His classmate was Joseph R. McLean, who attained 
eminence at the bar. He obtained his law license in 1845. an< ^ " hung 
out his shingle" at the county-seat of Rockingham, called Wentworth, 
after the family name of the Marquis of Rockingham, in honor of 
whom the county was likewise called. He attended, as his regular 
circuit, that county, with Guilford and Randolph, and afterwards 
for several years, Surry, Stokes, Forsyth, Alamance and Caswell. 


There were many lawyers of uncommon strength with whom young 
Dick had to cope, such as Nat.Boyden, Anderson Mitchell, John Gray 
Bynum the elder, Alexander Lillington, John F. Poindexter, Hugh 
Waddell, John A. Gilmer the elder, John Kerr, George C. Mendenhall, 
John H. Dillard, James T. Morehead, Ralph Gorrell and E. G. Reade, 
but by faithfulness to .the interests of his clients, by thorough prepa- 
ration of his cases, and zealous and intelligent handling them in court, 
he soon received a fair share of business. 

In 1848 he married Mary E. Adams, of Pittsylvania county, Virginia, 
and soon afterwards removed to Greensboro, in Guilford county, where 
he has since resided. They have five children. 

Like nearly all ambitious young lawyers, Mr. Dick soon entered 
political life. He was a member of the Democratic party. He did not 
run for any office, but he made many political speeches on the Tariff, 
Internal Improvements and State Rights, always opposing secession. 
He met in debate not only his local opponents, Messrs. Gilmer, Gor- 
rell and D. F. Caldwell, but eminent adversaries in various parts of 
the State. These speeches were characterized by careful preparation, 
fervid oratory and entire freedom from acrid personalities. His party 
friends, recognizing his effective labors, sent him to the Democratic 
National Convention at Baltimore in 1852, at which Franklin Pierce 
and Wm. R. King were nominated. It is noticeable that both the can- 
didates for the Vice-Presidency were alumni of our University, King 
having entered in 1801, from the county of Sampson, and Wm. A. 
Graham in 1821, from the county of Lincoln. 

Mr. Dick did effective service in the campaign, and, notwithstanding 
the popularity of Graham, the vcte of the State was cast for the 
Democratic nominees. President Pierce, in recognition of his intelli- 
gent labors for his party, conferred on him the office of United States 
District Attorney, a position much prized by the lawyers of the State. 

As a prosecuting officer, Mr. Dick was exceedingly zealous and 
laborious in endeavoring to convict those whom he considered guilty, 
while he was conscientiously merciful to those who, on investigation 
of the evidence, were deemed to be innocent. No one has ever 
charged him with persecution of those accused wrongfully, nor was 
he ever guilty of attempting to entangle a truth-telling witness, or of 
being rude and offensive to his brother lawyers. No prosecuting 
officer could be more just than he to convicted criminals. No man 


could be fairer than he in the trial. No professional trick was ever 
imputed to him. As a practitioner he was singularly free from 
tendency to disputatious wrangling. He fought with pluck and 
determination to win, but he fought with fairness and unfailing courtesy. 
His opponents were among the most learned and dextrous lawyers 
our State has had: such as George E. Badger, Wm. A. Graham, 
Henry W. Miller, B. F. Moore, W. N. H. Smith, W. F. Martin and 
others. He held the office until February, 1861, when he sent in his 

Mr. Dick, although firm in the principles of the old Democracy, 
soon realized that the claim of the ultra Southern wing of the party, 
that it was the duty of the United States to protect slave property in 
all the Territories, would not be granted, and would lead to the triumph 
of the party, which claimed that it was the duty of the United States 
to exclude slave property from the Territories. He therefore attached 
himself to Stephen A. Douglas, whose doctrine was, that the 
United States should remain neutral and permit the inhabitants of 
each Territory to permit or exclude slavery as they might elect. In 
the Charleston Democratic Convention he struggled for the nomina- 
tion of Douglas. When the adjourned Convention met at Baltimore, 
he had the moral courage to refuse to join all the other members of 
the North Carolina delegation in their secession and nomination of 
Breckenridge at Richmond. So heated was the feeling, that all who 
declined to sanction the action of the Richmond Convention were 
freely denounced as traitors to the cause of the South. 

Not only did Mr. Dick have the nerve to remain in the Baltimore 
Convention, but also to serve as candidate for elector for the State at 
large on the ticket of Douglas and Johnson, and with his friend, 
Thomas Settle, to canvass for his favorites. Their only hope was that 
there might not be a choice by the electors, and that the election 
would be thrown into the House of Representatives. 

The result showed that the passions engendered were too fierce to 
admit of compromise. The Douglas ticket received an inconsiderable 
support, the bulk of the Democratic party voting for Breckenridge. 
The Douglas party, after this crushing defeat, divided, some returning 
to the regular Democratic fold and others, including Mr. Dick, allying 
themselves with the Union or Conservative party. 

When the war began, and the Union men were forced to decide 


between fighting for the Southern States or against them, they, wi:h 
no avowed exception in North Carolina, concluded that it was be>i to 
go with their section. Even those who had no hope of ultimate 
success, thought that the permanent harmony and prosperity of our 
people would be better secured by unity, though ending in defeat, 
rather than by a furious intestine war, neighbor against neighbor. 
The majority, however, undoubtedly concluded that the Northern 
people had entered on a course of aggression against slavery which 
would certainly end in its destruction, and while they denied the legal 
right of secession, they claimed the right of revolution, such as our 
ancestors exercised in the severance of their relations with England. 
Whatever may have been their private views, all the Union party took 
ground in favor of withdrawing the State from the Union and support- 
ing the action by force of arms. 

Mr. Dick followed his party. He accepted a seat in the Convention 
of 1861, to which he was elected without opposition. It was probably 
the ablest body ever held in the State, having among its elder mem- 
bers such eminent men as Thomas Ruffin, the elder, George E. Badger, 
Win. A. Graham, Weldon N. Edwards, Asa Biggs, Bedford Brown, 
Kenneth Rayner, Abram Venable, N. W. Woodfin, Wm. S. Ashe, 
John A. Gilmer, the elder, F. B. Satterthwaite, W. W. Holden, R. H. 
Smith, James W. Osborne, H. C Jones the elder, Burton Craige, E. J. 
Warren, Warren Winslow, Anderson Mitchell, D. S. Reid, W. F. Leak, 
A. H. Arrington and Henry M. Shaw, besides a younger set like Geo. 
V. Strong, David Schenck, Geo. Howard, Robert Strange, David A. 
Barnes, Bryan Grimes, T. D. McDowell, D. D. Ferebee, C. R. Thomas, 
John Manning, George Green, W. M. Shipp, Wm. Lander, R. H. 
Cowan, R. F. Armfield, A. G. Foster, Wm. Johnston, Wm. A. Smith, 
John D. Whitford, and others. 

Mr. Dick was a worthy member of this body. He acted with the 
party headed by Graham and Badger, rather than that headed by 
Ruffin, Edwards, Biggs, and others. He voted for Badger's Declaration 
of Independence in preference to Craige's Ordinance of Secession, but 
when the former failed to pass, he, in common with all the other mem- 
bers of the Convention, gave his voice for secession. 

Until 1864, Mr. Dick acted with what was called the Conservative 
party, of which Governor Vance was the leader. A number of promi- 
nent men, seeing the impending destruction of the Southern armies, 


concluded that it was time to inaugurate measures looking to peace. 
They constituted quite a large part of the Conservative party, but 
their efforts came to naught on account of the determination of the 
President and Congress of the Confederate Government to risk 
everything on the success of our armies. Mr. Dick, as Senior from 
Guilford, warmly favored this movement. In his judgment the affairs 
of the Confederacy were so desperate that regard for self-preservation 
required that its authorities should make peace on the best terms pos- 
sible. His prominence in these trying times led to the request by Presi- 
dent Johnson in 1865, that he, with others, viz.: B. F. Moore, David L. 
Swain, W. W. Holden, Wm. Eaton and W. S. Mason, should proceed to 
the seat of government and advise with him as to the best mode of 
restoring the State government. He, in common with Messrs. Moore, 
Swain and Eaton, earnestly advised the restoration of the State under 
its old Constitution and form of government, with some necessary 
amendments, as he believed that the attempt at secession had -been 
null and void, and that the State being still in the Union, its people 
were entitled to all the rights of citizens under the Constitution of the 
United States. He also urged a general amnesty. The substance of 
this plan had been approved by President Lincoln, and granted by 
General Sherman in the articles of capitulation of General Johnston's 
army, but President Johnson, after Lincoln's assassination, declined to 
ratify it. He, however, tendered to Mr. Dick the office of United 
States District Judge, which he accepted, but resigned when he found 
that he could not retain it without taking the Test oath, commonly 
called the " Iron Clad'" oath. He returned to the practice of the law 
and soon gained a large business. 

He was a member of the Convention of i865-'66, called at the 
instance of President Johnson, who claimed that, as Commander-in- 
Chief of the conquering army, he had a right to institute measures 
for the reconstruction of the State government. Being convinced that 
the restoration of the State to its normal relations with the Federal 
government belonged to the legislative and not the executive branch 
of the government, Mr. Dick advocated with zeal and ability the 
acceptance of the " Howard Amendment," as containing the best 
terms of reconstruction which Congress was likely to grant. As, in 
his opinion, it was not only useless but harmful to resist the power of 
Congress, he determined to assist in organizing the Republican party 


in this State, and attended for that purpose the first convention of that 
party, which was held in 1867. 

Judge Dick was elected, in April, 1868, a Justice of the-Supreme 
Court of the State, with Richmond M. Pearson as Chief, and E. G. 
Reade, Wm. B. Rodman and Thomas Settle as Associate Justices. 
He held this position until 1872, when he resigned in order to accept 
the Judgeship of the United States District Court for the Western 
District of North Carolina, tendered him by President Grant. 

As a member of the Supreme Court, Judge Dick was called to aid 
in deciding many delicate and difficult questions growing out of con- 
flicting legislation, the Constitution of 1868 and the Code of Civil 
Procedure. Very many provisions of the new Constitution were 
obscurely expressed, and sometimes apparently contradictory, and 
often the General Assembly passed acts without regarding the novel 
restrictions of the new Constitution. The Court showed great 
ability in deciding constitutional questions arising under these 
conditions, and firmness in declaring null the action of the ' leg- 
islative branch when it violated the fundamental law. In constru- 
ing the Code of Civil Procedure, which was a great innovation 
in the habits of our people, especially the legal fraternity, the Court 
declined to be bound by the rulings of judges of other States which 
had adopted it, and considered the questions only in the light of the 
constitutional and legal history of our own State. Thus, with occa- 
sional amendments by the General Assembly, has been built up a Code 
so suited to the needs of North Carolina as to secure not only the 
toleration but the approval of our lawyers and the laity. 

As Judge of the District Court, Judge Dick has been distinguished 
for his kindly temper in administering the internal revenue laws of the 
United States. Recognizing the fact that the interference by these 
laws with the business habits of isolated communities from time 
immemorial has produced many cases of violation by men and women, 
in other matters law-abiding, he has, as far as his duty allowed, tem- 
pered judgment with mercy. The writer of this sketch witnessed an 
instance of this kindness of heart, which, on account of its novel char- 
acter, deserves to be recorded. A woman, who had evidently passed 
the limits of middle age, though her bronzed complexion left the dis- 
tance beyond it in doubt, was indicted for selling whiskey without a 
license. For the first time in North Carolina the accused was allowed 


to testify in her own behalf. She carried on the stand an infant, tug- 
ging away under her shawl for his morning's supply of lacteal fluid. 
While she was giving in her testimony, the babe becam; furiously 
dissatisfied with his pasturage and clamored lustily. His Honor said, 
"Cannot you get some one to take your child?" She apparently mis- 
understood and stretched out her arms to give him to the Judge. " Oh, 
I don't want it," said his Honor; "can't you give it to some one 
else?" Whereupon, a man came up and carried it off. The woman 
was convicted and the Judge said, " I do not know what to do with 
this woman. I cannot imprison her, without imprisoning her innocent 
babe. I must let her go .on her own recognizance." He then gave 
the criminal a most feeling lecture and she went on her way rejoicing. 
After she had gone long enough to reach her mountain home it leaked 
out that the child was not her own, but had been borrowed for the 
purpose of arousing sympathy in the breasts of court and jury. 

The Judge presides with impartial courtesy and patience, and 
studies the cases before him with the utmost care. His rulings have 
been generally sustained by the appellate courts. 

During the intervals of his judicial labors he has for ten years past, 
in association with John H. Dillard, late Judge of the Supreme Court 
of the State, had charge of a law school. He instructs his students 
with assiduous and sympathetic care, and is much beloved by them. 
A number of his lectures have been printed. Their subjects are : 
"Laws of the Ancient Nations; " " Laws of the Ancient Hebrews; '" 
"The Civil and the Common Law ; " "The Bible as an Educator; 
" Revolutions in English History ; " " The Anglo-Saxon and the Nor- 
man ; " " The Languages of the Law." These lectures, written in an 
elegant style, evince extensive reading, and are most instructive intro- 
ductions to the study of the law. 

Judge Dick has not only devoted attention to the law and to history, 
but he has specially studied Biblical literature. Few preachers of the 
Gospel have explored these treasures with intelligent enthusiasm equal 
to his. In Sunday afternoon lectures to his law classes, he has treated with 
singular beauty of language and wealth of illustration "The Influence 
of Poetry and the Bible on Modern Civilization ; " " The Education, 
Character and Laws of the Hebrews;" "The Style of Hebrew 
Poetry;" "The Events in the History of the Hebrews which contrib- 
uted to their Poetic Development ; " " Messianic Hopes ; " " Climate 


and Scenery of Palestine ; " " The History and Traditions of Paradise ; " 
"The Sabbath;" "The Manners and Customs of the Hebrews, their 
Political Freedom, National Unity and Religion, their Art Culture ; " 
" The Tabernacle and Temple, and the Passover ; " " The Age of 
David and Solomon ; " " The Influence of Hebrew Poetry upon 
Christian Hymnology ; " " The Pentateuch, and the Books of Ruth, 
Esther and Job;" " The Psalms, the Song of Songs, Proverbs and the 
Prophecies ; " " The Prophets ; " " The Characteristics of Hebrew 
Poetry ; " "The Uninspired Poetry of the Hebrews;" "The Jews in 
History, and their Return to the Promised Land." 

These topics are discussed in sixteen lectures, making a volume of 
over two hundred pages, written in a most loving and reverent spirit, 
and in beautiful, often exceedingly eloquent language. The following 
extracts will give some idea of Judge Dick's style : 

"As literary productions, judged by the standards of human excel- 
lence, we think we can truthfully say that the Psalms, taken all in all, 
are the sweetest, the tenderest, the most sublime lyrics to be found in 
literature, and they have exerted the highest and holiest influences 
upon the happiness, culture and progress of mankind. There is no 
poetry like the Psalms. They have a living beauty and depth of 
pathos which can never be excelled and will always wake the highest 
and holiest harmonies of the human heart. They indeed are immortal." 
* * * " In the magnificent temple service, how grandly did they swell in 
choral joy as they mingled with the music of psaltery and harp, swept 
by the hands of Korah's tuneful sons. They fired the genius of the 
ancient prophets as they poured forth their sublime rhapsodies to 
rebellious Israel and disobedient Judah. They gladdened the solitude 
of the simple Hebrew shepherd, as he fed his flock through the green 
pastures and beside the still waters of his heaven-blest land, and the 
dark-eyed daughters of Zion knew no sweeter minstrelsy than that 
which the royal minstrel sang. They called up sweet memories and 
bright hopes in the sad hearts of the captive Israelites as, weeping, they 
sat by the dark waters of Babel, and in secret tuned their plaintive harps 
to sing one of the loved songs of their fatherland. * * * They were 
the cradle songs that cheered the infant church (of Christ) — they were 
the martyr's chant in the bloody amphitheatre, and rose to heaven 
amid the wild and cruel shouts of heathen persecutors. They sounded 
like blest voices through mediaeval darkness, and they were the vesper 


and matin hymns of the pious Waldenses in their mountain temples. 
They kindled the enthusiasm of the chivalrous Crusader, as he pressed 
through the arrows of pestilence and the storm of battle to the rescue 
of the Holy Sepulchre. They were the defiant notes of the bold 
Reformers, while they roused Europe from spiritual lethargy and 
disregarded the pealing thunders of the Vatican. In wild and thril- 
ling cadences they echoed from the glens and caverns of Scotland, 
where the stern Covenanters fearing naught but God, were preparing to 
die for the purity and sanctity of their faith; and they were the paeans 
of the iron veterans of Cromwell, as in victory they trod the battle-fields 
of freedom. They were the farewell strains of Pilgrim Fathers as 
they left their kindred and country, and in holy raptures they rose 
from the deck of the Mayflower as she breasted the wintry billows of 
the stormy Atlantic, and they broke the stillness of the American 
wilderness and hallowed the land of our fathers. * * * Like angel visi- 
tants, with glad music on their wings, they have entered the stately 
homes of the great and the humble cottages of the poor, and illumined 
with heavenly radiance the fading eyes of dying saints. They have 
nerved the heart of the suffering Christian hero in his lonely dungeon 
and sustained fainting martyrs at the fiery stake. They have expressed 
the deepest emotions of worshippers in the mosques of Islam, the 
churches of Christendom and the secret chambers of penitence and 
prayer. They have been attuned to the noblest melodies of earth ; 
have been associated with the purest affections and dearest memories of 
home, and everywhere have been the language of the human heart as it 
poured forth its earnest longings and brightest hopes of heaven. * * * 
Although they have passed through the revolutions and changes of 
three thousand years, which have wrecked nearly all the productions 
and memorials of man's pride, intellect and ambition, they have in 
spirit much of the vitality and freshness which they had when they 
gushed from the hearts and minds of the old Hebrew bards among 
the beautiful hills and valleys of the Promised Land." 

Judge Dick's powers as a writer and orator are frequently called on. 
He has delivered literary addresses at the State University, at David- 
son College and many academies and schools. His kindly heart has 
been deeply impressed with the evils of indulgence in alcoholic stim- 
ulants, as he has witnessed hundreds of promising men, some of them 
his neighbors and friends, go down from this cause in wretchedness to 


their graves. He has been for years an ardent advocate of temperance 
reform, and has frequently delivered strong addresses for its furtherance. 

In 1881 he was selected by the old students of Chief-Justice Pear- 
son, who had recently died, to deliver the memorial address on the 
unveiling of the statue erected to his memory by them in Oakvvood 
Cemetery, near Raleigh. He gave an admirable pen -portrait of that 
eminent jurist, taking occasion to state strongly the points in vindica- 
tion of his rectitude of intention in matters concerning which there 
had been adverse public criticism. 

Judge Dick is an active and useful member of the Presbyterian 
Church, being one of the congregational officers — ruling elder. He 
takes much interest in Sunday-school instruction, being superinten- 
dent of that connected with his church. He is a devout and humble 
follower of the Saviour, accepting undoubtingly the old Articles of 
Faith, preferring the Bible and the Shorter Catechism above all the 
speculations of pseudo-science. 

In conclusion of this brief and imperfect sketch of one who is 
unquestionably a most prominent figure in the political and legal 
history of our State, it may be said with truth that Judge Dick's 
extraordinary success in life has been due to, and accompanied by, 
intelligent and laborious preparation for and performance of every 
duty undertaken, the possession of good intellectual endowments, 
rigid temperance in living, rectitude of conduct, high moral courage, 
kindliness of heart and courtesy of manner, conscientious observance 
of the Golden Rule. Having held positions of peculiar difficulty in 
angry and perilous times, often severely censured by party opponents, 
but, without recriminating, content to let his good living be his vindi- 
cation, he now, as he approaches the confines of old age, is happy in 
possessing the good will and confidence of the people of his State. 

Kemp P. Battle. 

176 the university magazine. 

Biographical Sketches 



Edited by Stephen B. Weeks. 

Hughes, Nicholas Collin. The following sketch is from the pen 
of a writer in the Wilmington Star and was republished in the Newbern 
Journal of Commerce of March 23, 1870. We give it entire: 

Capt. N. Collin Hughes, Assistant Adjutant General of Pettigrew's 
Brigade, Heth's Division of our Army of Northern Virginia, son of 
Dr. Isaac W. and Eliza A. McLin, of Newbern, N. C, was born in 
Newbern on the 10th of March, 1840. His father was a physician of 
rare attainments and extensive practice, and a gentleman of wealth 
and great influence in his community. 

From his earliest childhood Capt. Hughes gave evidence of the 
many good qualities which distinguished him in afterlife. Truth, can- 
dor, frankness, generosity and the keenest sense of honor were his 
attributes in an eminent degree. 

His mother dying while he was yet an infant, his childhood and 
youth passed away under the guidance of the most devoted and faith- 
ful of fathers, giving bright promise of the future. 

In the fall of 1855 Capt. Hughes entered the University of North 
Carolina, at Chapel Hill, where he soon won for himself the respect 
and esteem of his professors and the almost universal love of his class- 
mates and companions. Graduating with distinction in June, 1859, he 
entered at once upon the study of the law at Pottsville, Pennsylvania, 
in the office of his uncle, Hon. F. W. Hughes, late Attorney General 
of that State ; but foreseeing in some measure the troublous times 
then in store for our country, he returned to Newbern to pursue his 
professional studies in the fall of i860. 

In January, 1861, Capt. Hughes was appointed by our late Gover- 
nor, John W. Ellis, his aid-decamp, with the rank of colonel, and was 
filling this honorable position upon the memorable 13th of April, 1 861 . 
Immediately upon the outbreak of hostilities occasioned bytheiniqui- 


tous attempt of the United States to subjugate our people for the 
assertion merely of the right of self-government, Capt. Hughes was 
ordered by the Governor to report for duty to the lamented Col. C. 
C Tew, commanding officer at Fort Macon on Beaufort Harbor. By 
the latter he was assigned to the duties of Adjutant of the Post, to 
the faithful discharge of which he bent all his energies. In this posi- 
tion he was permitted to remain but a short time. The increasing 
labors of the Governor, with his fast failing health, imperatively 
demanded the presence of all his staff at Raleigh, and thither Capt. 
Hughes was summoned. But his chivalrous spirit could ill brook the 
routine of office duty while brave deeds were to be done, and he early 
sought service in the field. Appointed First Lieutenant in the Second 
Regiment of North Carolina Infantry, under his old commander, Col. 
Tew, he was again assigned to the responsible post of Adjutant on the 
16th of May, 1861. An appointment as First Lieutenant in the First 
North Carolina Cavalry (9th Reg't N. C. Troops) was offered him, but 
he declined, preferring to serve with his old Colonel, who had learned 
already to appreciate his worth. A generous desire to promote a 
brother officer caused him to seek a transfer from the staff to the line, 
and as First Lieutenant of Company I, Second North Carolina 
Infantry, he served through the campaigns on the Potomac in 1861-62, 
upon the Peninsula in the spring of 1862, and in command of his 
company he passed safely, with credit and distinction, through the 
series of battles before Richmond, Virginia, in May and June, 1862. 
His company was deployed as skirmishers at Mechanicsville, Cold 
Harbor and Malvern Hill, and his management of his command gave 
evidence of great coolness, courage and ability. At the close of this 
campaign his health, never very good, gave way and a painful illness 
compelled his absence from the campaign in Northern Virginia which 
terminated at Sharpsburg. Even during his convalescence his anxiety 
to be of service did not flag, as was evidenced by his untiring attention 
at Raleigh and elsewhere to the bureau and other business of his 

Upon rejoining the army he was promoted and appointed on the 
30th of October, 1862, Captain and Assistant Adjutant General of the 
Brigade of our peerless soldier, the gifted and brilliant Pettigrew. It 
could not fail to subsist, and soon there grew up between the two 
high-toned soldiers not merely mutual appreciation and esteem, but 


the most cordial attachment. In his new capacity Captain Hughes 
quickly attained an enviable reputation for the promptness, intelli- 
gence and zeal he manifested in the discharge of his duties. He was 
with his brigade in its several campaigns in North Carolina under 
Gens. French and D. H. Hill. In the demonstration against Newbern 
by the latter General in March, 1S63, Pettigrew's Brigade occupying 
the left bank of Neuse river near Barrington's ferry, he was painfully 
wounded and temporarily blinded while reconnoitering, by a shell 
from a Federal gunboat. From the effects of this wound he recovered 
in time to participate in the siege of Washington, N. C, in April, 
1863, by Gen. D. H. Hill. While there, his brigade met and drove 
back a much superior force of the enemy advancing from Newbern to 
the relief of Washington. 

An incident which occurred on the march of Pettigrew's Brigade 
upon Newbern is worthy of note as showing the devotion of this 
noble young officer. A stream near Swift Creek, N. C, over which 
the artillery was obliged to pass was not bridged. Secrecy and dis- 
patch were essential to the success of the expedition, and thinking the 
work of erecting a bridge proceeded too slowly, Captain Hughes 
sprang from his horse, plunged into the water more than waist deep, 
and both by precept and example hastened its completion. 

In June, 1863, Pettigrew's Brigade was transferred to Heth's Divis- 
ion, Army of Northern Virginia, and with' it shared the fortune of 
the campaign of that year. At Gettysburg, Pa., Captain Hughes 
passed unhurt through the actions of the 1st and 2d of July, rendering 
with his brigade distinguished service. 

When remonstrated with by his oldest brother, Maj. John Hughes, 
for his rash daring and careless exposure of his life in these engage- 
ments, he gaily replied: " I will not be hurt. I will survive this war 
and live to a good old age in the enjoyment of domestic happiness." 

In the fatal battle of the 3d his conduct was brilliant. Upon that 
fearful day, when the strife raged the fiercest, and his command with 
desperate courage dashed in headlong charge up the frowning heights 
of Cemetery Hill, his handsome form could everywhere be seen, and 
his manly voice rang out in tones r{ encouragement to the gallant 
men. Down ! Ah ! 'tis but his gallant steed ; and rising, again his 
shout is, " Forward ! Forward !" Again ! and now, though laid low by 
a ghastly wound from which his young life's tide ebbs all too fast, he 


forgets his great suffering to call the attention of his chief, who is in 
command of the division, to the brigade on the extreme left which is 

Our army fell back and recrossed the Potomac into Virginia; and 
he, heroic though mangled, elected to forego the chance of a possible 
recovery by remaining to fall a prisoner into the hands of the enemy, 
and chose rather to endure the unutterable agony of a ride of three 
nights and days in an ambulance to Martinsburg, Va., to die among 
his friends. Here, at the house of Miss Buchanan, he breathed his last, 
on the 15th of July, at the early age of 23. His brother, Dr. James 
B. Hughes, Surgeon Second North Carolina Infantry, was with him, 
and when the dying hero was gently told his end was fast approach- 
ing, after a short meditation he turned to his brother and calmly said : 
" Tell my father I have tried to do my whole duty to him and to my 
country. I am not afraid to die. I think I shall go to heaven." 
Peacefully the patriot's brave spirit passed away. God rest his soul ! 

In the peaceful, prosperous future, when our land feels the want in 
senate and council of the gifted, disciplined intellect ; of the culti- 
vated, liberal mind ; of far-seeing statesmen, North Carolina will 
turn again with tears of longing regret to the memory of Captain N. 
Collin Hughes, who died for her. 

Editorially, the Journal says of him: " In the death of Captain N. 
Collin Hughes, the State, as well as this community, sustained a great 
loss, and his memory will be connected in the minds of those who 
knew him with the virtuous attributes of intelligence, generosity and 
a heroic, unselfish and devoted patriotism. The unknown writer of 
the sketch pays a well merited tribute to the purity of his character, 
his high order of intellect, his early success, his promise of future use- 
fulness, and his courage as a soldier. His remains were removed from 
their place of interment upon the soil of Maryland about two years 
ago, and now rest in the family vault in Cedar Grove Cemetery, in 
this city."— A Phi. 




Editor's Table. 

We take great pleasure in presenting to 
our readers this month a handsome por- 
trait of Judge Robert P. Dick, with a me- 
moir by Hon. Kemp P. Battle. It is hoped 
that in the future each number of the Mag- 
azine will contain an engraving of some 
distinguished North Carolinian, with a bio- 
graphical sketch, reviving in this respect the 
custom of ante-bellum days. 

A Sunday Nuisance. — We presume that 
those who stand around the door of a church 
after service to see who comes out, do not 
think of what they are doing. A moment's 
thought, however, will convince one that in so 
doing he is committing a piece of gross impo- 
liteness. It is not only embarrassing, but pain- 
ful, for a lady on leaving church to be compelled 
to run the gauntlet of the steady gaze of forty 
or fifty pairs of eyes. And though disagree- 
able in the extreme to ladies who are well 
known, what must it be to strangers, who, as 
they pass down the files of boys on either 
side the walk, can but hear whispers as to 
who they are, and remarks on their personal 
appearance ? We trust that the mere men- 
tion of this matter will insure its discontinu- 
ance. We are sure that nothing whicli at all 
tends to the discomfort of the fair sex will be 
knowingly committed by the representatives 
of the Southern chivalry of to-day. 

Afternoon Walks. — Walking recently 
with two Seniors on successive days, we were 
struck by the different tone with which they 
spoke of their approaching separation from 
Chapel Hill and its surroundings. One de- 
clared that he was sick of the place, and 
almost hoped he should never see it again. 
The other said, feelingly, that the four years 
of his stay here were certainly the happiest 
which he had yet experienced, and he did 
not doubt they would continue to be so. Let 
us look at simply one cause of this difference, 
in the hope that it may have some influence 

on those who are not Seniors, but have some 
time longer to remain here. Neither of the 
two Seniors is a devotee to athletics. In 
fact, they are scarcely ever seen on the ball- 
ground or in the gymnasium. Both obtain 
their exercise from walking in the afternoon. 
And just here comes in the difference • The 
one in walking has as his sole object the 
taking of a proper amount of exercise. He 
always takes the same route — up Main street, 
out by the depot, down the railroad. He 
never sees anything, for there is nothing to 
see, and all the time his thoughts are occu- 
pied with his usual cares and worries. There 
is really little relaxation from his studies, 
and the consequence is that he does not at 
all enjoy his walks, and gets very little good 
out of them. 

The other, however, in his afternoon rambles 
has explored every spot in the whole vicinity. 
Each evening he takes a different path, and 
the constant change of scene, with picking 
flowers and looking out for the beautiful on 
every hand, draws his mind entirely from his 
books, and the hour before supper, instead of 
being a drag, a horrible bore, becomes the 
most delightful part of the day. 

We hope that the members of the lower 
classes may profit by the experience of these 
two Seniors. The non-athletic will walk, of 
course. But, in walking, don't stroll up and 
down the streets, or by the depot and down 
the railroad. There can come from this no 
advantage whatever, either physical or men- 
tal. But excursions into the forests, down 
the creek banks, over the hills, afford a com- 
plete relaxation from books and put the blood 
into healthy circulation, thus rendering one 
really prepared for the duties of study and 
recitation. Chapel Hill is blessed with walks 
of the most beautiful character, of infinite 
variety, and of length to suit an invalid or a 
Hercules. For short distances — from a quar- 
ter of a mile to two or three — Battle Park is. 



perhaps, the best. For long walks, one can 
go down Morgan's or Bolin's Creek to Laurel 
Hill, or Otey's Retreat, to Glen Burnie or 
Pine Spring. But to enumerate the places of 
interest around Chapel Hill would be useless. 
They are well known, and the way to them 
can be learned from almost any inhabitant of 
the village. These tramps around and about 
the Hill will ever remain one of the happiest 
memories of one's college life. 

History of Education in North Caro- 
lina, by Chas. Smith. — This is the 
first systematic history ever written of edu- 
cation in North Carolina, and it is the best 
answer yet made to the charge of dense and 
degraded ignorance, so persistently and ma- 
liciously made for half a century against 
the people of our State. While it must be 
confessed that the public-school system was 
not efficient, and that the masses were not 
well educated, yet private schools were abun- 
dant, high schools and academies existed at 
many places, and the University was founded 
one hundred years ago. 

Mr. Smith shows conclusively that recent 
writers, especially Prof. John Fiske and Mr. 
Henry Cabot Lodge, have either wilfully or 
ignorantly wronged our ancestors most grossly. 
Fiske has declared that, " Until just before 
the war for Independence, there was not a 
single school, good or bad, in the whole col- 
ony. It need not be added that the whole 
people were densely ignorant." Lodge says: 
" There was scarcely any means of educa- 
tion and no literature whatever." 

Mr. Smith shows by the Colonial Records 
that schools did exist, that creditable libra- 
ries were established in several towns, and 
that the leading public men of the day were 
well educated and refined. A careful reading 
of the Colonial Records will show that the 

political and legislative papers produced by 
the North Carolina political leaders were not 
only superior in matter and in style to those of 
their English governors, but were of a high 
order of excellence, capable of comparison 
with those produced in the other colonies. 

Mr. Smith has written with a heart given 
to North Carolina but equally to truth. The 
book is evidently the result of much labor 
and research, and its author has learned to 
study history by using original material. He 
has the happy mental balance which enables 
him to weigh calmly both sides of disputed 
questions. This is strikingly shown in his 
treatment of the Pool administration of the 
University during the period of " Recon- 
struction." He is also gifted with apprecia- 
tion of the picturesque and dramatic, as well 
as with the faculty of illuminating a subject 
by many lights from different distances focused 
upon one point. He has produced a truthful, 
impartial, and most interesting sketch of 
education, in all its phases, in North Caro- 
lina. The subjects treated are : Education 
during the Colonial Period, the University, 
the Colleges, the Female Academies, the Male 
Academies, Education by the Friends, the 
Public Schools, the Normal and Graded 
Schools, the Teachers' Assembly. 

The sketch of the University is admirably 
written, and no doubt it will be a surprising 
revelation to students of education in the 
North when they read of the great work and 
great influence for nearly a century of our 
noble institution. The sketch contains a 
dozen excellent engravings of the University 
buildings and halls. In behalf of the Uni- 
versity, we thank Mr. Smith and the Com- 
missioner of Education. 

Any one may obtain a copy of the book 
by writing to the United States Commissioner 
of Education, Washington, D. C. 

1 82 


The College World. 

Sixteen prominent American colleges are 
without presidents. — Ex. 

Only 175 of the 380 universities and col- 
leges in the United States publish papers. — 

The Catholic parochial schools of the 
United States number three thousand, with 
an enrollment of 511,000 pupils. — Ex. 

The United States spends more on educa- 
tion annually than England, France, Ger- 
many, Austria and Russia combined. — Ex. 

Several of the Harvard professors lock 
the doors of their lecture-rooms, five minutes 
after the recitation hour, in order not to be 
interrupted by tardy students. — Ex. 

Wellesley, with 620 students, is pro- 
nounced the leading female college in Amer. 
ica. Smith stands next, with 347; then Vas. 
sar, 283; Wilson, 164, and Bryn Mawr with 
70. — Ex. 

Within the last year there has been nearly 
$175,000 given to Rutgers College. This 
amount was reached recently, when a friend 
of the college gave between $75,000 and 
$100,000 for a new dormitory. 

Of the college graduates in President Har- 
rison's Cabinet, James G. Blaine took his 
degree at Washington College, Pennsylvania; 
Redfield Proctor, at Dartmouth; John W. 
Noble, at Yale;W.H.H. Hamilton. 

The students of Oxford and Cambridge 
were not permitted to have fires until the 
days of Henry VIII., and to warm them- 
selves they ran for some distance — certainly a 
cheap mode of obtaining warmth. — Anti- 

Cornell, by a recent decision of the State 
Courts, will lose $1,500,000 of the Jennie 
McGraw legacy, unless the Supreme Court of 
the United States reverses that decision. 
Meantime, Cornell struggles -on with only 
about $3,000,000, What poverty! 

Ninety-two of Yale's graduates have be- 
come college presidents. — Ex. 

The largest college in the world is at Cairo, 
Egypt, and contains 300 professors and 10,000 
students of Mahomet. — Ex. 

Stagg has consented to pilch again for 
Yale. The difficulty now is to find a catcher 
who can hold him, as Dann has not returned. 

Georgetown College, the oldest Roman 
Catholic college in this country, celebrated 
its centennial, February 21, 22 and 23. The 
invitations were printed in Latin. 

Five hundred and fifty-nine women 
have graduated from the fourteen leading 
female colleges of America. Only 117 have 
succeeded in getting married. — Ex. 

The most heavily endowed educational 
institutions in the United States are: Girard, 
$10,000,000; Columbia, $5,000,000; Johns 
Hopkins. $4,000,000; Princeton, $3,500,000; 
Harvard, $3,000,000. — Ex. 

Yale's Class of '75 will establish a new 
Chair of Political Economy, the occupant of 
which is to be a protectionist. — Ex. 

President Dwiglit says that he does not 
know how this report originated. Profes- 
sor Sumner, who at present fills that chair at 
Yale, is a free-trader, as are most of the 
college professors of political economy. 

The Harvard Board of Overseers is trying 
to devise some means of making the students 
attend lectures and recitations, greatly to the 
disgust of the students, who seem to have 
been in the habit of doing as they pleased 
about a matter of such trifling importance. 

An exchange, of February, says : "A novel 
foot-ball contest^was* played at the Phila- 
delphia Music Hall on March 7, between an 
amateur team and the University of Penn- 
sylvania eleven. The orchestra was floored 
over and covered with soft matting, the field 
being a little smaller than the usual fize. 
The game^'was strictly a running one, no 
kicking of^the ball allowed." 



The number of students enrolled in the 
365 colleges in the United States is 65,728. — 

Oxford University is the largest in the 
world, comprising twenty-one colleges and 
five halls. It has an annual income of six 
million dollars. — Ex. 

Johns Hopkins University is feeling 
severely the lessening of its income, caused 
by the failure of the Baltimore and Ohio 
Railroad to pay dividends on stock owned by 
that institution. One hundred thousand dol- 
lars will be raised by private subscription to 
meet immediate wants. 

Bishop McTyeire, President of the 
Board of Trustees of Vanderbilt University, 
died on the 15th of February. He has 
shaped the policy of that institution from 
the time of its organization, having been 
given almost absolute authority by the terms 
of Commodore Vanderbilt's endowment. 

We were wrong in stating in our last issue 
that twenty hours of recitation a week are 
required at Wellesley. According to the 
Coutant, sixteen recitations of forty-five 
minutes each is the maximum after the 
Freshman year, while Sophomores are rec- 
ommended to take but thirteen. We have 
been wasting pity on these young ladies for 
a month. They fare better than the most 
of us. 

Thus writes a fair maid in the Wellesley 

"Come out into the Wellesley woods with 
me this windy day, and see for yourself the 
witchery of our New England October." 

The invitation comes a trifle late, dear girl, 
and Wellesley must be six hundred miles 
from here; bu,t we are half tempted to see the 
witchery of Wellesley in early spring, if you 
are still willing. 

The Canada colleges still play the Rugby 
game of foot-ball, with fifteen men on each 
side, in spite of the manifest improvements 
of the American game. At the meeting of 
the Ontario Rugby Union, on February 1, 

a proposition to reduce the number of play- 
ers on a team to twelve was promptly sat 
upon. " We don't want to Americanize the 
game altogether, and that would do it." An 
excellent reason, truly. 


Davidson has a "jug band." 

While the quarrel over the Graded School 
has been going on in Raleigh, that institution 
has outgrown its new buildings, and the 
Trustees are now planning to increase the 

The Bureau of Education at Washington 
has published the third of a series of histo- 
ries of education in the Southern States — 
"The History of Education in North Caro- 
lina," by C. L. Smith, of Johns Hopkins, a 
graduate of Wake Forest. It is noticed in 
our editorial pages. 

The female schools in Raleigh gave recep- 
tions to the legislators during the session of 
the General Assembly. 

" The Eleventh Annual Class Paper of 
the Class of '78 of Davidson College " is 
before us. It is a pamphlet of twenty-seven 
pages, composed of letters from each mem- 
ber of the class. These letters are written 
in a pleasant conversational style to "My 
Dear Classmates," telling what each man has 
done during 1888, etc. It is a good idea, 
and we recommend it to our graduating class. 

We would like for their magazines to te 
us the colors of the North Carolina colleges. 
The University's are white and light blue 

Foot Ball. 

The first series of championship games of 
the North Carolina Inter-collegiate Foot-ball 
Association began March 1, with a game 
between the University and Wake Forest, in 
Raleigh. The game was a walk-over for the 
University, Wake Forest being " out-witted 
at every point." At the beginning, a V by 
the University seemed to paralyze them, 

1 84 


and they played on the defensive the whole 
game. Our team owed its success to its 
ood B organization; they played as a team, 
rather than as individuals, though Bragaw 
distinguished himself by some excellent runs, 
and George Graham for his kicking, espe- 
cially one drop-kick, about forty yards from 
the line, which secured a goal. Dowd, of 
Wake Forest, played well, but had no sup- 
port. They were powerless to prevent our 
team from making five yards when we had 
the ball, and they generally lost ground when 
they had the snap-back. 

The players were : 
University. Wake Forest. 

Murphy Centre _. Devin. 

Fearington Right Guard. .Williamson. 

Little Left Guard Richardson. 

Johnston, R.T..Rigkt Tackier -Mitchell. 

Huggins Left Tackier. .Riddick. 

Blount... Right End White, 

Corpening Left End . . . .Olive. 

Rhem Quarter-Back ..Upchurch. 

Bragaw.. R. Half-Back _. Dowd. 

Howell, L L. Half-Back -Merritt. 

Graham, G Full Back Royster. 

Bragaw made three touch-downs, Rhem 
one and Howell one; from two of these Gra- 
ham secured goals; Graham made a field- 
kick, and Wake Forest made two safeties. 
Scoie: University, 33; Wake Forest, o. 

The second foot-ball game of the Inter- 
collegiate series was played in Raleigh, 
March 8, between Trinity College and the 
University. The teams were well matched, 
and it was an exciting game. Trinity started 
off with a V, which was speedily stopped. 
They lost ground at their first snap-back by 
trying to run around our end, and they also 
lost the ball. Our team soon had it at their 
goal line, and Graham, running around their 
end, made a touch-down within the first three 
minutes of the game. It did not get a goal. 
The playing continued nearTrinity's goal, and 
the prospects of the University were bright, 
when, in a scrimmage near the line, Bragaw 
captain of the University team, got the small 
bone of his right leg broken just above the 

ankle. This accident happened about five 
minutes after the game had begun, and threw 
a damper over the subsequent proceedings, 
especially for our team. 

Little was taken from his position as right 
guard and played half-back. Snipes was 
substituted. Graham made two more touch- 
downs and a field-kick during the first half. 
Trinity began to score just before the close 
of the first half. They broke through our 
centre, and Crowell made a touch-down. 

The University began the second half with 
a V, which succeeded no better than Trin- 
ity's had done. The rest of the game was 
played mostly in University's territory. Dur- 
ham, S. , made three more touch-downs for 
Trinity, one of which secured a goal ; the 
University made a safety, and Durham, R., 
put in a field-kick as the time expired. The 
score was : Trinity, 25; University, 17. 

The wind, which was in our favor in the 
first half, blew directly against us in the sec- 
ond; though it was rising during the game, 
and blew much harder against us than for us. 
Graham did some of his finest kicking in the 
second half, but it was in vain; the wind bore 
down the ball, while it would sail for Dur- 
ham in the opposite direction like a bird. 

The Trinity team played well. They did 
not tackle so well as our men, and lost ground 
nearly every time they tried to run around our 
end; so they gave it up, and played a push- 
ing game, — and successfully, too. They 
made all their touch-downs by breaking 
through our centre, which it was nearly im- 
possible to prevent them from doing after 
Little had been taken from our rush-line. 
In our opinion, this was a serious mistake, to 
which the loss of the game is largely due, 
next to the loss of our captain, Bragaw. To 
be sure, it is impossible, as it is useless, to 
say what would have happened if Bragaw 
had not broken his leg. But the University 
team could have spared any other man bet- 
ter. His services were no less valuable as 
captain of the team than as half-back. 

Trinity's players were: Rushers — Daily, 
Crowell, Hathcock, Roberts, Nicholson, 
Watkins, Johnston; quarter-back — Durham, 



S. ; half-backs — Daniels and Rahders; full- 
back — Durham, R. 

The players on the University team were 
the same as in the game with Wake Forest, 

except that Burroughs played right-tackier. 
When Murphy became disabled in the latter 
part of the game, Snipes played centre-rush, 
and R. P. Johnston was substituted. 


A Bad Break. 

We were seated in the hammock; 

It was sometime after dark, 
And the silence longer grew 

After each subdued remark. 

With her head upon my shoulder, 
And my arm around her close, 

Soon I whispered, growing bolder, 
" Do you love me, darling Rose ? " 

Were her accents low, to equal 
All my heart had dared to hope ? 

Ah! I never knew the sequel; 
For her brother cut the rope ! 

— Tech. 

The Bell. 

7 A. M. 

Hear the chapel with its bell — 

Booming bell, 
While with the woolly blankets its noise I 

try to quell, 
How it roars, roars, roars. 
In the morning bleak and grey! 
When my sleep I'm most enjoying, 
Comes its howl all rest destroying, 
Driving visions sweet away, 
With its bang, bang, bang, 
And its clang, clang, clang, 
With its fiendish clash and clatter on the ever 
louder swell. 

O! that bell, bell, bell, bell, 

Bell, bell, bell! 
O! the sounding and the pounding of that bell! 

— Record. 

After Elections. 

The wires are pulled, elections all are o'er, 
Ambition's dreamshaunt not our pillows more, 
No more the candidates try to beguile 
Innocent voters with seductive smile, 
Or warnings 'gainst their rivals as of yore. 
No more they seek — how innocent of guile! — 
To show their hatred of such scheming vile, 
And teach us — if we did not know before — 

How wires are pulled. 
The novice sees, with angry heart and sore, 
Those who have been his dearest friends before 
Pass by him with a supercilious smile, 
Or speak to him in cold or haughty style. 
They do not need his vote, they are his friends 
no more — 

Their wires are pulled. 

— Swarthmore Phcenix. 

A Crisis. 

Seated in the deep bay-window, 

Hid from prying mortals' view, 
Curtains drawn which, by their swaying, 

Let the lamp gleams flitter through; 
You can wager we were happy, 

In our quiet tete-a-tete, 
Little dreaming of the rascal — 

Ever-watchful, wily Fate. 
Trusting to our strict observance 

Of a strictly formal tone, 
Just how far we kept the precepts 

Chaperone might ne'er have known. 
But my witching, heedless charmer, 

How she froze my heart with fear, 
Making audible one question, 

"Am I not too heavy, dear?" Ex. 

1 86 


An Explanation. 

Whene'er you see two maidens kiss, 
And you those kisses covet, 

Pray do not prate of sweetness lost, 
Nor think too harshly of it. 

They simply try to follow out 

A rule of Scripture true, 
Which says : " Do unto others 

As you'd have men do to you." 

— Record. 

A Foolish Greek. 

There's a very good sentence in Phocion, 

That one day I chanced to have met; 
It refers to the tender emotion, 

And from it some good we may get. 
If we lose her for whom we've a notion, 

He counsels us never to fret; 
For " all women are worth our devotion, 

And none of them worth our re- ret." 

— Cornell Magazine. 

Alumni and Other Personals. 

'60.— Hon. E. J. Hale, U. S. Consul at 
Manchester, England, was entertained at a 
banquet. February 18th, by a number of in- 
fluential citizens. Lord Egerton, of Tatton, 
presided. — New York Herald. 

'79. — Dr. Isaac M. Taylor was married, 
January 23rd, near Fayetteville, to Miss 
Susan Evans, and with his wife visited Chapel 
Hill during February. 

'80. — Rev. Alex. L. Phillips has resigned 
his charge at Fayetteville and removed to 
Birmingham, Ala. 

— Robert ("X") Ransom has formed a 
partnership with W. H. Day, at Weldon. 

'81.— Horatio M. Kent is Sheriff of Cald- 
well county. 

— A Superior Court Judge says that, of all 
the speeches he has heard from the younger 
lawyers of North Carolina, one by R. W. 
Winborne, at Murfreesboro, was probably 
the strongest. 

— N. Jas. Rouse has a large law practice 
at Kinston. 

'83. — John F. Wilkes, after a course in 
Stephens Institute, at Iloboken, has taken 
charge of the Mecklenburg Iron Works. 

— Numa F. Heitman, Mangum medalist 
of '83, has made a good start in law at Kansas 
City, Mo. 

— Geo. Mebane is married, and is now en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine at Mebane- 

— Alex. Mclntyre, Junior in '83, is cashier 
of a bank in Ocalla, Fla. 

— Jacob M. Roberts, the valiant Demo- 
cratic editor of the Lincoln Courier, is mar- 

'84. — J. D. Murphy, also lately married, is 
a lawyer at Greenville, N. C. 

— C. L. Riddle is not married, so far as any- 
body knows, but is doing well as a lawyer at 
Elizabeth City. 

— J. B. Hawes has removed to Birming- 
ham, Ala. 

— C. T. Alexander is Secretary of the 
Teachers' Association and Superintendent of 
Public Schools at McKinney, Texas. He is 
married and has an heir. 

— Strayhorn, another married man and a 
lawyer, has established himself at Roxboro, 
Person county. 

'85 — E. G. Strickland is a medical prac- 
titioner in Forsyth county. 



— E. G. Goodwyn is a teacher of distinc- 
tion in the county of Brunswick. 

— A. B. Hill has a large school at Pitts- 

— Augustus Matthews is a dental surgeon 
of Durham. 

— W. H. McElwee, who entered with this 
class, has grown out of the rank of little men, 
and is a telegraph operator at Greensboro — 
one of the most trusted on the line. 

— Marmaduke Battle is in the Internal 
Revenue Service. As his politics are not of 
the winning color, we presume he is making 
his house in order to depart. 

— Oscar B. Eaton has a good school at 

'86. — Needham T. Cobb has made a good 
record as a telegraph operator. 

— Wm. F. Lewis expatriated himself and 
settled in Montana. John P. Joyner, here 
in '78, and David S. Kennedy, here in '77' 
have also gone West. 

— Jas. F. Barrett is in a department office 
at Washington, and rings no more Saturday 
night bells. 

'87. — W. H. McNeill, not finding the law 
profitable, has begun teaching at Booneville, 
Yadkin county. 

— H. H. Ransom, a member of '87 through 
Junior year, has been elected Professor of 
Mathematics in Oak Ridge Institute. 

'88.— Fred. D. Thomas, here in '84-86, 
was married to Miss Flora P. Marks, in 
Washington City, on February 2nd. Both 
are from Newbern. Fred, is at Union Theo- 
logical Seminary of Hampden-Sidney. 

— Hester, Harper and Thorp have iden- 
tified themselves with a literary movement 
begun at Raleigh under the plan of a literary 
casino. Professor Hume was called upon to 
make the opening address, which he did, 
March 13th, on the subject, " Shakspere's 
Side-lights on History." 

— John W. Atkinson, for some time a mem- 
ber of this class, has received the degree of 
M. D. from Georgetown College. 

— W. J. Fleming, with '90 through Fresh, 
man year, died of pneumonia, at Davidson 
College, early in March. 

— T. M. Vance, here in '8i-'82, has been 
appointed, by President Cleveland, receiver 
of public moneys at North Yakima, Wash- 
ington Territory (soon Washington State.) 

— Prof. W. G. Simmons, of Wake Forest 
College, died March 3rd. Dr. Simmons had 
been a well-known member of the Wake 
Forest Faculty for many years, as Professor 
of Mathematics and Physics. In i855-'s6 
he was a law student at the University of 
North Carolina, in the same class with Hon. 
W. L. Saunders, Hon. A. M. Waddell, and 

— Thos. A. McNeill, W. Foster French 
and W. S. Norment, ante-bellum alumni, 
have charge of a suit to recover a tract of 
land devised by Rev. John C. McNair, a 
classmate of President Battle, the income of 
which is to be devoted to securing annual 
lectures from distinguished clergymen on the 
relation of Science and Religion. The 
scheme is one which would be of great advan- 
tage to the students of our University. 

— Mrs. Spencer's First Steps in North 
Carolina History has been issued by Alfred 
Williams & Co. Although admirably adapted 
to its special purpose, it will be found full of 
interest for older readers. 

— Professor Venable read a p aper, at the 
meeting of the State Sanitary Convention, 
February 6th, on " The Adulteration of 

— Dr. Johnston B. Jones, who is lovingly 
remembered by old-time students as a phy- 
sician at Chapel Hill, died at Charlotte on 
March 1st. He was a brother of Mrs. Gov- 
ernor Rencher, who now resides here. He 
was a student here in the thirties, but left be- 
fore graduating, in order to pursue his medi- 
cal course. 


Book Reviews. 

First Steps in North Carolina History. 

By Mrs. C. P. Spencer. Alfred Williams 

& Co., Raleigh, N. C. 75 cents. 

Mrs. Spencer has written this book, as she 
says, " to interest and instruct the boys and 
girls of North Carolina." It is well calculated 
to do so, and grown-up people too. The read- 
ers of the Magazine are familiar with Mrs. 
Spencer's pleasant style. In this book she has 
adapted herself especially to children. All the 
important facts of our State history are given, 
while years of little interest are, very properly, 
little dwelt upon. The book succeeds well in 
showing clearly the causes of events; and 
facts and men's characters are illustrated by 
anecdotes. It gives a good idea of the set- 
tlers and people of North Carolina. Pre- 
tensions considered, it is the best history of 
our State that has been written. 

There are lists of all the governors of 
North Carolina, proprietary, royal, and those 
since the Revolution. The history being de- 
signed especially for school children, there is 
an appropriate pnetical recitation after each 
chapter. We are glad to know the publish- 
ers are receiving large orders for it. 

Our Phil, and Other Stories. By Kath- 
arine Floyd Dana. Houghion, Mifflin & 
Co., Boston. 

We have in this volume three short stories 
of negro character and the ante-bellum rela- 
tion between the races, as illustrated in a West 
Shore Maryland family: "Our Phil," "Aunt 
Rosy's Chest," and " Marty's Various Mer- 
cies." The second is much the best of the 
three. It is a picture true to life of the old- 
time " black mammy," with her goodnature, 
pride of her position of confidence, love fcfr 
children, and tact in managing them. " It 
was impossible to be persistently naughty 
under her legime; she did not believe in bad- 
ness, she ignored it. When any one was 
passionate, they were only ' makin' b'lieve ' ; 
when they sulked, they were just ' a gitlin' 
ready to be good,' and overt acts of anger 
or mischief that could not be winked at, 

were ' great mistakes, that warn't agwine to 
happen agin on no 'count'." 

The religious, superstitious mind charac- 
teristic of negro women and old negro men, 
and their original interpretations of Scrip- 
ture, as shown in this book, are all familiar 
to us. 

It is an attractive looking book, printed on 
good, thick paper, with many illustrations, 
generally good. We must say, though, that 
we have never seen a double-shuffle like the 
one the artist gives us. 

The Plantation Negro as a Freeman. 
By Philip A. Bruce. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, New York. Octavo, cloth, pp. 262. 

This book is No. 57 of thevaluable "Ques- 
tions of the Day " series now being pub- 
lished by G. P. Putnam's Sons. The author 
presents the facts of rural negro life as they 
exist to-day, rather than an attempt to solve 
the negro question; though the last chapter 
relates to the future. The work is compre- 
hensive in what it undertakes. It deals at 
length with all the relations of negro life, 
and explains them by the peculiarities of 
negro character ; the relation of parent and 
child, husband and wife, master and servant, 
blacks and white ; the negro's religion, super- 
stition, mental and moral characteristics, etc. 

The author has evidently studied negro 
character and negro communities well, and 
understands them. He has faithfully repre- 
sented them in this volume. The difference 
in the color of their skins is the least thing 
that distinguishes them from the Caucasian 
race. The condition of the negro's morality 
— or immorality — as described in these pages 
is revolting, alarming, but we who know the 
negroes, know that it is no exaggeration; nor 
is it a description of exceptional cases, but 
the rule among town as well as plantation 

The public schools are a help to the negro, 
but are not elevating, nor likely to elevate. 



the general tone of their society. They need 
moral more than literary education. White 
people have little or no influence over them. 
The author recommends educating negro mis- 
sionaries to be sent among them by white sec- 
tarian denominations. The South cannot 
remain permanently half black and half 

" It would be far better for the whole 
country if he were withdrawn, even though 
withdrawn so suddenly as to wholly blight 
for a time the material interests of the South.' 

We believe it. But whatever may be his 
speculations as to the future, the author has 
certainly described accurately the present 
status of the negro. 

Lights of Two Centuries. Edited by 
Edward Everett Hale. A. S. Barnes & 
Co., New York. 

This attractive book consists of short 
sketches of the lives of the men who have 
been the shining lights in the art, literature, 
music and science of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. It is illustrated with 
fifty portraits of artists, sculptors, prose wri- 
ters, composers, poets and inventors. The 
fact that it is edited by Hale is- a guarantee of 
its worth. There are so many biographies 
that, as the editor says about the Waverly 
Novels, " It doesn't do to criticise them: one 
trings out too much." 

" The lives and works of master minds are 
of an educational value, and it is especially 
for those devoted to the great cause of edu- 
cation that this book has been prepared." 

The information contained in this book can 
be found in no other one volume, and it is 
here given in convenient form. 

Politics as a Duty and as a Career. By 
Moorfield Storey. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 
New York. Octavo, paper. 25 cents. 

Number 58 of the Questions of the Day 
series. The object of this essay is to show a 
remedy for the present evils in politics. 
" Every private citizen should regard political 
action rather as a part of his daily business, 
like the care of his family." Public opinion 
must make reforms, not merely voting. The 
book is cheap, and it will pay every one to 
read it, especially men just going out from 
college to pursue more practical studies. 

How to be Successful on the Road as a 
Commercial Traveller. By An Old 
Drummer. Fowler & Wells Co., New 
York. 20 cents. 

This is a small book of eighty-three pages, 
of a convenient size to carry in the pocket. 
It is what its title indicates, and contains a 
list of routes, and hotels at which the author 
has stopped and can recommend. If any of 
our readers expect to be drummers, they may 
find this book of service to them. 



University Record. 

Since the classes will have each a special 
kind of hat, cane, etc., we think the Sophs 
have shown good taste in selecting one which 
is neat and inconspicuous — an olive-brown 

A fellow's clothes will get torn some- 
times, and that very inopportunely. Young 
ladies should not insist upon a chance caller's 
taking off his overcoat when he shivers and 
seems chilly on a mild spring day. Such a 
ruse is said to have been adopted by one of 
our boys while in Raleigh lately. 

The approaching celebration of the Uni- 
versity's Centennial is exciting great interest 
throughout the State, and wherever Chapel 
Hill men are located. The committee in 
charge is working hard to make the occasion 
a grand success. Many old students will 
attend, and a glorious time may be confidently 
anticipated. In our next issue a detailed 
programme will be given. 

The Senior class meets regularly every 
month, the programme being the resignation 
of the Class Orator, the election of another, 
and adjournment. The complaint by them 
is that Senior examinations are put so late 
as not to allow time enough to prepare two 
speeches before Commencement. We had 
supposed that the gentlemen would give the 
matter some thought beforehand. 


Whan that the grene frogges gynnen for to 

And Fresshes' berdes gynnen for to springe; 

Than tornen Seniors' thoughts to fresshe flow- 
res, — 

Than longen Seniors' for to gon to mayden's 

And eke for to speke on this entente, 

For that they be not leftt — at Commence- 

The Trustees have marie an appropriation 
of thirty-four hundred dollars for apparatus, 

and the sum will be divided among the 
three departments of Chemistry, Physical 
Science and Natural History. This will be 
expended with great profit to these depart- 
ments. Professor Venable, who expects to 
attend the University of Berlin during the next 
semester, will thus have an opportunity of 
purchasing what is needed on the spot. Pro- 
fessor Gore will probably go to Europe also, 
during the summer vacation, with an eye to 
the same end. 

Some of our town ladies, assisted by a num 
ber of musical students, have formed an 
association for the purpose of advancing the 
interest of scientific musical endeavor. Mrs. 
J. W. Gore is president, and Mr. S. C. 
Bragaw secretary. The Committee on Music 
consists of two: Miss Minnie Mangum and 
Mr. Hugh L. Miller. The following are mem- 
bers: Mrs. Gore, Misses M. and E. Mangum, 
T. Manning and Lillie Long; and Messrs, 
Gaston Battle, Hugh Miller, S. C. Bragaw, 
C. O. H. Laughinghouse, T. M. Lee, R. G. 
Vaughn and R. W. Bingham. The meet- 
ings occur bi-weekly at the homes of the 
young lady members. We should by all 
means have a good mixed chorus and an 
orchestra on a small scale. The Magazine 
wishes the members much success. 

The glorious Twenty-second came in on 
wings of whirling snow, which grew, where 
uninelted, to a depth of eleven inches. The 
grand old buildings were beautiful in their 
soft white mufflers, and every nook and cor- 
ner of the campus seemed a bit of fairyland. 
By dint of much shovelling, the way was 
opened to the Dialectic Hall, which was 
filled with visitors, citizens and students. 
The speaker, Chas. A Webb, of Warren, 
introduced appropriately by Alex. Stronach, 
of Raleigh, chose as a theme " The Devel- 
opment of Constitutional Liberty and Union 
within the States," and expounded the sub- 



ject in an earnest and fervid manner, dis- 
playing considerable eloquence. The exer- 
cises were pleasant and enjoyed by all 
present. A good string band was in attend- 
ance, and the hour was closed by a charac- 
teristic joke from President Battle, which 
rounded off the occasion and sent the audi- 
ence on its way rejoicing. 

In the afternoon, the college assembled 
and bestowed its favors on a number of young 
gentlemen for such merit (?) as being the great- 
est dude, " bore, or the ugliest, laziest or 
cheekiest'man in the whole college. As we 
are not very large, we forbear to publish 
the names of the recipients of these medals 
in the present issue. 

Speaking of the greatest dude, we were 
informed that a certain man, who has the 
reputation of being somewhat of a "par- 
alyzer," was on the train bound for Raleigh 
a few days ago, and, looking about him foran 
opportunity to try his powers, was smiled upon 
by a young lady whom he did not remember 
to have seen before. After thinking upon the 
matter he decided to present his card, upon 
doing which the young lady seemed quietly 
amused, and wrote: " You're too late, sir, by 
two years. I am married!" Swish! bang! 
Good morning! 

During its recent session, the General As- 
sembly elected the following Trustees : Hon. 
A. C. Avery, Hon. C. M. Cooke, Hon. H. C. 
Jones, Hon. J. J. Davis, Dr. P. L. Murphy, 
Dr. Eugene Grissom, Major Geo. N. Thomp- 
son, Rev. Neill McKay, Hon. W. L. Steele, 
Rev. J. L. Stuart, Col. S. McD. Tate, Hon. 

C. R. Thomas, Rev. W. S. Black, Dr. H. 

D. Williamson. Additional Trustees, " from 
points convenient to the University and to 
the seat of government : " Maj. Robert Bing- 
ham, Hon. Thos. J. Jarvis, Mr. R. W. Scott, 
Mr. I. R. Strayhorn. To fill vacancies : 
Hon. R. A. Doughton, Rev. J. H. Cordon, 
Mr. J. D. Currie, Mr. Chas. D. Mclver, 
Hon. Wra. Johnston. To fill the term end- 
ing next October: Hon. R. A. Doughton and 
Rev. J. H. Cordon, whose namas appear 
also in the foregoing list. 

The Luckless Lover. 

TO C. E. B. 

The poet's born, he is not made, 
'Twas by an ancient writer said; 
Experience mine shows this is true, 
Which, reader, now I'll give to you. 
'Twas May, the lovely month of flowers, 
Preceded by the month of showers; 
But, in my case, the last was first, 
And tears upon my smiles did burst. 
My dear would soon become her own, 
That is, she would be twenty-one; 
On this, I wished her every joy 
For which I could my pen employ. 
But I was not content with prose, 
For such a theme I numbers chose; 
A pretty gift to C. I'd make, 
Inscribed with verses that would "take." 
I thought of this, I thought of that, 
But sad to say, my rhymes fell flat; 
Or, rather, my Pegasus tried, 
I found, alas! I could not ride. 

I wished C. life, I wished her love, 
And with the measures long I strove; 
They would not come, so could not go, 
Oh, who was ever troubled so? 

I left my seat, I paced my room, 
My heart was filling fast with gloom; 
If I should not a verse compose, 
Who, who could tell my cup of woes? 
A rival strong was on my track, 
And he on me would soon look back; 
Unless I reached the lady's heart, 
And so I wished the poet's art. 
I took my seat and quickly wrote 
How on C.'s charms I fondly dote; 
Just here my verses failed again, 
And, in despair, I dropped my pen. 
My efforts I have scanned once more, 
My folly I do now deplore; 
Another C. will shortly wed, 
My hope is lost, my joy has fled. 
Young lovers all, let me advise, 
If you to verses cannot rise, 
There's something else that you must 

Or else your sweethearts you will lose. 



Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society.— 
Forty-second meeting, February 12th, 1889. 

As the Vice-President was absent, Profes- 
sor Gore presided. 

The papers presented were as follows: 

Preservation of Wood with Creosote Oil' 
by Mr. I. H. Manning. 

Natural History of the Cereals, by Dr. 
Gerald McCarthy. 

Some Sources for Sugar proposed at the 

Close of the Last Century, by Mr. H. L. 


An account of an interesting Fossil found 

in the neighborhood of Chapel Hill, by Prof. 

J. A. Holmes. 

Note on the Decomposition of Nickel and 
Cobalt, by Prof.F. P. Venable. 

Secretary's report: Two new members, 
Mr. J. R. Harris and Professor Pegram; 
seven new exchanges; eighty-five books and 
pamphlets received. 

Forty-third meeting, March 12th, 1889. 

Professor Gore presided, in the absence of 
Vice-President Graves. 

The following papers were read: 

The Three Formations of the Atlantic 
Slope, with exhibition of photographs and 
specimens, by Prof. J. A. Holmes. 

A note on the Utilization of Pulverized 
Coal as Fuel, by Prof. J. VV. Gore. 

A Photographic Camera made from a Cigar 
Box, with exhibition of views taken with it, 
by Mr. H. L. Harris. 

Artificial Quinine, together with notes on 
Artificial Cocaine, and on Cotton-seed Oil, 
by Prof. F. P. Venable. 

The Secretary reported one new member, 
twelve new exchanges and eighty-seven pam- 
phlets and books received during the month. 

Shakspere Club. — February 20th, 1889. 
The second of a series of papers ^n the Con- 
temporaries of Shakspere was read by L. 
D. Howell, on Greene's play, Friar Bacon 
and Friar Bungay. Greene's character in- 
teresting, a genius, but dissolute. Died in 
poverty and in infamy. He gives in this 
play the popular conception of Roger Bacon. 
Main plot, a love story. A strong play, and, 
n some aspects, worthy of Shakspere. 

The regular topic was The Winter's Tale. 

Dr. Hume made some prefatory remarks. 

Rev. Geo. B. Taylor: An original estima- 
tion of the leading characters. Leontes: 
his sudden and almost unaccountable jealousy. 
Hermione: her strength of purpose. Florizel 
and Perdita: the personified Spring. The 
Winter of discontent, ending in a Spring- 
time of joy. 

Mr. A. A. F. Seawell: Romance of Flor- 
izel and Perdita. Pastoral element. Blend- 
ing of humor and sentiment. Law of com- 
pensation. Spirit and movement in the play. 
Shakspere's later tenderness and wisdom, and 
the finer humor of the late as compared with 
early plays. Perdita and Miranda compared. 

Seminary of Literature and Philology. 
— The meeting for February was held on the 
27th, the subject being The Drama. 

Mr. W. J. Battle gave an exposition of the 
Poetics of Aristotle, noting especially the 
rules and customs then applied to the con. 
struction of the drama; the circumstances 
which made them necesary; their relation 
to the later ideas on the subject in the Eng- 
lish and the French drama, etc. 

Professor Alexander discussed briefly the 
metres employed by Greek dramatists, with 
some remarks on the difference between Greek 
versification and English. He also read, in 
Greek, examples of certain dialogue metres, 
and the first stasimon and hyporchema from 
(Edipus Tvrannus, as illustrations of Greek 
choral metres. 

Mr. Geo. S. Wills: The Early and Classic 
French Drama. Its origin in the Mystery 
and Miracle plays. Its development. The 
confirming of the rules of Aristotle and 
Seneca — a movement of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The trio: Corneille, Racine and Mo- 
liere. Corneille the founder of the French 
drama. His observance of the rules of pro- 
priety, as seen in Le Cid; his lack of action; 
his unnaturalness. These are the faults of 
the French drama in general, while its merit 
is chiefly in the perfection of versification. 
Contrast with the English drama of the same 



Professor Hume: The Elizabethan Drama 
and its Contributions to English History. 
The strong, broad and original nature of the 
drama of this period, proving the vigorous 
national characteristics of the English people; 
and serving as an index to the later Christian 
•civilization. The vital forces of this great 
age as reflected in Shakspere. His historical 
plays, and the method involved, compared 
with History proper; their unity in variety, 
the effective blending of the comedy of real 
life with narrative; and their epic life and 
spirit in dramatic form. 

The papers given were necessarily broad, 
though sufficiently suggestive, and the meet- 
ing was a very profitable one. The subject 
announced for treatment next is the Super- 
natural in Literature. 

The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion has been very fortunate in being visited 
by a number of noted Christian workers dur- 
ing the past college year. Mr. R. P. Wilder, 
who was here for two days early in Feb- 
ruary, brought the subject of Foreign Mis- 
sions " nearer home" than ever before, and 
now the mission volunteer movement is a new, 
strong and abiding interest with us. Two 
more have been added to the number, so that 
there are now five prospective missionaries 
among us. Moreover, the students have 
contributed about $230 toward a necessary 
$300 for the purpose of sending a man to 
Japan in August. 

Mr. J. R. Mott, late of Cornell, who, with 
Mr. C. K. Ober, has charge of the college 
department of the International Committee, 
•came Saturday, March 16, and remained over 

The delegates to the Convention are as 
follows: Patterson, Little, Curtis, Worth, G , 
Worth, J., Graham, J., Bingham, Huggins, 
Wills, Battle, G., Covington, F., and Harris. 
These men left Wednesday, 20th, and re- 
turned Monday, 25th. 

The work on the additional room is in 
progress. The wood-work is to be finished 
in oil, and the walls papered. The Maga- 
zine commends to ladies, here and elsewhere, 

who are friendly to the cause of young men, 
the donation of bits of ornamental and useful 
furniture that go to make up the furnishing 
of a social parlor. Such pretty knick-knacks 
wdl be gladly received, if expressed or mailed 
to the President or Secretary of the Association 

" There is nothing you require of your 
agents but what is just and reasonable and 
strictly in accordauce with business princi- 
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house can be proud of, and it is the testi- 
mony of hundreds of men who are profitably 
employed by B. F. Johnson & Co., Rich- 
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Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina, 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

The Magazine has six departments, each conducted by a student 
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THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT is mainly intended to exhibit 
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THE EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT will give the opinions of a 
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Old Series, Vol. XXI. No. 5. New Series, Vol. VIII. 


mu f 











General Bryan Grimes: With Portrait ..' *. -.Wharton J. Green 195 

Camp Life in Virginia. Lewis J. Battle 210 

Old Times in Chapel Hill, No XIV:. The Bali-Room Mrs. C. P. .Spencer 213 

On Mitchell's High Peak: A Nigh- Adventure..- H. L. Harris 219 

The Old and the New Christopher Coit Woodhouse 225 

Biographical Sketches of the Confederate Dead S. B. Weeks 227 

Editor's Table: — The Centennial; The Campus; The Magazine; A Life History; The 

Subscription-paper Evil; Dr. Charles Phillips 232 

The College World: — News of other Colleges; North Carolina Colleges and Schools; 

Foot-ball; Base-ball '_ . 234 

Exchanges: — Comments and Clippings ■• ' 238 

Book Reviews : — Trials and Judicial Proceedings in the New Testament; Primary Edu- 
cation; Ideals of the Republic s. 240 

Alumni and Other Personals 241 

University Record : — Centennial Programme; Railway Tickets; The Centennial Cata- 
logue; Notes; A Rondel; Medals; Representatives; April 30th; Proceedings of Socie- 
ties : Shakspere Club, Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society, Historical Society, Seminary 
of Literature and Philology; Resolutions of Respect; Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation; The Volunteer Movement " _ 243 




Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 

Professor of Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law. 


Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. 

- Rev. ADOLPHUS W. MANGUM, A. M., D. D., 

Professor ol M«ntal and Moral Philosophy. 

RALPH HENRY GRAVES, B. £c., C. and M. E., 
Professor of Mathematics. 


Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. 

Professor of General aad Analytical Chemistry. 

Professor of Geology and Natural History. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 


Professor of Law. 

Rev. THOMAS HUME, Jr., M. A., D. I).. 

Professor of the English Language and Literature. 


Professor of Modern Languages. 


Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 


Associate Professor of Mathematics. 

T. L. MOORE, \ T .. 

S. C. BRAGAW, \ Librarians. 

Processor GORE, Registrar. 

Professor LOVE, Secretary. 

W. T. PATTERSON, Bursar. 

Instruction is offered in three regular courses of study. Special and optional coupes are 
provided in Mineralogy, Chemistry ancLothet sciences relating to Agriculture. School 
of Law fully organized. The sessions begin the last Thursday in August and end the 
first Thursday in June, with a vacation of about one week at Christmas:. 

For catalogues or other information, address 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. I)., President, 

CHAN I II I 1.1. N. c 


1/ fiL~ f^ 




niversity Magazine. 


Old Series, Vol. XXI. 
New Series, Vol VIII. 


No. 5. 


Wm. Jas. Battle, I Hunter L. Harris, 

Walter M. Hammond. Logan D. Howell. 


It is assumed as postulate that pure patriotism is highest evidence 
of human charity, and that best proof of patriotism is supplied when 
man stakes what men hold dearest, life and all that it imports, upon an 
issue, presumably ignoring direct or ulterior selfish reward. Fortunate 
is the State whose sons are ever ready to illustrate, for in it despotism 
will ever find unstable foothold. As a rule, only free peoples afford 
exemplars of the dictum — most notably of all, the Roman of ancient 
and the English speaking one of modern times, towering, as they do, 
in this regard above all other tribes of men as would the sons of Anak 
above those of Liliput in stature. 

The term employed is patriotism ! Simple heroism of as high order 
is often seen under the most grinding despotisms, but unselfish stimulus 
is rarely coupled with it. A Suwarroff can be evolved in Russia under 
the sceptre of a Catherine, an Alva in Spain under the bigot Philip, a 
Tilley or a Wallenstein in Austria under one who could requite great 
service with the assassin's dagger- — heroes all of the simple heroic 
type ; but neither of these States, or all combined, could produce in 
a thousand years, aye, or ten thousand, under the then existing order of 


things, a Cato or a Codes, a Tell or Kosciusko, a Sidney or a 

Hampden, a Washington or a Lee. Such as these, as before said, are 

the special product of lands inured to freedom. True, the Church 

from its birth, and under every form of government, has been prolific 

of such — heroes scorning the title and the chaplet, but courting that 

of martyr and dying with alacrity for opinion and posterity. But such, 

perhaps, are not as far above self as the simple political patriot hero. 

The one sees illimitable reward beyond the stake, the wheel, the axe 

or the gibbet, and so, smiling, dies to win it. The other dies, or evinces 

readiness, to exempt his land from accursed tyranny. He dies a martyr 

for his fellow-man, 

"And the noblest place for man to die, 
Is where he dies for man." 

Civil wars for principles and not for princes are doubtless prolific of 
both types of heroes. The best and basest motives urge into action 
the best and basest elements. Material reward actuates some, moral 
or legal compulsion more, and broad, dove-like charity, patriotism, if 
you will, not a few. 

Luckiest of all is the last in this great " rouge et noir " affair on the 
greensward of nations, be the losing color what it may, the finale what 
it will. What is " the baton " in the hand of an ambitious chief whose 
only aim it was, to the proud consciousness of honest national impulse 
and duty well performed? " Pay and provant," present or prospective, 
enters not into the calculation of such in this bloodiest of all games 
when played between kindred of high and assertive blood. 

But to descend from generalization to particulars, from war in the 
abstract to the greatest of all wars as to issues involved, as to numbers 
engaged, as to results, as to slaughter. 

It is proposed to take as type of the patriot soldier such as here 
conceived, one who embraced the weaker and the losing side in this 
"war of giants," and to follow him as far as the limits of a magazine 
article will permit from the first reveille in a crude militia camp to the 
final tattoo in an almost exterminated army of veterans. He was 
simply one of thousands who flew to arms in '61 and laid them down 
in '65, if death or disability did not intervene to prevent that sad 
consummation. They came from every walk of life and filled every 
grade from the highest to the lowest, discharging most onerous duties 
till then unknown, like enthusiasts of faith, and suffering uncomplain- 


ingly and voluntarily as no army before or since has suffered, unpaid, 
half-clad, half-starved. From such material, heroes were the inevitable 

It is with a feeling of no affected modesty that I venture to portray the 
brilliant career of one of these citizen soldiers, chiefly because it has 
already been so well done in oral discourse by one who was of his own 
immediate military family, and who has swept the field, as was the wont 
of him to do of whom he spoke * ; and likewise because the great events 
in which he played such a prominent part are so graphically but mod- 
estly told by himself in letters to his wife, written at the time, and so 
well compiled by his friend and mine, Major Pulaski Cowper. From 
these two sources my facts will be mainly drawn, or perhaps an idea 
occasionally culled without quotation marks. Again, from early man- 
hood to his untimely end, he of whom I write was my friend, and 
hence, to do him full justice, and myself escape the imputation of 
friendly bias, " gives me pause." 

Relying upon the rule of presumptive evidence, we take as sample 
of the patriot hero here outlined, a country gentleman of North Caro- 
lina : one of easy fortune, high culture and social standing, open house 
but unpretentious taste, kind heart and simple faith. Till the alarum 
from the watch-tower told of encroachment on chartered and cher- 
ished rights, his highest aim had seemed to be to till his paternal acres 
in peace and quiet, and to square accounts with Heaven and his fellow- 

" Crime came not near him — she is not the child 
Of Solitude ; Health shrank not from him — for 
Her home is in the rarely-trodden wild." 

But when the summons came which men must ever heed, be it death 
or be it duty, he responded, and uncoveted fame was his award. 

Beginning a major of troops untried, his was the crowning glory of 
his grade to make the final death grapple with overwhelming and 
victorious foemen, and to beat them back from the death-bed of the 
Confederacy with the title of general attached to his first commission. 
There is but one figure in history suggesting a parallel to that supreme 
effort of a division commander to save an expiring army from annihi- 
lation : grand old Michel Ney in the retreat from Russia, after having 
four rear guards exterminated under him to save the little remnant of 

* Major H. A. London, Memorial Address on the Life and Services of Gen. Bryan Grimes, 
delivered at Raleigh, May 10, 1886. 


the "grand army," arrived at the neutral river Niemen, and with three 
hundred men, later reduced to thirty, held the bridge of Kouno until 
every squad had passed, " and was the last man of the grand army who 
left the Russian territory." All begrimed with powder, he is not 
recognized by his friend, General Dumas, and, in reply to his query, 
answers: " I am the rear guard of the grand army — Marshal Ney. I 
have fired the last shot on the bridge of Kouno and thrown the last 
musket into the river." 

One is struck with the moral likeness between these two superb 
soldiers long before Gumbinnen and Appomattox are reached, and that 
is excuse for the anecdote in full. What lover of his species would 
exchange the honest fame of either, even for that of the imperial 
master of the one, who had just immolated half a million of men on 
the altar of his ambition, and was the very first man of the grand army 
to cross the Niemen, and long before the little skeleton which remained 
of it had reached that line of refuge? 

But to have done with the discursive. 

Bryan Grimes, the subject of our sketch, and the youngest son of 
Bryan, senior, and of Nancy his wife, was born and lived on the same 
plantation, Grimesland, in Pitt county, until the day of his death. 
The date of his birth was November 2, 1828. After attending the 
best preparatory schools, he entered Chapel Hill, now the University 
of North Carolina, in June, 1844, and graduated four years later, June. 

His alma mater equipped many illustrious sons to take part in the 
great internecine struggle which was to follow, as she had previously 
prepared others to shine in the civil walks of life, but of none has she 
better cause for exultant pride than him of whom we write. Riper 
scholars she has doubtless sent forth, but never one who, in the great 
vicissitudes of life soon sequent, exhibited more aptitude and capacity 
for the discharge of duties previously unknown and continually 

And here I crave pardon for paying a passing tribute to the class- 
mates of another institution, by way of parenthesis. Of the class 
which left the United States Military Academy in 1854, eleven 
espoused the Southern side, and eight died in battle at the head of 
brigades and divisions — Stuart and Pender, Pegram and Deshler, 
Gracie and Villipigue, Randall and Mercer, friends of my youth, and 


as noble a holocaust as was ever offered by a class on their country's 
altar. The two Lees, Custis and Stephen D., each at the head of a 
great institution of learning, are, I believe, the sole survivors. 

Major Grimes's selection of a regimental commander, for he was hon- 
ored by Governor Ellis with the choice of three, gave promise of his rapid 
rise, as it showed purpose to prepare himself for the responsibilities of 
command. He even declined a higher commission in another com- 
mand and chose subordinate place in the Fourth North Carolina State 
Troops, which had for its colonel a trained and educated soldier. In 
this regard he was peculiarly fortunate from the beginning to the end, 
as major, colonel, brigadier and major-general. Experienced comman- 
ders and skillful tacticians had prepared the way for him through all 
the successive grades of promotion. The gifted George B. Anderson 
was his first teacher in battalion drill. The inflexible Junius Daniel 
had prepared for him a model brigade, and the cool but impulsive 
Rodes his battle-scarred division. Aye! fortunate indeed was he who 
was permitted to follow in the wake of such captains as the deadly 
missiles laid them low in quick succession, and no. less fortunate were 
their respective commands in securing such an apt scholar as their 
successor. The first two it was my privilege to know and love at the 
Military Academy although advanced students, and under the last two 
to serve. And it is here entered as deliberate conviction that, out of the 
220,000 combatants sent to the front by the two banner States from 
which they hailed, no trio surpassed these in all the soldierly attributes, 
and especially in modesty of claim and earnestness of purpose, and no 
one is better entitled to complete the quartette than he who followed 
on and filled the gap by them created. 

Between Grimes and Daniel there was, to my thinking, a striking 
similarity of character. In both, the positive element was overwhelm- 
ingly predominant ; assertive to the extreme when assertion was essen- 
tial, but equally unquestioning as to authority from above. Each was 
brave to rashness, but courteous to gentleness. Proud they were, but 
modest too, and puerile vanity or offensive assumption entered not in 
the make-up of either. Neither would have " flattered Neptune for his 
trident or Jove for his power to thunder." As little would either have 
essayed the role of camp politician for present or prospective gain. 
With both, the»work in hand was too serious to admit of thought of 
the aftermath. With both, the thought ever predominant was their 


country's absolute and unconditional independence, and to that con- 
sideration all others were ever held insignificant and subordinate. 
Both entertained a common and sovereign contempt for knaves, dudes, 
tricksters and cowards. Each was ever ready to share the hardships 
and dangers of those entrusted to their care, perhaps too much so for 
superlative command, and " come," not " go," was their style of order. 
In a word, it may be said of both, as has been said of their peerless 
captain, " his text was duty, and his life the sermon." A word of 
praise to the organizer is no derogation from his successor, by one who 
loved and honored both. 

But I am not only speculating, but anticipating. To return: Bryan 
Grimes, Esq., reached home from a European tour a little before Mr. 
Lincoln's inauguration, and when the New World was excited from 
circumference to centre by that ominous event soon to be. Anticipating 
an unauthorized exercise of power by one lately elected upon a purely 
sectional issue, seven States had resumed or reclaimed powers dele- 
gated to the general government, and declared themselves to all intents 
free and independent States. North Carolina, proverbially deliberate 
and conservative, had not moved, and did not, until the new President 
had issued his first call for troops for coercive purposes, — and then she 
moved ! 

The North Carolina State Convention of 1861, which was called to 
"select sides," was probably never surpassed by any like body in any 
State before or since. Each county seemed to be vieing with the 
others as to which should send the strongest delegation to that most 
momentous deliberative assembly ever convened in State borders 
The question had been fairly and squarely presented, " compromising 
peace or desperate war ; " submission or resistance to majority man- 
date unsanctioned by the fundamental law. Party differences were 
buried and forgotten, and the best and wisest men were selected with- 
out regard to previous party affiliations, to take counsel on that gravest 
of questions. True, its action was virtually forestalled by concurrent 
public sentiment in favor of decisive measures; but no one antici- 
pated what was speedily done : the adoption of the Ordinance of Seces- 
sion by a unanimous vote of the Convention, on the anniversary of the 
Mecklenburg Declaration. If memory is not at fault, she is the only 
one of all the States which took that decisive step without a dissenting 
voice, and it is doubtful whether a measure importing as much has ever 
been so adopted before. 


Mr. Grimes was a member of that ever memorable body. Having 
recently returned from a visit to Europe, he was chosen, without oppo- 
sition, a delegate from his native county of Pitt, most aptly bearing 
the name of two of the great champions of Anglo-Saxon liberty. No 
sooner had he signed " the Ordinance " than he resigned his seat in 
the Convention and hastened to the camp of organization to assume 
his share of the responsibility attaching to the act. So did John 
Hampden, to patriots the most honored name in the history of Eng- 
land, on a similar occasion. They, too, were not unlike. Had the fate of 
the Buckinghamshire colonel on Chalgrove field been that of the other, 
we are prepared to believe that the dying prayer would have been of 
the same tenor : " O Lord God of Hosts, great is Thy mercy. * * * 
Save me, O Lord, if it be Thy good will, from the jaws of death. 
* * * O Lord, save my bleeding country. Confound and level in 
the dust those who would rob the people of their liberty and lawful 
prerogative. * * * O Lord, be merciful to " * * * Meet 
words for an expiring patriot. 

After brief preliminary drill in its first camp, Major Grimes and his 
regiment were moved to Manassas, arriving a week after the first great 
battle of the war had been fought. To which side was it a victory ! 
Panic and rout it was to the Federals. But in its far-reaching effects 
was it not worse to the Confederates? Was not the overweening con- 
fidence engendered, that 

* * * " Upon one pair of English legs 

Did march three Frenchmen," 

more pernicious to the cause than would have been a drawn battle, 
or even a slight reverse. But, per contra, whilst unfinished victory 
amounts to little, as a rule, this one gave respite to put the raw levies 
of the South in better form, which was promptly done. 

And here the reflection will be pardoned, that no government ever 
transmuted raw militia into soldiers with such rapidity, and under 
equal difficulties, as did the one then newly born. With empty arsenals 
and workshops unconstructed ; with everything to improvise, from a 
commissariat to a percussion cap, it seems almost the work of magic 
that in a short half-year an army should be organized and mobilized 
which, through succeeding campaigns, and through all time to come, 
was destined to extort the admiration of old soldiers throughout the 
world. And, continuing the thought, not the least remarkable feature 


in that wonderful development was the readiness of submission to 
authority and restraint, until then unrecognized and held in scorn. 
Men fresh from the farm, the forum, the shop, the counter, whose own 
free will hitherto had been a law unto themselves, and who knew but 
little other, subordinated without question or cavil that most truculent 
of self-tyrants to the necessities of the occasion. To unquestioning 
obedience was rapidly added a capacity for high command. It was in no- 
wise confined to commissioned officers, but extended alike to the rank 
and file, and men whose highest conceptions of tactical manoeuvres 
were circumscribed by a militia muster soon proved their ability to 
handle regiments, brigades and divisions with the steadiness and intelli- 
gence of life-trained martinets. This aptitude of raw recruits for the 
discharge of all the duties and responsibilities of war, has, perhaps, 
never been approached, except by the Ironsides of Cromwell and the 
volunteers under the first French Republic. Remarkable it is that all 
of these born soldiers should have been the children of revolution. 

In April, 1862, General Johnston and his army were ordered to the 
Peninsula to check the advance of General McClellan, then moving on 
Richmond with the largest and best equipped army that the New 
World had ever seen. Arrived at Yorktown, Major Grimes was 
assigned to the independent command of a detachment of his regi- 
ment, much against his will, as he was as yet distrustful of himself — a 
not uncommon idiosyncrasy in men of the highest merit. That the 
duty was well discharged there can be no doubt, as he was left in 
charge of the picket line some three weeks later, when the retreat 
began. He had just been promoted to the lieutenant-colonelcy of his 
regiment. As such, he was in command of it at the battle of Williams- 
burg onMay 5th, and likewise at Seven Pines, on the 31st of the same 
month, Colonel Anderson having been assigned to a brigade command. 

It is more than questionable whether any command of proximate 
numbers on either side underwent such carnage in any battle during 
the war as did that immortal regiment in the one last named. I go 
further, and say that, so far as my reading goes, it stands unrivalled 
in any war, if we may except an occasional " forlorn hope," or 
massacre, when hope was relinquished and death resolved upon. 
Such was, for instance, the charge of La Roche Jaquelin in 
La Vendee, such Thermopylae, the Alamo, Dade's massacre ; but 
where men went in to win, and did win what told to do, commend us 


in that regard to the Fourth North Carolina at Seven Pines, as stand- 
ing so far without a peer. Out of twenty-five officers, every one, 
except the lieutenant-colonel commanding, was either killed or 
wounded, as were four hundred and sixty-two out of five hundred and 
twenty non-commissioned officers and men. 

After that charge, let us hear no more of the one at Balaklava ; or, 
rather, let us hope that some Southern bard will take as a theme the 
" Five Forty-five," and rival in song the laureate's " Six Hundred." Far 
be it from me to detract from the " Light Brigade ; " but Cardigan left 
not nine-tenths of his glorious fellows behind him. Another colonel did, 
and it was on the advance, and after the objective point had been won, 
for there was no retrograde that day ; and hearken, comrades, the men 
who did it, and the men who died in the doing, were sons of North 
Carolina ! 

Being mounted, and, consequently, more exposed, it partakes of the 
miraculous that the little remnant should have been spared its com- 
manding officer. His horse had his head blown off, and falling, pin- 
ioned down his rider. As soon as extricated, he seizes the flag, and 
with some three score of other surviving heroes, completes the task he 
was bidden accomplish. The painter, the poet and the historian have 
vied to immortalize the hero of a kindred incident at the passage of a 
little Italian bridge. But though an imperial crown awaited him of 
Lodi, the grandeur of the first incident was eclipsed by the subsequent. 

After such an exhibition of heroism, of course his promotion was 
immediate; for none was more prompt to appreciate such conduct than 
he who had been called upon by his confiding countrymen to wield 
the destinies of the young republic. In fact, from the beginning to 
the end, President Davis's keen discernment of and prompt reward of 
merit was phenomenal. It has been since said " by prophets of the 
past" that he ofttimes erred in that regard. Undoubtedly his judg- 
ment of men was not always infallible ; but where was he who could 
have taken his place, one never yet surpassed in difficulties and respon- 
sibilities, and made as few mistakes as to men or measures? Let 
growlers name a fit substitute for the time and occasion, or hush 
their jackal snarl against the grandest man that the world contains. 

Notwithstanding a serious attack of typhoid fever, from which he 
was not yet entirely recovered, Colonel Grimes rejoined his regiment 
in time to participate in the first invasion of the enemy's territory. 


Although unable to walk, he had himself helped to horse, and took 
part in the memorable battle of Boonsboro, or South Mountain, in 
which another distinguished North Carolina soldier, General D. H. Hill, 
was in command, and richly earned the admiration of a world, owing 
to the disparity of numbers engaged and the stubbornness of his 
defence. Here Colonel Grimes had another horse shot under him, 
and before the surrender no less than seven were so struck down. It 
has been stated that General Hill himself was unhorsed by the enemy's 
bullets eleven times on the field of battle, which looks as if these two 
men bore charmed lives. They certainly never seemed to realize that 
leaden pellets or iron globes were made to kill, if one may judge by 
their seeming contempt for them ; and yet they both came through 
almost unscathed. "Fort una favet fortibus." 

His old colonel, then General Anderson, having been mortally 
wounded at Sharpsburg, Colonel Grimes was assigned to the tempo- 
rary command of his brigade, and so officiated during the bloody bat- 
tle of Fredericksburg, when he was relieved by the gallant young 
Ramseur. The commanding officer of a brigade from another State 
having refused to charge when ordered so to do at a critical moment 
at Chancellorsville, General Ramseur requested that the order might 
be given to him, which being done, he and his command actually 
rushed over the backs of the prostrate one in front, carried the enemy's 
earthworks, defended by superior numbers at the point of the bayonet, 
and did what is so often heard of but so rarely done — crossed that 
most fearful of all the implements of war with the foemen defending. 
Here again Colonel Grimes's regiment suffered most heavily, one-third 
of its number being killed or wounded, and he himself receiving a 
severe contusion on the foot. It should have been said that after the 
battle of Mechanicsville, in which he and his little handful of men 
again played a conspicuous part, he was detailed to take charge of the 
prisoners and captured stores and report with them at Richmond. In 
the Pennsylvania campaign he was with the advance and did picket 
duty within sight of the capitol dome at Harrisburg, frightening a 
regiment of militia out of their " st<">ve-pipe " hats, if not their boots. 
His was the first regiment to enter Gettysburg and to send more pris- 
oners back than names on their muster-roll. On the retreat he was 
again assigned to the post of honor, the rear guard. " It seems," says 
Major London, " to have been the fate of this officer to occupy the post 


of honor and danger, in the front in every advance and in the rear in 
every retreat, beginning with Yorktown and ending at Appomattox." 
The fact speaks for itself. 

In the campaign of 1864, which began in the Wilderness on May 
5th, with almost incessant fighting for a continuous month, Colonel 
Grimes was actively engaged almost every day. On the 12th of May 
an event happened which threatened the existence of the entire army. 
By a sudden movement of the enemy the lines were broken at a point 
known as the Horse Shoe, and General Edward Johnson and 2,000 
prisoners captured. To recover it at once was essential. Ramseur's 
brigade was ordered to the work, and in the charge that officer was 
disabled by a wound. Thereupon Colonel Grimes, upon his own 
responsibility, ordered a second charge and recaptured the lost works 
and guns, and in so doing killed more of the enemy than the brigade 
numbered in men. This gallant feat elicited the personal acknowledg- 
ment of General Lee, who, says Colonel Grimes, rode down in person 
and declared that " we deserved the thanks of the country ; we had 
saved his army." General Daniel, who had been recommended by 
General Lee for promotion, was killed on the left, and Colonel Grimes 
was assigned to the command of his brigade, and shortly after, June 
5th, received his commission of brigadier, after having been previously 
recommended in the highest terms by Generals Ramseur, Daniel, 
Rodes and Hill. During Rodes's temporary absence he was assigned 
to the command of his division. Shortly after, he went home on a 
sick furlough, but in spite of his physician's interdict returned to his 
command whilst still unfit for duty, rejoined it at Bunker Hill on 
the 12th of August and participated in all the varying fortunes of 
General Early's army in the Valley from that time until the end of 
that most active and exciting campaign. Space forbids minute details. 
Suffice it, that the army was constantly on the move, advancing one 
day and for strategic reasons falling back the next, inflicting heavy 
blows at one time and sustaining them at another. On the whole, 
however, it terminated most disastrously to the Southern arms in the 
terrible battle on Cedar Creek, October 19th, where, from some inex- 
plicable cause (Grimes says, lack of discipline in some commands) 
the entire army became panicked, suffered an overwhelming defeat 
and narrowly escaped extermination. A month previously, at the 
battle of Winchester, that superb soldier, General Rodes, Was -killed, 


and in the last fight Ramseur, who had been assigned to his division, 
met the same fate. Its command now devolved on General Grimes, 
although his commission as major general did not reach him until 
the 15th of February ensuing. On the 23d of November with his 
division he met and drove back a large body of the enemy's cavalry 
at Rudes' Hill, which engagement, and Rosser's at Moorefield, quite 
brilliant for our side, terminated the fighting in that quarter. 

About this time occurs in one of his letters the following noble sen- 
timent: "If we could accomplish any commensurate good, I would be 
willing again to go down the Valley and attack Sheridan, and if neces. 
sary stay there, although it would interfere with my long cherished 
desire to spend a quiet winter; but in my present position, the public 
interest is to be considered before private preference, and the higher a 
man rises in the military service the fewer privileges can he enjoy, for 
he cannot ask indulgence when he feels the good of the country will 
be jeopardized, and as I am now commanding a division, I will have to 
remain here until some one else comes to fill the place." Spoken like 
the patriot he was. And again: " But would to Heaven this carnage 
was over and I permitted to retire from such scenes and live a quiet 
and domestic life." About the [8th of December he and his division 
arrived at Petersburg, then beleaguered by an overwhelming force 
under General Grant, and went into winter quarters. On the [5th of 
February he was moved out of these to Southerland's Station, twelve 
miles from the city, for the purpose of protecting the right wing of the 
army. In March 1865, he was ordered back to Petersburg, arriving on 
the 14th, and occupied the trenches until then held by Bushrod John- 
son's division. His line of fortification extended three and a half 
miles and to defend it he had only about twenty-two hundred men — one 
man to about every three yards even when all were under arms ! 
Literally a skirmish line whose duty it was to repulse if necessary an 
army which could advance at any moment in solid column. To be 
ready for any emergency, one-third of his little force had to be kept 
constantly on picket in the rifle pits, and one-third on the alert at the 
breastworks every night, whilst the balance took such rest as they 
could get sleeping on their arms amidst constant firing on the picket 
line. Add to this, scant rations and of the commonest kind, insuffi- 
cient covering during that rigorous season, with mud knee-deep in 
the trenches, and we can form some faint idea of what that army 


endured in the winter of '64-6$. Suffering? Valley Forge was an 
elysium in comparison. Heroism ? Massena's defence of Genoa 
was child's play. Here was patriotism ! Nothing but patriotic fervor 
could have kept even such heroes as they at such a post of duty. 
Mere hirelings could not have been held for a week. They bore it 
uncomplainingly, with implicit faith in Providence and the justice of 
their cause, trust in their commander and confidence in each other. 
Even then they cracked their jokes, told their stories and sang their 
songs, as did James Wolfe his death-song on the way to glory, and 
Abraham's Heights : 

" Why should we be melancholy, boys, 
Whose business 'tis to die ? " 

Shame on the slanderous tongue that would ascribe base motives to 
men like these. 

The closing week of that dread ordeal was to bear record of the 
boldest conception by the commander and by some the best executed. 
On the 25th of March General Lee resolved to take the offensive and 
to cut in twain the great besieging army. At the hazard of being 
thought invidious, it must be written as deliberate conviction that in 
that final and supreme effort Grimes's division played the grandest 
part and did as usual what it was required to do, took the works in 
front, with large numbers of prisoners and munitions, but being unsup- 
ported by a certain other division, were compelled to fall back with a 
loss of 478 men. As usual, General Grimes was conspicuous for his 
reckless daring. 

But the end had come. On the night of the 1st of April towards 
morning the enemy effected a lodgment in our line, and although 
checked and held to that particular point known as Rune's Salient by 
General Grimes and his division, it was now obvious that longer 
defence was impossible. Consequently, the order for the evacuation 
was issued and carried into effect on that night, April 2d. On Thurs- 
day morning (6th) the enemy's advance came up with the rear, as 
usual in such cases commanded by Grimes. From 8 a. m. to 4 p. m. 
there was almost continuous fighting, one-half of the command form- 
ing line of battle to the rear, whilst the other half, retiring to a reason- 
able distance further on, would do the same and permit the first to 
pass. And so the retreat was kept up until Sailor's creek was reached 
at 4 p. m. that day. Here the foe was repeatedly repulsed, but con 


tinuing to advance in overwhelming numbers, and having flanked both 
wings of the little force guarding the bridge, it was compelled to seek 
escape from impending capture by precipitate flight across the creek. 
It sounds almost incredible that after such an experience at the close 
of Thursday, this very same division should on the next day recapture 
the position and guns which had been lost by General Mahone, together 
with large numbers of prisoners. No eulogy could speak higher 
for its discipline and soldierly qualities or sound louder the praises of 
him and his predecessor who had done its training. His escape on 
the evening before partakes of the marvellous. 

And now came the closing and crowning glory of this dauntless 
division commander, shared in by every man of his command, forthere 
was enough for all. Appomattox had been reached and the fateful 
9th had arrived. It was obvious that Lynchburg was General Lee's 
objective point. To prevent the consummation of this design, General 
Grant had during the night massed a large force on the further side of 
Appomattox Court-house to intercept his progress in that direction, 
and these had thrown up earthworks at the intersection of two cross 
roads. Seeing the absolute necessity of dislodging them, General 
Grimes was at his own request permitted to make the attempt, the 
two other divisions of Gordon's corps, Walker's and Evans's, being 
placed at his disposal, Bushrod Johnson's having previously been on 
the day before. Without entering into particulars it is enough to say 
that he Hid all and more than was stipulated. The works were carried, 
numerous pieces of artillery and prisoners captured, and the enemy 
beaten back in confusion for nearly a mile and at small loss. Despatch- 
ing word back to General Gordon that the road was open to Lynch- 
burg, his suprise was extreme when the order in reply came to with- 
draw. For the first time in his military career he refused to obey an 
order from a superior. Recognizing the essentiality of his position to 
the salvation of the army, and thinking that General Gordon did not 
appreciate what had been gained, he disregarded the order to fallback 
and numbers of like orders to the same effect. Finally one came from 
the chief, and then he fell back, bringing off his own force almost 
intact whilst being hotly pressed by the enemy in his rear. It was 
the proud privilege of General Win. R. Cox, whose brigade was guard- 
ing the rear in this retrograde movement, to fire the last volley of 
" the grand army" grandest of all that the world has seen, according 


to Colonel Freemantle, of the Coldstream Guards, who had seen it on the 
enemy's soil. The recall of that glorious division was only the pre- 
lude to its dissolution. Human endurance was exhausted, and Lee 
had surrendered. The first was indispensable precursor to the last. 
Let the veil be drawn over that saddest of all scenes, where battle- 
scarred heroes cried like puling school boys, and some did crave in 
utter despair that the end of all things might come. But an overrul- 
ing Providence willed otherwise, and seemed to decree that men who 
stood in war unsurpassed, if not unequalled, in manly attributes, should 
return to their desolated homes to illustrate the same in peace. Bryan 
Grimes was one of these, and none there was more chafing at the 
time. But he, like others, went home and laid aside his old gray coat, 
and in the second earnest struggle which followed, this time with 
" the wolf at the door," obliterated the soldier in the citizen. Fit type 
was he in later days of Tennyson's " Sir Walter Vivian," and fit type 
he of the modest, unpretentious country gentleman: 

" And there we saw Sir Walter where he stood, 
Before a tower of crimson holly oaks, 
Among six boys, head under head, and looked 
No little lily-handed baronet he, 
A great, broad-shouldered, genial Englishman, 
A lord of fat prize oxen and of sheep, 
A raiser of huge melons and of pine; 
A patron of some thirty charities, 
A pamphleteer on guano and on grain, 
A quarter sessions chairman, abler none; 
Fair-hair'd and redder than a windy morn." 

I will not trust myself to speak of the foul taking off of this later 
Launcelot, with all of the valor and other virtues, but free from the 
foibles of "Arthur's knight," except to exult over the grinding of 
the " Gods' mills," which eventually brought retributive justice to his 
vile assassins. Let his kinsman Cowper close this imperfect sketch, 
in which all who knew him will most heartily concur: 

" For honesty of purpose, for devotion to principle, for firmness of 
friendship, for honor in all things, for faithfulness to all promises and 
obligations, and for true genuine courage, he stood on the day of his 
death the peer of any living human being." He speaks of Bryan 
Grimes. Wharton J. Green. 



It seems only yesterday that a party of us surveyors, arrayed in 
cow-boy attire, left Washington to begin camp life in the hills of 
Northern Virginia during the hot season of July; and even now the 
thought of opening boxes, collecting camp utensils, " pitching tents" 
and ditching them, in an open field, when the thermometer registered 
95 in the shade, is almost enough to make one perspire as though he 
were experiencing it all again. Yes, we can see the boys now with 
their coats off working manfully to give camp a respectable appearance 
before night should overtake us. So much had to be done, and so 
few to do it. Old Norman Scott, an ideal Virginia negro, cook in 
Gen. Fitz Lee's camp during the war, was busily engaged in preparing 
supper, and, while leaning over the pots, listening to the music of 
frying ham and boiling potatoes, seemed apparently unconscious of 
all the bustle around him, though he was frequently asked questions 
by young ladies who came out from the village near by to ascertain if 
we told fortunes, or if we had anything for sale. We hear some one 
beating on a tin pan. It is our supper bell. The boys rush for their 
seats at the well furnished table ; grace is forgotten, formality is for- 
gotten. There is a noise as of many mouths devouring soup ; hands, like 
grappling irons, reach here and there ; knives and forks clatter, and the 
dishes lose their contents. The meal is over ; night is upon us. The boys 
gather around the camp fire, throw their feet upon the burning logs, 
light their cigars, and indulge in jokes and occasional snatches of song. 
Dick Cameron, of North Carolina, brings out his banjo, and invites 
the little negroes, who have assembled to find out what kind of beings 
these are who disturb the midnight hours, to dance to a tune of his, so 
quick and devilish. The dance, so odd, so interesting, soon comes to 
a close, for one of our boys, thinking it time to retire, distributes a 
bucket of ice-water lavishly over the heads of the participant.-. We 
enter our tent for the night. We look around us, and see six hard, 
narrow, scantily covered cots prepared for our reception ; valises, packs 
of cards and empty bottles, our eyes also rest upon. All ready ? 
Lights out ! Each crowds into his blankets, sewed in the form of a 
huge bag, like a snake into its hole. Silence reigns. Not long before 
morning the wind began to blow. Distant thunder could be heard. 


Tents began to sway to and fro, as if they wished to flee before the 
approaching storm. It was dark as midnight, when the big drops 
began to fall. In a moment the storm was upon us. The tents seemed 
to wish to visit the stars ; now and then a rope would pop, sounding 
like the breaking of our heart-strings. The boys were sitting up in 
their cots, their faces looking like ghosts of a troubled dream. One 
tried to strike a light, but in vain. We heard a cry for help from the 
opposite tent, or rather where the tent was a few moments before, for 
when we peeped out, lo ! there in the wind and rain, in the mud and 
slush, stood two of the boys, each clad in a single garment, wrestling 
with a single rope, at the end of which hung something like a kite. 
It was their tent. We laughed at them, and one of the boys yelled 
out : " Give her more rope; the wind has just begun to rise." Clothes 
are scattered, like wet rags, here and there in the mud. We build a 
fire. The cold are warmed. The wet are dried. Breakfast is served, 
our horses are harnessed to the buckboards, and we are off for a day's 
work, each having a section of country to survey. 

Let us look at the character of the work. A base-line has to be 
surveyed first, and it is run like any ordinary railroad line with chain 
and transit. All points on the line must be accurately located, such 
as streams, branching roads, &c.,for this line must be a check on our 
" meander work." " Meandering " consists in measuring the roads 
with buckboard, to one of the rear wheels of which is attached an odo- 
meter, which, recording revolutions of the wheel, measures quite accu- 
rately our distance. Angles in the road are taken with the Gurley or 
prismatic compass. The plane table is often used for the same purpose. 
Elevations in feet are given us by means of the aneroid barometer, 
which readings must be compared with those of our cistern barometer 
at a base station, the elevation of which is known. In mountainous 
country, triangulation, which Prof. Graves will explain, is carried on to 
advantage in locating points. 

As we went from place to place in historic Virginia, we encountered 
men who took a pleasure in telling us of the daring deeds of our " South- 
ern boys," and in pointing out to us sections of country on which 
terrible battles were fought. We saw numerous men, who, before the 
war, were large slave-holders ; their slaves, their property, are free, and, 
in consequence, many large farms have gone to ruin. We saw large 
houses, probably once fashionable residences and happy homes, now 


so dilapidated that even those of low degree would be ashamed to 
occupy them. Yes, we readily saw to what a great extent Virginia 
was injured by the war, and it will be years before she will, if she ever 
does, occupy the exalted position she once held among her sister States. 

We spent several days at Fredericksburg. It has been made historic 
by being the field of battle on which a terrible struggle took place. 
We stood on Marye's Heights, famous on account of the fact that 
here our Southern batteries were placed; and from this point could 
be seen the " old rock wall " just below us ; beyond this was the 
gentle slope to the river, up which the Unionists charged, and down 
which they retreated in disorder. Houses are still standing, apparently 
in good condition, bearing huge scars showing that absence of mind 
would have been preferable to presence of body in such an engagement. 
Rifle pits still exist, but many have been eradicated by time and the 
implements of the farmer. 

Not far from these heights, now a beautiful Federal burying-ground 
and on the road to the little town of Fredericksburg, are the ashes of 
Mary Washington. Upon this grave is erected, not a suitable monument 
to her memory, but one to the indifference of the American people in 
caring for their distinguished dead. We passed through the " Wilder- 
ness," and along the famous plank road, near which is a monument 
pointing out the spot where Jackson fell, to Unionville, where a large 
force of boys from North Carolina were camped through one severe 

We camped within a stone throw of the Richmond Exposition 
-grounds. A great advertisement for the State was this display of 
her resources. We visited the beautiful cemetery near Richmond, 
and saw the graves of Presidents Monroe and Tyler. To the memory 
of the former a handsome iron monument has been erected ; to the 
memory of the latter there is only a little bush of green roses to mark 
his resting-place, and it seemed to spring up there as if in mockery of 
the dead. 

A surveyor's life is, and at times is not, a happy one. It is a little 
unpleasant when one has to ride about fifteen miles in a blinding snow- 
storm in his summer clothes, or when he has to retire at night after a 
hard day's work to his little cot with no fire, and little between him- 
self and mother earth, especially when the thermometer is low, and 
when the wind is whistling " from Greenland's icy mountains " 
around the corners of his tent. It is at a time when one is lost at 


night in the forests, when it is raining, and when he is on the wrong 
side of an uninviting river that all romance vanishes from nomadic 
life. It is at such a time that one thinks most forcibly of a good fire, 
pleasant accommodations, and agreeable companions, such as we used 
to have in the " Old South Building," when such men as Bryan, Self 
and Wright made the halls of the University of North Carolina ring 
with their oratory, and when Morehead and Wilson would frighten 
the owls with their attempts at song. 

Lewis J. Battle. 


No. XIV. 


Dancing in the old days must have been pursued under difficulties. 
I do not know when the old Steward's Hall was built, but it certainly 
was for many years the only building in the place that furnished a 
room large enough for saltatory exercises on any considerable scale ; 
and as it was there that the large majority of the students got their 
meals, the room was not likely to have been very often cleared for the 
dance — and when cleared, presented but a rough surface for satin slip- 
pers and trains. 

Old Mrs. Elizabeth Nunn's house, which stood on the corner now 
occupied by the brick store, had one good-sized room, where, I have 
been told, the commencement balls were often given. It was a most 
unattractive looking place, with a low ceiling crossed by black beams, 
and a floor with as many ups and downs in it as an average politician's 

Some old people, on being interviewed on the subject, have ventured 
to remember that they used to dance in Person Hall, and that Dr. 
Caldwell himself figured in the dance arrayed in black silk breeches, 
with silver buckles at the knee and on his pumps. 

But such legends I take the liberty of discrediting. The old inhabi- 
tant who professes to have seen Dr. Caldwell dancing bears a fatal 


resemblance to the gentleman who before dinner remembered General 
Washington, and after dinner Christopher Columbus. 

I am much more disposed to believe the story that the Doctor might 
be seen early of a winter morning carrying a little stone jug of rum to 
the hands who were clearing a bit of new ground for him. Rum was 
thought " a good creature " in those days by all parties. But the 
dancing I decline to admit. 

Be it all as it may, the dancing was no doubt accomplished under 
disadvantages. Doctor Hooper's " Fifty Years Since" describes a 
ball in Steward's Hall and the consequences that befell when one 
gentleman who was cutting "the pigeon-wing" before his partner 
came down with premeditated violence upon his rival's toes, and a duel 
was immediately arranged to wipe out the insult. 

" The old Steward Hall," says the Doctor, " was then the ball-room. 
The floor was covered with spectators, except the spots left vacant for 
the dancers. Of course, the gentlemen had to pull their partners to 
their position through a dense thicket of lookers-on, five deep, at the 
mminent risk of their hanging by the hair, or losing some of their 
ornaments in the transit. In such circumstances dancing in the month 
of July must have been delectable work, for the fourth of July was 
then commencement day, the great national festival being the great 
college festival." 

Doctor Hooper's anecdotes and memorabilia went back fifty years 
from the commencement occasion on which he delivered his address. 
This was in 1859, wnen President Buchanan and his court graced the 
scene. He was describing the University in the first decades of the 
century. A little later we have from the recollections of General 
Edward Mallett, a graduate of 18 18, this picture of a ball-room beau of 
his day : 

" The style of costume, and even the manners of the present gene- 
ration are not, in my opinion, an improvement on half a century ago. 
The managers would not admit a gentleman into a ball-room with 
boots, or even a frock-coat ; and to dance without gloves was simply 

"At the commencement ball (when I graduated) my coat was broad- 
cloth of sea-green color, high velvet collar to match, swallow-tail, 
pockets outside, with lapels and large silver-plated buttons ; white 
satin damask vest, showing the edge of a blue undervest; a wide 


opening for bosom ruffles, and no shirt collar. The neck was dressed 
with a layer of four or five three-cornered cravats, artistically laid and 
surmounted with a cambric stock, pleated, and buckled behind. My 
pantaloons were white Canton crape, lined with pink muslin, and 
showed \ peach blossom tint. They were rather short to display 
flesh-colored silk stockings ; and this exposure was increased by very 
low-cut pumps with shiny buckles. My hair was very black, very long, 
and queued. I would be taken for a lunatic or a.harlequin in such a 
costume now." 

General Mallett delivered an address to the graduating class of '81, 
being then 84 years of age. He and Bishop Green of Mississippi, and 
Rev. Dr. Morrison of Charlotte, were then sole survivors of their class. 
Doctor Morrison alone is now left. 

Looking over the University records and papers last year, a petition 
from the students to the Board of Trustees for a ball-room was found 
filed away and endorsed in Doctor Mitchell's handwriting : " Rara 
avis." It bears date fifty-six years ago, and as this is a centennial 
year, a semi-centennial document cannot be considered out of order, 
and I reproduce the rara avis for the amusement of our readers. Col- 
legians fifty-six years ago seem to have been much like their brethren 
of the present day — artless, confiding, and gifted with a fine flow of 

Chapel Hill, Nov. 4, 1833. 
To the Honorable the Trustees of the University of North Carolina : 

Gentlemen— Knowing that during the present month you are to 
meet according to adjournment, a numerous and respectable assem- 
blage of our fellow students convened and appointed us a committee 
to lay before you this petition, the object of which is to obtain your 
assent to our using at the next commencement so much of the Stew- 
ard's Hall as is necessary for the convenience of a ball. 

We are sensibly touched with the delicacy of presenting our peti- 
tion at so early a period. But knowing not whether you will again 
convene prior to jjthe next commencement, and urged on by the 
strongest motives of policy, we are constrained to submit it now, 
though stamped with the impress of prematurity. 

We believe that the intellectual improvement and gentlemanly 
accomplishments which would be superadded to the other acquire- 


ments of the students, would justify you in causing to be built a suit- 
able ball-room, purposely for their accommodations. And were the new 
Chapel completed, this petition would have requested permission for 
us, at our own expense, to have turned the old Chapel (Person Hall} 
into such a conveniency. But aware of the limited resources of the 
University, we refrain from all such requests, and ask only such as can 
be granted without any disbursement. 

For us to argue the propriety and defend the practicability of balls 
would be presumption in the extreme ; since we are addressing you 
who deduce conclusions from the wisdom of experience. And, in 
conclusion, we can but assert from our little stock of experience, that 
we are convinced no genius, however promising, can effect much in the 
present enlightened era destitute of the polished accomplishments. 

And since on this retired Hill of Science we are precluded from the 
improvements of society, we feel from this cause an inevitable draw- 
back upon our literary acquirements. And knowing that balls do 
greatly promote gentility, we earnestly solicit your acquiescence to 
this petition. 

But waiving all personal concern in the fate of the petition, we 
should still strenuously advocate its principles as promoting the best 
interests of this institution, as enhancing the splendours of our com- 
mencements, and as contributing much, very much, to the gratification 
and pleasure of the adored Fair who honor us with their company on 
that universal jubilee. 

We have the honor to be, Gentlemen, 

Your humble servants, 

Christopher C. Battle, 
J no. H. Watson, 
Wm. P. Webb, 


Addressed to Charles Manly, Esq., Secretary of the Board of 

This composition is certainly unique, and cannot be read without 

" Adored Fair " is good. The phrase smacks of the last century, but 
is as pleasing as ever, and should be revived. The weight and power 
of the arguments in favor of dancing cannot but be felt : " No genius, 


however promising, can effect much in this enlightened era, destitute 
of the polished accomplishments;" while "our own literary acquire- 
ments feel an inevitable drawback from the want of society." How 
unanswerable the "promotion of gentility " by balls ! 

It is all extremely refreshing. Of the three rising juniors who 
signed this petition, but one is now living. Of the whole class, which 
graduated in 1835, but three survive : R. B. Creecy of Elizabeth City, 
James Hutchins of Texas, Wm. P. Webb of Alabama. 

On the discovery of the above petiton, Doctor Phillips borrowed 
it from the archives, and sent it to Judge Webb, who returned it with 
a letter so genial and so enjoyable that, without asking permission of 
any of the parties, I shall give it here. It is a genuine " old student's" 
letter, and no old student can read it without pleasure. 

Eutaw, Alabama, March 25, 1889. 

Dr. Chas. Phillips : My Dear Sir — I have read the " petition " 
over time and time again, remembering the writer and the occasion 
and the signers with melancholy interest. * * *. I laid it away 
for awhile to read again and return to you with my thanks, and have 
just been reminded of it by a correspondence with my friend and 
classmate, Dick Creecy, who still lives in the enjoyment of health and 
a green old age. I have written to him requesting him to represent 
our class of '35 at the centennial of the University in June next. 

I recognize the style and handwriting and signature of our lamented 
friend Battle, the author of the petition, and call your attention to 
the date thereof, "November, 1833," when the stars fell, and as we 
were then just out of our sophomorical studies, I hope you will excuse 
all rhetorical flourishes and pass its imperfections by. 

It reminds me of an amusing incident which occurred soon after- 
wards (in 1834). Battle and I were appointed on a committee with 
others to invite distinguished persons to the next commence- 
ment. He indicted one to our then Governor, David L. Swain (whose 
sobriquet was " Old Warping-bars "), inviting him to attend and "give 
dignity and stability to the ball." I reminded him of the Governor's 
reputation as a wit, and hinted that he might ridicule that language. 
But Battle insisted, and sent it. Sure enough the Governor replied, 
(with regrets) and suggested that we ought to supply his place at the 
ball "with some one who would give agility to it." 


We never mentioned it, and the boys did not get hold of the joke. 
Excuse me for recalling one more class incident. While we were 
studying chemistry, &c, with only Doctor Mitchell's MS. lectures, 
our class assembled under one of the grand old oaks south of the 
" Old South," and one read the lecture while the others listened and 
lounged. The Doctor often used and repeated the phrase " from 
time to time!' We all agreed that when we met him at recitation, 
each one of us should use the words "from time to time ' as often as 
possible. It was done, several times, as you may suppose, and the 
Doctor saw the point. He said nothing, however, but next day when 
we entered the recitation room (on time) we found him (in loco) and 
the long table before him covered with books, and he himself covered 
with smiles. After roll-call the Doctor began to read authorities, 
ancient and modern, lay and clerical, prose and poetical, classical and 
scientific — all using the words " from time to time," and after exhaust- 
ing the hour for recitation, he dismissed the class with one of his bland 
smiles. We retired with a loud " Hurra/i for old Mike /" 

I might relate other college stories still fresh in memory after the 
lapse of more than fifty years. But my hand is stiff and has forgot 
its cunning, and now, with the frosts of 74 winters upon me, will no 
longer obey my eye. 

Thank Mrs. S. for her favors and her notice to Creecy that I was 
still on this side of the river. He made a handsome retraxit, and we 
have exchanged photos, and greetings. Let him see the petition. 

Remember me very kindly to Prof. Love and his wife, who visited 
us on their bridal tour. 

I am, dear Doctor, very truly your friend, 

Wm. P. Webb. 

Taking General Mallett's reminiscences in connection with the peti- 
tion, it seems quite likely that well-conducted public assemblies were 
half a century and more ago really a considerable factor in civiliza- 
tion and in the " promotion of gentility." It was surely well that 
there should be at least one assemblage where young men were com- 
pelled to dress carefully, and behave with some ceremony. Manners 
were taught, and the code of polite society rigidly enforced. These 
balls were nearly all that the young people of that day had to impart 


to them grace or refinement, to teach them politeness, forbearance, 
self-restraint and the fine courtesies due the sexes from each other. 

They have a good many other sources opened up to them in these 
later days from which they may and do learn such needful lessons. 
Fine breeding need not go to a ball-room to find its best exemplars 
now. Indeed I much question if they are to be met there. Dancing 
is not what it was, and in these times is by no means of the fine arts. 

We salute Judge Webb, Mr. Creecy and Mr. Hutchins. We heartily 
congratulate them on lives well spent and honorable, and on retain- 
ing to their closing years an unabated an affectionate interest in their 
Alma Mater. 

The regiments sent out by our University in the early decades of 
this century are indeed grievously thinned. Here and there only can 
the veterans be found. But wherever found, their eyes will light up 
at mention of Chapel Hill with undying love and fond remembrance. 
Whether it was in the days of Caldwell, or Swain, or Battle, still each 
one recalls his own time as the best, his own class the cleverest of all. 
So may it ever be. 

" Think oft, ye brethren, 

Think of the gladness of your youthful prime, 
It cometh not again — that golden time." 

Mrs. C. P. Spencer. 


While tramping through the mountains of North Carolina during 
the summer of 1885, I had the good fortune to make the ascent of 
Mitchell's High Peak, and while spending the night on its summit I 
had one adventure which I shall endeavor to relate. 

My brother and I started one evening in the latter part of July, 
from " the station," to go a distance of five miles, to a guide's house 
near the foot of the mountain. Our intention was to spend the night 
there and get an early start the next morning for a nine-mile climb to 
the summit. As usual we carried our sketch-boxes, and, as we were 
both fond of this kind of work, we made it a source not only of pleas- 
ure but also of profit. 


About nightfall we reached the guide's house. It was a dilapidated, 
though roomy, log house on the banks of a roaring mountain stream, 
the Swannanoa, abounding in trout of the speckled or mountain 
variety. We found there two boys from Tennessee, who expected, 
themselves, to make the ascent the next day, and were glad to share 
with us the guide's fee. 

In entering the house, we had noticed lying on the porch, with his 
head against a post, a short, hump-shouldered man of about sixty or 
seventy years, with a wrinkled face and grizzled gray beard, bare- 
footed, and wearing an old slouch hat and coarse shirt, with string 
suspenders. He had a very narrow brow, and one of his hands had 
been cut off at the wrist ; altogether, he was a strange looking figure. 

The sister of the guide told us, while we ate our supper of " wheat 
bread" and muddy coffee, that he was an idiot, and, being harmless, 
they allowed him to stay with them and sleep on the floor near the 

"Ther' aint no harm in him at all," she said, in the usual mountain 
jargon, "but he haint nowhere ter stay, unlest we let him stay here, 
an' it looks hard ter drive him away." 

"You see, sir," she continued, "he haint but one hand. Some two 
or three year ago, he wus a-walkin' on the railroad down here at Roun' 
Knob, wher' ther' is a stone trustle, an' he had somebody's little child 
along with him. 

"Wall, they started to walk acrost the trustle, but they hadn't got 
more'n half way when the train come in sight round the cut 'n' they 
didn't know what ter do. Wall, the little gal managed ter git off in 
time, but John, thar, he hung down outside the trustle 'n' put his 
hand over the rail an' the train cut it off. 

" Sence that, John haint had no use fer the train, but stays 'round 
here purty much all the time, 'n' sometimes he goes up on the mount- 
ing with the others. Thcy's always glad ter have him ter carry bundles 
fer 'em. John's always willin'." 

We watched him walking around in his bent, shuffling fashion, some- 
times talking to himself, and sometimes " writin* " on a scrap of dirty 
paper with a stub of a pencil. " Keepin' his 'counts," the woman 
told us, with a nod and a smile. 

We arose the next morning, long before the sun had reached the 
valley, and ate our breakfast, in that dewy coolness that characterizes 
the atmosphere of a mountain "cove." 


From the guide we procured blankets, bread, ground coffee and a 
piece of dried bacon, which articles we divided into packs and distrib- 
uted between us — giving a part to John, he having announced his 
intention of going with us. Then, bending to the task, we set out in 
the best of spirits. Our path followed up the clear Swannanoa, con- 
tinually crossing and recrossing it. John shuffled along behind us talk- 
ing to himself about a " b'ar " that he had seen up in the "cove.''' 
Upon our asking the guide how old he supposed John to be, he replied 
that he " reckoned he wuz nigh onto sixty year, though he says him- 
self as he will be sixteen in June and March." 

We had made about two miles in this way when we came upon a 
party of venturesome young people from New Jersey, mounted, and 
evidently intent on making the same journey that we had started upon. 

Among the guides whom this party had employed, we noticed a 
half-breed Indian, who had straggled off — we were told^— from a roving 
band of Cherokees, of which tribe there remains still quite a number 
in the southwestern counties of Cherokee and Swain. 

He was a crafty looking fellow, and wore leather moccasins and leg- 
gings, and a "coon-skin " cap, all ornamented after the Indian fashion 
with beads. Our guide further told us that he often accompanied 
parties going up on the mountain, for the purpose, ostensibly, of get- 
ting balsam canes and fishing rods, which he pretended to sell. 

In consequence of the circumstance which I am about to relate, I 
have always had a vivid recollection of the appearance of this fellow. 

We soon began to climb in earnest, for the grade, which up to this 
point was easy, now became very steep. The path is well marked but 
very crooked, going in a zig-zag fashion in order to afford a better 
footing for the horses. The surface was covered, for the most part, 
up to an altitude of about 5000 feet, with a heavy forest growth of 
oak, chestnut, and ash, dotted here and there with great spruce pines. 
Above this altitude the growth is almost exclusively balsam. 

Patient toiling brought us past the half-way house, over the great 
dome of Potato Top, down a short distance, then over the peak called 
"Clingman's," and the smaller peaks Gibbs and Hallback, and it was 
five o'clock in the afternoon before we reached the summit of the 
monarch of the Alleghanies. 

After staking the horses we settled ourselves to enjoy the enchant- 
ing panorama, of which it were useless to attempt a description. When 


the sun sank behind the billows of mountains, we were so lost in 
admiration of its beauty, that we scarcely had time to make ready our 
camping place before the darkness fell, or rather arose, for thus it 
seems to do on the mountain top. 

We were to sleep under a shelter formed by the shelving of a ledge 
of rocks, at a short distance from the summit. Our limbs ached so 
much from our exertions that we were disposed to look upon a pros- 
pective bed of balsam boughs as a luxury. 

A fire of balsam logs was kindled in front of the great rock, for the 
temperature at this altitude was quite low, notwithstanding the fact 
that it was midsummer. Besides this, the fire would be of service to 
frighten off any prowling wild beast, for black bears and wild cats are 
quite often seen on the Black Mountains. 

"Rattlesnakes" were suggested, but the guide offered to " eat all 
you ketched above the half-way house." With this assurance we 
drew over us our blankets, and, with feet extended to the fire, we slept. 

I do not know how long I had been asleep when I became conscious 
of some movement near me. I finally managed to arouse myself, and 
found that the fire had died down, and that puffs of cloud were being 
blown over us by the wind. I started to get up to rake together the 
smouldering logs, but seeing the idiot, John, sitting drawn up, with 
his chin on his knees, and acting rather strangely, I paused. 

He had been shaking the end of a bough on which I lay, and as I 
looked at him, he pointed his finger up the ledge to where those of 
the other party were sleeping. I followed the movement with my 
eyes, but seeing nothing unusual, I started again to go toward the fire, 
thinking that John was indulging in some of his usual contortions. 
But as he kept pointing, I again looked, and had my curiosity aroused 
by seeing a figure, which I recognized as that of the half-breed, step- 
ping about very cautiously among the slumberers. 

Their fire had died down so much that I could not see well enough 
to make out what his actions meant. Soon he came out from under 
the ledge and disappeared in the path to the summit. 

At this the old man became excited, and after watching the retreat- 
ing figure until he .could see it no longer, he sprang up and stole 
around the lower end of the granite ledge. This ledge is several 
hundred yards in length and runs from the edge of the summit, on the 
path side, in a direction perpendicular to that of the chain. The ledge 


slopes toward the north, and it was under the shelter thus formed that 
we slept. 

On the south side the surface sloped off rapidly, and was covered 
with that almost impenetrable growth of balsam to the very base 
of the ledge. Something prompted me to follow the old man, though 
I took the precaution to get from my pack a revolver. 

I had thought that side of the ledge almost untrodden by human 
footsteps, but I soon found myself mistaken, for the old man darted 
quickly forward close to the face of the rock, and as I followed as best 
I could, I saw that we were in an unused trail which afforded a pas- 
sage, cramped and dangerous as it was. 

" John kin ketch yer," he said to himself with a chuckle. Then I 
began to see what the old fellow's idea was, and when, after some 
very perilous climbing, I saw before us the well marked path by which 
we had ascended the mountain, I realized that he would in some way 
intercept the half-breed at this point. 

I had cause to be thankful, in this climb of about two hundred 
yards, for my previous training in this direction, for I was obliged 
sometimes to hold on with my fingers in cracks of the rocks, and 
several times I came near falling into the tops of the dark balsams 

Immediately upon reaching this path, John crouched in the shadow 
of a clump of balsams, keeping a sharp lookout toward the summit. I 
did the same, hardly knowing why, and felt, I confess it, a little ner- 
vous in the company of this idiotic old fellow. 

Soon the unmistakable sound of a horse's hoofs striking against the 
rocks was heard, and three horses, on one of which was seated the 
Indian, appeared in the steep, rough path above. 

His plan evidently was to make off with the horses under cover of 
darkness, and, once reaching the half-way house (a deserted rock 
cabin), he would take one of the obscure trails leading down on the 
other side of the mountain, thus making his way to where he would 
be safe from pursuit. 

I gripped my pistol, having, however, a very confused idea of what 
I wanted to do. John settled the matter for me, for as the Indian, 
seated on the foremost horse, got opposite the bush which concealed 
us, he sprang into the path directly in front of the horse, and, in fact, 
almost under his feet. 


As might be supposed, the horse gave a sudden lunge to the right, 
thus unseating the Indian, lithe and sinewy as he was. The path here 
ran along the sloping upper edge of a very steep declivity, and the 
Indian, falling on the lower side, was not able to gain a footing, and 
literally rolled all the way to the bottom. The frightened horses 
contrived to turn about in the narrow, shelf-like path, and made their 
way back to the summit. 

I heard the fellow crashing into the balsam tops below and could 
not help feeling a little pity for the poor wretch, badly as he had 
deceived us. 

It being too dark to venture down from the path to look after the 
Indian's injuries, I hurried up to the summit, and then down to the 
camp. John followed me, keeping up a running series of excited 
chuckles and grunts, displaying evident satisfaction at the ruse he had 

I awakened the others and told them what had transpired. We did 
not attempt any more sleeping, but staked the horses where we could 
watch them and listened to the "hair-lifting" tales which the guides, 
by turns, told us. The situation was wild and romantic in the extreme, 
and the region abounds in weird and curious legends which an episode 
of this kind always brings to mind. 

Early the next morning several of us went to the scene of the 
occurrence, and picking our way carefully down the rugged slope, found 
the half-breed badly bruised and with a broken arm, sitting with his 
back against a tree trunk within a few feet of where he had fallen. 
He was very sullen, but seemed to show some gratitude when he saw 
that we were disposed to treat him kindly. We had to help him on a 
horse when we got ready to descend, and when we reached the guide's 
house we left him in his custody. 

In the sack which he carried we found a number of valuables, includ- 
ing some money which he had taken from our packs while we slept. 

Before separating to take our different routes, we made arrangements 
with the guide who had befriended the half witted John to give him 
food and clothing for a year at least, for we felt that we were greatly 
indebted to his wakefulness and cunning. 

We reached " the station " about nightfall, thoroughly tired, but 
proud of having spent the night on this Pisgah of the Occident. 

Hunter L. Harris. 


I heard the Old Year moan and sigh, 
I heard the Old Year groan and die, 
While wailing winds went soughing by, 

Out in the sobbing rain — 
Old Year, why art thou moaning so? 
We are content that thou should'st go ; 
We tired of years long, long ago ; 

To die must be a gain. 

Out of the death grows life anew ; 
Out of the false there comes the true ; 
Out of the Old Year springs the new, 

Thou'lt come again, Old Year. 
Into the dark alone thou'lt go, — 
Why art thou sighing, sobbing so? 
The One above keeps watch below. 

He lives — need never fear. 

A rest and change ; all things anew ; 
They'll live again, the false and true. 
If only good lived in the new. 

Our many derelictions 
Would count but little in the end; 
And truth from error would forefend; 
In life or death, sweet heaven would send 

Us many benedictions. 

Out of the night will come the day ; 

Out of the dust, out of decay, 

Will come the buds and blooms of May; 

Only a change, remember — 
When every flow'ret censer swings, 
And warbling bird its anthem sings, 
And to the heart such gladness brings, 

It soon forgets December. 


Hark ! on the air, I hear a bell — 
'Tis "12 o'clock, and all is well !" 
The watchman's cry — Old Year farewell, 

Out in the sobbing rain ; 
No passer by I see on street ; 
Hark ! now I hear the tramping feet, 
But cannot see for storm and sleet, 

With face against the pane. 

The year is dead, Oh no ! Oh no ! 
The year still lives, Oh ho ! Oh ho ! 
The rain and wind have ceased, and so, 

Long life, New Year, to you ! 
All sounds are hushed, above, below ; 
Soft, on the pane, the snow ! the snow ! 
A winding sheet that husheth all, 
In lowly hut or lordly hall — 
A winding sheet for the Old Year, no ! 

A mantle for the New. 

Oh ! bright New'Year, with snow-white train, 
Oh ! glad New Year, you've come again : 
Covering the earth, its every stain, 
With snow-white train from mount to main — 

May good live on in you, 

The beautiful and true ! 

Long life, long life to you ! 
Oh ! bright New Year, Oh ! glad New Year, 
'Tis not too soon for hearty cheer, 
Our requiem for the dying year, 

Reveille for the new ! 

The beautiful, the true ! 

Long life, long life to you ! 


Life out of death, Oh ! crown of thorn ! 
Oh ! sacred brow, all bleeding, torn ; 
Thou Man of many sorrows, born 

To give us life eternal, 
Grant to us life indeed, we pray; 
Keep us along this death-life way, 
Till death is dead in life, we pray, 

Oh love, oh joy supernal ! 

— Christopher Coit Woodhouse. 

Biographical Sketches 



Edited by Stephen B. Weeks. 

Iredell, James Johnston, Raleigh, N. C, b. in Edenton, N. C. 
Feb. 3, 1828, son of James and Frances Johnston, d. May 10, 1864. 
He was prepared for college in Raleigh, whither his father had removed 
to practise law, after serving a term as Governor and a term in the U. 
S. Senate ; joined the University in 1844, and was graduated in 1848. 
He was not married and was a lawyer by profession. Practised law 
in Elizabeth City, N. C; removed to Raleigh after the death of his 
father, Governor Iredell, in 1853. He entered the Confederate service 
in 1861, was appointed Major and commanded the Camp of Instruc- 
tion, Camp Mangum, near Raleigh. Early in 1862 he joined the Fifty- 
third Regiment, N. C. T., Gen. Daniel's Brigade, but was command- 
ing the Second N. C. Battalion. He was put in command of this bat- 
talion after the battle of Gettysburg, when, to quote from one of his 
letters, " from the loss of officers and other causes, it was very much 
demoralized." The following is part of an obituary published at the 
time of his death : " Killed, at the battle of Spottsylvania C. H., Va. 
Major James J. Iredell, commanding Second Battalion, N. C. T., in the 



35th year of his age. Nobly and gallantly discharging a sacred duty, 
faithfully and earnestly battling in a cause which met his conscien- 
tious approval and received his untiring energies and devotion, he has 
laid down a well-spent life — a true testimony of his sincerity before 
the shrine of his country's freedom and independence. He was a true, 
open hearted and reliable gentleman, possessing rare virtues and 
exalted merit. His whole life was marked by purity of thought and 
action, and he has left to the rising generation an example which may 
well be followed." 

The following is taken from a notice written when the remains 
of Major Iredell and his brother, Capt. Campbell T. Iredell, 
who fell at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, were brought to Raleigh 
for interment in 1866, both having lost their lives in battle and been 
hastily buried on the battle field : " James Johnston Iredell was 
Major of the Fifty-third Regiment, N. C. T., Daniel's Brigade. The 
writer of this was his college classmate and knew him intimately up 
to that sad 10th day of May, 1864, when he fell at his post on the 
field of Spottsylvania. Possessing a strict sense of personal honor, a 
gentle and charitable heart, a remarkable regard for the feelings of 
others, and for the high toned amenities of life, and inheriting all the 
generous qualities of the stock from which he sprung, he was, in the 
truest sense of that comprehensive word, a gentleman." A Phi. 

Lane, Thomas Hill, Wilmington, N. C, b. March 23, 1820, son of 
Levin and Margaret M.; shot through the body in a skirmish on St. 
Mary's river, Fla., just previous to the battle of Ocean Pond, during 
the winter or spring of 1864; fe^l into the enemy's hands and 
died the next day. Matriculated 1838. Married Sophia Ashe. 
He removed to Florida in 1858 and became a planter in Suwanee 
county. He served in the Home Guards, or Senior Reserves. The 
main feature in his character was the singular gentleness and amiability 
of his nature, being almost womanly in his affections; but he also 
possessed all the elements of a true and brave man, stubbornly firm 
and fearless in the discharge of what he conceived to be his duty. 
He left a large family. A Di. 

LUTTERLOH, Jarvis Buxton, Fayetteville, N. C, b. in Fayette- 
ville, Dec. 8, 1841, son of Thos. S. and Mary F., d. April 29, 1863. 
Matriculated 1857, class i860, with honor. Unmarried. Enlisted 
May 17, 1 861, in Co. H, Bethel Reg't, as a private, Capt. Wright Huske 


Col. D. H. Hill, and participated in the first pitched battle of the war, 
on the peninsula, below Yorktown, June 10, 1861. When his term of 
service had expired, he re enlisted and was commissioned First Lieu- 
tenant, Co. E, Fifty-sixth Regiment, April 1, 1862, Capt. Jos. G. Lock- 
hart, Col. Paul Faison. In the arduous campaign on the Blackwater, 
and upon every field where his duty made him an actor, he never failed 
in those qualities which attest true manhood, patriotism and unselfish 
devotion. Commanding his company at the battle of Gum Swamp, 
near Kinston, N. C, on the 28th of April, 1863, surrounded by thou- 
sands of the enemy and exposed to a murderous fire, he fell mortally 
wounded at the head of his little band, supporting and encouraging 
them to the last by his brave and cheering words. He was endowed 
with a buoyant disposition and a genial humor, and was cordially 
welcomed wherever known. Faithfulness was the great fibre of his 
character, and to him lack of fidelity was the one unpardonable sin. 
A Phi. 

McEachern, Robert James, Robeson co., N. C, b. April 18, 1833, 
son of Hector and Mary Smith, d. June 21, 1864, in Petersburg, Va. 
Spent a year at Trinity College and entered the University in 1856; 
did not graduate, on account of his father's death. Unmarried. He 
had taught school in Texas two years, but was preparing to farm when 
the war began. First enlisted in the LaFayette Light Infantry, First 
Regiment, as a private, and was stationed at Yorktown. When the 
company was disbanded he came home and assisted in raising a mili- 
tary company which became Company D, Fifty-first Regiment, Cling- 
man's Brigade, Hoke's Division. Made First Lieutenant and command- 
ing Captain of this company, April 9, 1863. He was present at Drury's 
Bluff, Bermuda Hundreds, Battery Wagner, and was mortally wounded 
at Cold Harbor, May 31, 1864. He was of fine personal appearance, 
pleasant and affable in manners, social and genial in disposition, of 
good intellectual acquirements, moral in his habits and religiously 
inclined. A Phi. 

McMillan, George Washington, New Hanover co., N. C, b. in 
the spring of 1840, son of Dr. G. H. and Mrs. Laura Foy, nte Nixon, 
d. November, 1862. Matriculated 1857, c ^ ss 1861. Unmarried. He 
first joined the Scotland Neck company as a private; he was promoted 
and made Orderly Sergeant in L. W. Humphrey's, afterwards John A. 
Baker's Company, 3rd N. C. Cavalry. He received his death wound on 


the "Holly Shelter" road, between Jacksonville and Wilmington ; he 
was sitting sidewise on his horse ; when his companions came riding 
up behind him, this frightened the horse and McMillan was thrown ; 
his foot caught in the stirrup and he was dragged in that position some 
twenty feet. He returned to camp, got a furlough from the surgeon 
and remained at his home, near Fayetteville, until his death. He was 
a member of the Presbyterian church, and much beloved by all his 
friends. A Phi. 

McRee, ROBERT COWAN, Wilmington, N. C, b. in Wilmington, Sept. 
27, 1845, son of James Fergus, Surgeon C. S. A., and Sally Cowan. 
He was a descendant of Gen. John Ashe and Maj. G. J. McRee, officers 
in the Continental line, a great-grandson of David Stone, Governor of 
North Carolina and United States Senator, a grandson and nephew of 
the two Colonels, R. H. Cowan, who were graduates of the University. 
He first matriculated at the Georgetown (D. C.) Catholic College, and 
was warmly loved by the fathers there ; he entered the University of 
North Carolina in 1861 and remained until in the fall of 1863. Un- 
married. He was offered a position by General Whiting in the Quar- 
termaster's Department, but declined, saying, " Such places should be 
for disabled soldiers." Advised by his physician at Chapel Hill that 
his health was not strong, and that a certificate from him would pro- 
cure his exemption before the medical board, he said, " Let me go and 
try it first. If I find I can't stand it, then I will get your certificate." He 
joined Co. K, Third Regiment, Capt. T. E. Armstrong, Col. S. D. Thurs- 
ton, Lane's Brigade, and was almost immediately made Sergeant-major 
of the regiment. He was present at Mine Run and was mortally 
wounded at Spottsylvania C. H., May 10, 1864; died in the enemy's 
hands May 23. He was very handsome and his talents were of 
a high order. Was noted for his coolness and bravery, and his end was 
calm and peaceful. A Di. 

Martin, George Saunders, Maury county, Tenn., b. in Nashville, 
Jan. 3, 1840. His father, Col. Geo. Martin, was for many years one of 
the most prominent business men of Nashville. His mother was a 
sister of Gen. Gideon J. Pillow. Matriculated 1857, class i860. 
Married, Sept. 9, 1862, Mary Gordon, daughter of Hon. A. O. 
P. Nicholson, U. S. Senator from Tennessee, and University of 
North Carolina, class 1827. When General Pillow was assigned to a 
command in the Confederate States Army he appointed his nephew on 


his staff as Lieutenant and Aide-de-camp. Lieutenant Martin accom- 
panied General Pillow when transferred to Fort Donelson, and there 
was first under fire. Owing to the scarcity of skilled officers, quite a 
number of assignments were made into the batteries on the first day's 
fight with the gunboats. Lieutenant Martin was of the number, 
having been assigned to a gun in the lower battery. When the fight 
was at its fiercest, Lieutenant Martin found himself short of wadding 
for his gun. At once he pulled off his coat, and tearing it up, used it 
for wadding. This fact is related in General Pillow's official report of 
the fight. During the subsequent fighting he bore himself with con- 
spicuous gallantry. He was shot by a band of horse-thieves and rob- 
bers, while riding along the road near Bainbridge, Ala., August 20, 
1863, and died Sept. 23, 1863. He is buried at Ashwood, Maury 
county, Tenn. A Di. 

Mickle, John Martin, Haynesville, Ala., b. Sept. 7, 1830, son of 
John Joseph and Rebecca Martin ; mortally wounded Sept. 19, 1863. 
Matriculated 1851. Married Martha S., daughter of Hon. Geo. W. 
Stone, Chief Justice of Alabama. A farmer by profession in Shelby 
county, Alabama. He entered the service as First Lieutenant Co. I, 
Eighteenth Alabama Regiment, Infantry ; was promoted to the cap- 
taincy of that company in the fall of 1862 or spring of 1863. This regi- 
ment was a part of Clayton's Brigade, Stewart's Division, Army of Ten- 
nessee. Promoted for gallantry on the battlefield at Shiloh by Gen. 
Braxton Bragg; shot in the side by a minie-ball at Chickamauga 
while rallying his command ; lingered in great pain for eight months 
and ten days without a murmur or complaint ; died at Montgomery at 
his father-in-law's house. A Phi. 

Nelms, Charles G., Anson co., N. C, son of Presley Nelms, was 
born in Anson county, N. C, five miles east of Wadesboro, about the 
year 181 5, and was of excellent family. Matriculated 1832. After 
leaving the University he studied law and located at Holly Springs, 
Miss., where he engaged in the practice of his profession. He was also 
a cotton planter. He married a Miss McCorker, of Holly Springs. 
About the year 1858, Colonel Nelms was planting in Louisiana, as well 
as Mississippi. As Lieutenant-Colonel he commanded a regiment at 
the battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862, and was mortally wounded. A Di. 

Editor's Table. 

The Centennial of the University.— In 
June next we celebrate the centennial of the 
granting of the charter of the University. 
While the corner-stone of the first building 
was not laid till four years later, and the 
work of teaching did not commence till six 
years later, still the University dates its 
legal existence from the year 1789, and thus 
it is very fitting that we honor the present 
year as being the hundredth in ihe history of 
the Institution. As a matter of fact the 
clause ordering the encouragement of useful 
learning in one or more Universities was in- 
corporated in the Constitution in 1776. But 
during the Revolutionary war of course noth- 
ing was done, and for the seven years follow- 
ing its close everything was in such anarchy, 
that all progress was at a standstill. But 
Davie and his compeers were not idle, and 
with the dawn of stronger government came 
the positive action of the granting of the 
charter. Well may we celebrate with highest 
honors the centennial of the one institution 
which has been, through prosperity and adver- 
sity, the source of culture, the centre of edu- 
cation and the cradle of the great men of the 
State of North Carolina. 

The commemorative exercises will be 
amply worthy of the greatness of the occa- 
sion. The oration by Senator Ransom, the 
historical addresses in the two Literary Socie- 
ties, the various class exercises, and last, but 
by no means least, the great Alumni dinner 
on Wednesday, will afford a most interesting 
and instructive entertainment. The program 
is an altogether charming one, entirely unique 
in the annals of the State. It will draw to- 
gether the Alumni and friends of the Univer- 
sity from far and near. The indications all 
are that the attendance will be absolutely un- 
precedented: old graduates to see once more 
the scenes of their youth, young men to renew 
the friendships of past years — with their 
wives and daughters. Let everybody come. 
Chapel Hill is a small village, but it can give 

hospitality to a very large company, and 
when all are in a good humor, small discom- 
forts can easily be borne. 

Besides the great celebration, the centen- 
nial year will be signalized by a catalogue of 
all the students of the University from 1795 
to the present day. In addition to the names 
it will endeavor to give the chief facts of 
every one's life : his birth and death, profes- 
sion and place of residence, together with his 
collegiate degrees and the posts of honor 
which have been his through life. In addi- 
tion there will be lists of the Trustees and 
officers of the University, and of the degrees 
granted. A somewhat elaborate history of 
the University from its foundation will ac- 
company the catalogue. Prepared by the 
President, Hon. K. P. Battle, it is a matter 
of course that it will be a well-written, accu- 
rate and vivid narrative. 

The catalogue has been compiled by Mrs. 
C. P. Spencer. With energy untiring, with 
devotion extraordinary and with the most 
pains-taking care, she has been at work for 
several years, sparing neither time nor labor. 
The debt of gratitude which our people owe 
Mrs. Spencer can never be fully appreciated 
save by those who have embarked in a simi- 
lar enterprise of catalogue-making. 

It is the first catalogue of the kind ever 
issued by the University. A Latin catalogue 
of graduates was published in 1S52, and the 
registers of the two Societies have appeared 
from time to time, but the extent of the in- 
formation which it will give, and the large num- 
ber of names which it will contain, render this 
a work unique in its character and of peculiar 
difficulties. Of course it will contain many in- 
accuracies, but in view of the very imperfect 
nature of all former efforts, and the great 
length of time since anything has been done, 
it will be, as a whole, a reliable and certainly 
extremely valuable document. 

The Campus. — With each successive 
spring it seems that our campus becomes more 



beautiful. We make the assertion without 4. Fell first in love, Jan. 3d, '64. 

fear of contradiction that in natural beauty 5. Got over first case, Jan. 4th, '64. 

it is the most lovely of all the American col- 6. Had successively and successfully 

lege grounds. It must be confessed, however, mumps, measles, chicken-pox, whooping- 

that a little more art would not be prejudicial cough, etc., etc. 

to the beauties of nature. While the grass 7. Entered school. 

isjpi a velvety greenness at a distance, on 8. Passed through school and entered col- 

>CToser inspection it is seen to be coarse and ' e g e - 

/ by no means thickly planted. It is very 9- Blacked at college, Sept. 6th, '77. 

much needed that the. whole campus be re- IO - Graduated, June, '81. 

sown entirely in lawn grass, and kept closely "• Went backas post-graduate, Sept., '81. 

mowed. It would add very greatly to its 12. Did nothing Sept. '8i-Feb., '82. 

appearance. A wee bit more of attention to J 3- Entered Exp. Station, Feb., '82. 

the drains and ditches would not be amiss, 1+ Drew salary promptly first of each 

■ ., month, 

The Magazine.-We do not wish to ^ Continue to draw, 
appear vain-glorious, but we cannot avoid The Subscription-paper Evil. -We 
calling attention to the fact that the circula- think that Cha P el HlU ls the one P lace oi a11 
tion of this number is considerably over six others noted for getting up subscriptions, 
hundred copies. We are sure that few, if II has reached the point that one is in con- 
any, of our Southern exchanges have so large stant te "or lest at any time he meet the 
a subscription list, and we doubt if more ubiquitous subscription-paper man. Now, 
than two or three of the Northern college we are sending a missionary to China ; now, 
monthlies exceed it. We thank, too, our Wing a man a cow to make up for one he 
contemporaries for the numerous handsome has lost > now > bringing a man from Prince- 
compliments which they have paid us, and ton to teach us foot-ball ; now, sending a 
we wish that our modesty would permit us to man to Northfield to learn Y. M. C. A. 
reprint some of them. methods ; now, rebuilding a burned mill ; 

A Life History.— In the preparation of now - buying base-balls, etc. ; now— but we 

the centennial catalogue Mrs. Spencer sent are overcome. Great Heavens ! What will 

out a vast number of blank circulars to be it all come to ? We should not be surprised 

filled in, giving birth, death, marriage, &c. if the whole session should eventually be- 

&c. Some of the replies received were very come absorbed in the drawing up of sub.crip- 

amusing. The following is too good to be tion-papers, and attendance on and paying 

lost. monthly dues in the thousand and odd socie- 

Please answer briefly the following ques- ties of one sort and another. As it is now, 

tions relating to Mr , we pass our days signing subscriptions, and 

who was at the University in the years our nights going to society meetings. Be- 

1877-81, from Tarboro, N. C. tween the subscriptions and the initiation fees, 

1. Name in full, . everybody is bankrupt, and how we are 

2. Date of birth, Aug, 4th, i860. going to get home after commencement is 

3. Date of death, the burning question of the hour. At the 

4. Place of residence, Raleigh, N. C. breakfast table the subscription-paper is 

5. If married, to whom? Not yet ('83). thrust into our hands. After prayeis another 
.6. Leading points in the history of his life, is handed us, and so on through the whole 

fifteen in number, to-wit: day. At night, utterly exhausted, the heart- 

1. Born Aug. 4th, i860. rending news is brought that a new society 

2. Cut first tooth, July 13th, '61. has been formed : " A mock congress." But 

3. Passed through dark days of civil war. fortunately membership is not compulsory. 



Doctor Charles Phillips. — We wish to 
express our unfeigned sorrow at the depar- 
ture from Chapel Hill and from North Caro- 
lina of Dr. Charles Phillips and his wife. 
They go to live with their sons, Dr. \Ym. B. 
and Rev. Alex. L. Phillips, in Birmingham, 
Ala. Dr. Phillips was the last of the old 
ante-bellum Faculty who continued to live 
at the Hill. At the breaking up in 1868 he 
became a Professor at Davidson College, but 
in 1875, at the call of his alma mater, he re- 
sumed his old place. For a year he was 
chairman of the Faculty, and for three years 
more he held the position of Professor of 
Mathematics. But his health then failed 
and since 1S79 he lias been Professor Emeri- 
tus. With unfailing patience and cheerful- 
ness he has borne all the pain of constant 
sickness. With rare good will and kindness 
to everybody he endeared himself to all his 
acquaintances. Of great ability and power, 
he was a man whose influence was widely 
felt. Thousands of boys whom he has taught 
remember him with feelings of love and admi- 

ration. Said one not two weeks ago : "I 
regard him as the greatest man in North 

All who have studied under him, all who 
have ever known him, let him go from their 
midst with the greatest regret and with 
hearts full of love. 

Nor is our regret one whit less at losing 
Mrs. Phillips. It is an inspiration to have 
known such a woman. To all around her a 
constant comfort and solace, she will carry a 
blessing wherever she goes, while her beauti- 
ful character will leave behind her a memory- 
which long years will not dim. 

To them both we wish happiness in their 
new home. May God's blessing go with 
them and be ever upon them. 

[Since the above was put in type, the sad 
news of Dr. Phillips's death has come to us. 
He had stopped at Columbia, S. C, to visit 
his daughter, and died there May loth. His 
body was brought back to his old home for 

The College World. 

Forty per cent, of the students at West 
Point graduate. — Ex, 

Kettleman, of Yale, recently broke the 
record for the 100-yards dash, making it in 
g%" seconds. — Ex. 

The Delta Kappa Epsilon Fraternity is 
about to publish a full biographical list of its 
members, on a more elaborate plan than has 
yet been adopted by any of the Greek Letter 

The principal Northern colleges are busily 
training for the intercollegiate games. Yale, 
Harvard, Princeton and Columbia will win 
most of the contests, though the University 
of Pennsylvania and a few others may come 
in for one or two of the prizes. 

Over fifty Sophs fell on conies at Amherst, 
so the Faculty made it elective. They 
celebrated the emancipation with great joy. 

A TEST is to be made of the cases at the 
Ohio State University, where students were 
expelled for not attending chapel. It is held, 
under the Bill of Rights, that no State insti- 
tution can compel attendance at any religious 
exercises. — Occident. 

Our students do not need to be compelled. 

Mrs. E. W. Leavenworth has purchased 
and presented to Syracuse University the 
famous collection of 12.000 portraits which 
the late Dr. Heinrich Wolff, of the Univer- 
sity of Bonn, spent fifty years :md thousands 
of dollars in collecting. — X. V. Evening 



Columbia has an amateur photographic 
society, which recently had an exhibit of five 
hundred photographs. — Ex. 

How many can our amateurs display? They 
have some, we know, of which they need 
not be ashamed. 

We gather from The Otvl, published at 
the College of Ottawa, that a movement is 
on foot to visit England during the coming 
summer with an "All-Canada" Rugby foot- 
ball team. Rather unseasonable time of year 
for such a game. 

The new Clark University, at Worcester, 
.Mass., will be opened in October. Dr. G. 
Stanley Hall is the President. There Will 
be no undergraduate classes. The new Uni- 
versity is said to have plenty of money. Ten 
fellowships of $400 and ten of $200 each have 
been established. Tuition fees are fixed at 
$200. Nothing is easier than to start Univer- 
sities and mushrooms. The Clark has plenty 
of money and our best wishes. 

College examinations are just now receiv- 
ing a good deal of attention, in print as well 
as in the annual way. The Nineteenth Cen- 
tury for April contains a symposium on the 
subject, in which many of the leading educa- 
tors of this country express their opinions. 
Their opinions differ very materially. Some 
think that examinations are little better than 
a farce, others that they furnish better drill 
than can be had by any other means. 

Mt. Holyoke (Mass.) Female College 
seems to have entered upon an era of in- 
creased prosperity. It has been chartered, 
and Miss Mary A. Bingham, of Brooklyn, 
has been elected the first President. Miss 
Bingham is a graduate of Mt. Holyoke, and 
accepts the offer on purely personal grounds. 
" She has been urgently requested to accept 
the presidency of Wellesley, professorships 
in Smith and all the colleges in the country.'' 
— Boston Advertiser. 

Ex-President F. A. P. Barnard, of Co- 
lumbia College, died April 27th, in his eigh- 
tieth year. He was graduated at Yale in 
1828. In 1837 he became professor in the 

University of Alabama, and a good part of 
his long life was spent in the instruction of 
Southern youth. In 1856 he was elected 
President of the University of Mississippi. 
From 1864 until a few months ago, he was 
President of Columbia, a position which he 
resigned when extreme old age came on. 
Few men in the United States have wielded 
a wider influence in educational affairs. Ex- 
President Woolsey, now nearly ninety years 
of age, is the only surviving ex-president 
who was his elder. 

Johns Hopkins University has 175 
undergraduate students. It has, of course, 
a large number in its graduate department. 
With the exception of a very few institutions 
in the North and West, the time seems to 
have gone by when any one college can bring 
into its classes the large numbers of former 
days. Then the whole South had less than 
a half-dozen institutions of note; now, 
however, every State in the South hns at least 
one, and in some instances two or three, 
which furnish excellent training. 

It is to be deplored that, for the sake of num- 
bers, so many of these cling to the old-time no- 
tion of attaching to themselves preparatory de- 
partments. There are now excellent prepara- 
tory schools ali over the South, and yet many 
colleges and universities are doing what they 
can, thoughtlessly no doubt, to hinder the suc- 
cess of these preparatory schools on which their 
own well-being so largely depends. Not 
only that, but the colleges are even competing 
with the public schools. We have in mind 
at least two universities, so-called, which ad- 
mil into their preparatory departments pupils 
who belong in the lower grades of the pub- 
lic schools, and one of them undertakes 
to teach the Fourth Reader. This evil is 
dangerously impairing the usefulness of col- 
lege and school, in the proper sphere of each. 
It is to be hoped that the authorities of such 
institutions may be aroused to a sense of it 
before matters grow even worse than they 
now are. 

A writer in the New York Evening Post 



says of the lecture system: "It is prodi- 
gally wasteful of time. The hour that the 
professor occupies in reading his lecture, the 
student spends in the mechanical labor of 
'writing down the spoken words. Then he is 
supp<»ed to spend another hour in reducing 
the hastily scrawled and all but illegible notes 
to a plainer and more enduring form. The 
first hour the student has performed ihe work 
of a stenographer, the second that of a book- 
keeper, with the skill of neither. Whatever 
its object may be, its practical result is the 
getting the ideas of the professor before him 
in an accurate and available form. Having 
accomplished so much, he can proceed to 
study and reflect upon the more abstruse 
points of the address, and perhaps read a 
few references. Judging from my own ex- 
perience, this time is worse than wasted, it 
has imposed needless and irksome work, en- 
tirely foreign to the purpose of lecture-giv- 
ing. One half-hour of study with the pro- 
fessor's lecture before him in printed form, 
would accomplish more for the student than 
the two hours of scribbling. 

"A second objection is the inaccuracy that 
results. It is the business of a professor 
to see to it that every student who comes 
under his care shall have the matter he 
wishes him to understand placed before him 
with absolute and entire accuracy. Instead of 
that, many a young fellow is set down as 
stupid, because, indeed, he has not facility in 
transcribing and reproducing the ideas so 
admirably presented. 

" I have a trunk full of note-books, con- 
taining what I could catch of various sub- 
jects. Instead of being weil-nigh invaluable, 
they are well-nigh worthless. Fully one- 
third was never set down, one-third is illegi- 
ble, and the remaining portion is too incom- 
plete to be of service. Printed, they would 
be an enduring and helpful presence; as it is, 
they are a brilliant memory. 

" The custom is old.; it is not merely a 
mediaeval one — it belongs with hieroglyphics, 
cuneiform inscriptions and peiipatetics. It 
is out of place in the age of the printing 
press. It ought to go." 


St. Mary's and Greensboro College have 
adopted the cap and gown. We are informed 
that all classes wear them — at night. — Ex. 

Thomasville Female College has been 
removed to High Point. — Ex. Very con- 
venient for the Trinity boys. 

Instead of a class cane the senior class of 
Salem Female College adopts a class ring. 
The present senior class has also adopted 
cream and gold for its colors. 

Salem Female College has more students 
than at any time since the war. The authori- 
ties found it necessary last term to build a 
new dormitory, which is a very pretty 

There is no foundation for the item going 
the rounds of the college press that the Van- 
derbilts have purchased 1,000 acres of land in 
North Carolina for the purpose of establish- 
ing an Industrial school. 

The Athletic Association of Davis School 
held its sixth annual games April iiih and 
1 2th. Some of the records made are very 
good : 100 yards dash, won by A. F. Moses, 
time 10A sec; throwing the ball, won by W. 
A. Wynne, distance 116 yds., 1 ft., 10 in.; 
440 yards dash, won by A. F. Moses, time 
59 sec. ; one mile run, won by L. W. Estes, 
time 5 min. iS^ sec. 

Davis School is, we believe, the only insti- 
tution in this State (except Bingham's) that 
has the excellent custom of annual field sports. 
They are enjoyable occasions; the cadets have 
holiday both days, the parade-ground is filled 
with visitors, medals aie awarded the victors, 
and the boys are consequently stimulated in 

The first season of the North Carolina 
Inter-collegiate Foot-ball Association has been 
a most interesting one. The championship 
has been hotly fought for, and is still unde- 
cided. All the clubs will start next year on 
the same footing, and the contest promises 
to be hot and close again. In the meanwhile 
the record made is: University 33, Wake 



Forest o; Trinity 25, University 17; Wake 
Forest 32, Trinity o. Total : University 50, 
Wake Forest 32, Trinity 25. 

Mr. J. F. Jones, manager of the foot-ball 
team, informs us that he has received a let- 
ter from the Greensboro Chamber of Com- 
merce giving the assurance that grounds will 
soon be enclosed in Greensboro, and that 
they will probably be furnished free for our 
games. This will be refreshing, after paying 
such high prices at Raleigh. — Trinity 

Mr. Murphy, centre rush of our team, 
wishes us to announce that it is a mistake, — 
as the account has been given, — that he was 
the cause of Bragaw's leg getting broken in 
the game with Trinity. He was not in that 
scrimmage, but went to help as soon as Bra-' 
gaw cried out it was broken. It was done 
by Trinity's tacklers. While it was a deplo- 
rable accident, still Mr. Murphy does not 
like for it to be thought that he was instru- 
mental in breaking up one of our players, 
even by accident. 

The third, and last, championship game of 
the North Carolina Inter-collegiate Foot-ball 
Association was played in Raleigh, March 
29th, between Trinity and Wake Forest. 
Trinity's V made about fifteen yards at the 
kick-off. Only one other time did Trinity 
have possession of the ball _in Wake Forest's 
territory. Trinity played with dogged de- 
termination, but Wake Forest's training 
enabled them to keep the ball moving nearly 
all the time towards Trinity's goal. The 
wind and downward slope of the hill were 
with Wake Forest in this half. Wake Forest 
opened the second half by dribbling the ball 
and rushing in line diagonally across the field. 
This rush succeeded a little better than Trin- 
ity's V. Trinity fought harder in the second 
half than in the first. Daniels, of Trinity, 
was disqualified for unnecessary roughness a 
few minutes before the time was out. 

Score — Wake Forest, 32; Trinity, o. 

Merritt made 3 touch-downs, Sikes 1, Dowd 
I, Richardson 1, McDaniel 1, Riddick 1. 

The players were: 

Wake Forest. Trinity. 

Burns Centre ..Dailey. 

Sikes Right Guard Crowell. 

Richardson Left Guard Hathcock. 

Williamson . _ Right Tackier Roberts. 

McDaniel Left Tackier Wolfe. 

White Right End Watkins. 

Oliver ..Left End Mitchell. 

Merritt Quarter-back Durham, S. 

Dowd_ R. Half-back Daniels. 

Riddick L. Half-back. . . .Johnston. 

Devin Ftdl-back Durham, R. 

Williams was substituted for White in the 
latter part of the first half. 

Referee, H. G. Wood; Umpire, H. B. 
Shaw, both of the University. 

A game of base ball was played between 
Bingham School and the University at Chapel 
Hill, April 19. The University won by the 
following score : 



A. B. 


B. H. 

P. O. 




1. f. 






Graham, G 

r. f. 








s. s. 


































c. f. 





















Double Plays — Ball and Utley, Johnston 
and Williams. 

Bases on balls— King, 2. 
Struck out — King, 2. 

Bingham School. 






Willins ... 


Suggs, W. 

Totals . . 


A. B. 


B. H. 

P. 0. 

















1. 1. 









c. 1. 












r. t. 





s. s. 











Double Plays — Oldham and Suggs. 
Bases on balls — Johnston, 2. 
Struck out — Johnston, 5. 
Time of game, 2 hours; Umpires, Toms 
and Johnston. 


In several of our exchanges we have read 
of the great importance of the exchange de- 
partment of college magazines. For our part 
we cannot see it. It seems to us the least 
important of all and frequently superfluous. 
The University Magazine has not hesi- 
tated to neglect it altogether when it would 
have had to crowd out other things. A mag- 
azine should contain what is interesting to its 
subscribers, but as a rule only its exchanges 
are inlerested in the exchange department, 
and each particular one. only in the para- 
graph that concerns itself. It is all very 
pleasant to the ones concerned for the Smith 
College Journal to compliment the Jones Col- 
lege Monthly, and then the Jones College 
Monthly to compliment the Smith College 
Journal, but those who pay for the magazines 
care nothing for this exchange of courtesy, 
we think. 

We assuie our exchanges, however, that 
they are appreciated, and not only by the 
editors of the Magazine, but by all the 
students who choose to read them. They 
are put in the general reading-room, and our 
comment upon them is unnecessary when 
each one can foim his own opinion. For 
the benefit of our readers who cannot or who 
do not use the reading-room, we have thought 
it good to copy some of the best verses of 
college papers, thus letting our exchanges in 
a measure speak for themselves. But it dees 
not follow from that fact that we do not 
enjoy a great many more that appear in ihe 
Record, the Varsity, the Courant, the Mis- 
cellany, etc., elc. We do not think our 
opinion of such importance as to fee! called 
upon to say that the Viginia University 
Magazine is perhaps our best exchange, 
when many others who read them think it is 
the V underbill Observer, or \hz Woke Forest 
Student, or the Vassar Miscellany, or the 
Texas University ; while if the lib rary 
feature is not considered, but only what in- 

terests general readers, all will unite in 
placing the Yale Record first, and athletes 
prefer the Columbia Spectator to all others. 

In January the New England Inter-col- 
legiace Press Association began the publica- 
tion of a new style of college magazine, The 
Collegian. Instead of being the representa- 
tive of one college, its intention is to repre- 
sent all, and to be the exponent of the best 
undergraduate thought in the United States. 
It is edited by Samuel Abbott. Williams, '87. 
Each number contains editorials by the chief 
editor, one leading article by an eminent 
graduate, but all the rest t is by undergradu- 
ates of various colleges; stories, essays, 
poems, letters on various college topics, etc. 
It gives full athletic reports. A good feature 
is its foreign and domestic correspondence. 

So the Collegian is designed to be interest- 
ing not only to students but to alumni,. and 
all who take an interest in education. It 
occupies an unique position in journalism, 
standing between the college and the world 
at large, touching both, and, as it says, it 
will be criticised on both sides. Some col- 
lege papers have criticised it as being the 
representative of New England colleges only. 
If this is the case, it is the fault not of the 
Collegian but of the other colleges. New 
England colleges have been, so far, about the 
only ones to support it. It is to their credit. 
If they had been as indifferent to it as it 
seems most of the other colleges are, the 
Collegian could not have held out even this 
long. But it is natural that it should re- 
ceive the best encouragement at home, and 
extend its patronage and usefulness from 

But it is time other colleges were coming 
to its aid with contributions and with sub- 
scriptions, too. The Collegian deserves well 
at tlie hands vi undergraduates. It is pub- 
lished piimaiily for them, and it is depen- 
dent upon them for existence. We hope to 



see the University of North Carolina soon 
represented in it, and that our students will 
give a good support to this magazine of all 
the colleges. 

We welcome our new-made acquaintances, 
the Tuftonian, the Chronicle — by no means 
a dry one, — the Cornell Era, and the Bow- 
doin Orient. The Tuf Ionian's "A Romance 
of College Life " begins for us with chapter 
V. This class of productions is rare in col, 
lege papers, and should be encouraged. We 
should like to read the first part of this novel. 

A writer in the Orient is much exercised 
over the negro question. It is an important 
question, to be sure, but this writer does not 
know what he is talking about. It is strange 
that the greater a man's ignorance of a sub- 
ject, the better he- feels competent to deal 
with it. His article is interesting to a South- 
erner only as it illustrates what preposterous 
ideas even intelligent people in the North 
may have of us. His object is to prove the 
advisability of the Blair Bill. He seems to 
think all the education the negro gets is paid 
for by Northern philanthropists. He does 
not know that the public school fund is dis- 
tributed according to population, while the 
tax the negro pays is nearly nothing. Hear 
him grow eloquent over this people, whom 
he has certainly never seen: " Nominally, he 
is free. In reality, he is bound by fetters 
more galling than those which slavery im- 
posed upon him." 

' ' For twenty- five years the cries of this 
oppressed and down-trodden people have 
rung in the ears of the North. For a quar- 
ter of a century the black man has pleaded 
for justice. He has suffered untold wrongs; 
he has been beaten, scourged and maimed." 

If the argument in favor of the Blair Bill 
rests only upon such false premises as these, 
it can never be proved. 

But we will not anticipate the editor of 
the South Carolina University Magazine, and 
deprive him of the pleasure of answering this 
statesman from M>aine. 

It is in order now for some Texas editor to 

write about the bull-dozing of workiftgmen 
voters by New England manufacturers, or 
for some California economist to explain the 
cause of hard times among North Carolina 
farmers; or perhaps our writer in the Orient 
will tell us next time how long the American 
Indian has been demanding justice of the 
government, — and when he ever got it. 

Not all the students at Bowdoin, though, 
are cranks or enthusiasts, as the sensible arti- 
cle, " Sowing Wild Oats," the editorials, etc., 
testify. In fact, we like the On'ent, and 
Sophomores do no harm by blowing off occa- 
sionally, — if only they quit it when they 
cease being Sophomores. A desire to be 
just to all will cause a fair-minded man to 
inquire well and be sure of his facts before 
he accuses great communities of people of 
injustice and cruelty. 

The Owl, besides its intrinsic literary 
merits, is interesting to heretics as the repre- 
sentative of a Roman Catholic college. A 
poem in the May number shows the position 
the Virgin occupies in their religion to-day, 
and for the benefit of many of our readers 
we give it. 

Exalted is the Mother 
Of Him who rules the earth and sea and sky; 

God has not made another 
With heart as humble to be raised so high. 

Above the angels reigning, 
The spotless maid who gave the Savior birth 

Looks down with pity, deigning 
To supplicate for those she leaves on earth. 

Her gentle heart unchanging 
Forgets not those for whom her Son has died, 

Though, all around her ranging, 
The angels sing her triumphs as they glide. 

Brighter than fabled fairy, 
More glorious than the stars or moon or sun, 

Shines the resplendent Mary, 
From whom the ransom of the world begun. 



Her glory now unending 
Is the reflection of God's wondrous light; 

Her purity unbending 
Has raised the lowly to this God-like height. 

And, as the angels wreathe her 
With garlands gathered from the Tree of Life, 

She gazes far beneath her 
On mortals still with sin and hell in strife. 

O sinless, spotless Maiden, 
Hear as we call to thee with feeble breath; 

O Queen, with mercy laden. 
Pray for us sinners in the hour of death. 

Book Reviews. 

A Discussion of Some of the Trials and 
Judicial Proceedings Mentioned in 
the New Testament. By Kemp P. 
Battle, LL. D., President of the Univer- 
sity of North Carolina. New York : Wil- 
bur R. Ketcham. 

This lecture was efriginally delivered be- 
fore the American Institute of Christian Phil- 
osophy, July 3d, 188S, and a portion of it 
was given in Gerrard Hall last fall as one of 
the regular monthly lectures. Those who 
were so fortunate as to hear Dr. Battle de- 
liver it will be glad to know that they can get 
this essay in durable form. 

The contents are : The Judicial Murder 
of John the Baptist ; Jesus before Pilate ; 
Persecutions of Christians ; Paul before 
Agrippa ; Paul before Gallio ; Paul at Athens. 

" It must be continually kept in mind that 
the sacred writers were not acquainted with 
legal forms, nor were they practised literary 
men. They were dominated by one control- 
ling idea. They cared not to explain points 
of history or theories of science or philosophy. 
Apparent inconsistencies were nothing to 

This article explains away what may seem 
inconsistencies. It brings to bear upon the 
trials a thorough knowledge of the times and 
of the peoples, and shows that the early Chris- 
tians were in reality tried according to law. 
By not knowing the intricate history of those 

limes, we have wrong ideas of many things 
in the New Testament, and much is inexpli- 
cable. This essay shows that the secular 
history minutely harmonizes with the sacred 
narrative, and throws valuable light upon 
the trials, especially the killing of John the 
Baptist, and Paul before Gallio and at 

Physiological Notes on Primary Edu- 
cation and the Study of Language. 
By Mary Putnam Jacobi, M. D New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1889. 

The contents are : 

I and II. An Experiment in Primary Edu- 
cation. It is the history of the growth of a 
child's mind from four to six and a half years 
old under the personal care of the author, 
and taught by natural, scientific methods. 

III. The Flower or the Leaf. This is a 
discussion of whether in teaching children 
botany they should begin with the flower or 
with the leaf. This is considered at length 
for the principles involved. 

IV. The Place for the Study of Language 
in a Curriculum of Education. Half the 
book is devoted to this important question. 

All teachers, and especially those who ex- 
pect to teach but have as yet no experience, 
will do well to study this book. If they do 
not agree with all the author's theories, — 
a nd they will with most of them, for they 



have been proved by experience, — they will 
find the book valuable for its suggestiveness. 

The Ideals of the Republic, or Great 
Works from Great Americans. New 
York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 
This is one of the handsome Knicker- 
bocker Nuggets series, and contains the Dec- 
laration of Independence, the Constitution. 
of the United States, Washington's First and 
Second Inaugural Addresses and Farewell 
Address, Lincoln's First and Second Inaug- 

ural Addresses and Gettysburg Address, an 
Appendix, and an Index to the Constitution. 
Washington's Farewell Address is printed 
from his original autograph MS., with his 
revisions and alterations. It shows the process 
by which that paper was wrought into the form 
in which it was given to the public. There 
are portraits of Washington and Lincoln. 
It is printed in large type on good, thick paper, 
uncut leaves, and presents an attractive ap- 

Alumni and Other Personals. 

'80. — Albert Lucien Coble, who was In- 
structor here in '80, is a lawyer at Statesville. 

'81. — C. D. Mclver, together with E. A. 
Alderman, '82, has been chosen to take con- 
trol of the entire system of Normal Institutes 
for the State. It is a significant fact that 
our University graduates are holding the first 
places in the State in the conduct of great 
educational movements. 

— J. Y. Joyner, though doing well as a 
lawyer at Goldsboro, has become superinten- 
dent of the graded school there in the place 
of E. A. Alderman, promoted as above men- 

'84.-- -The marriage of W. T. Dortch, '84 
through Junior year, to Miss Lizzie, daugh- 
ter of General Gaston Lewis, took place 
on the 8th of May. 

'85. — The Chicago University has confer- 
red the degree of Ph. D. on Prof. John U. 
Newman, of Graham College. Dr. Newman 
is a literary genius and a close student. He 
has won the distinction by completing a post- 
graduate course and he merits his honors. 
We congratulate him. — Christian Sun. 

— James A. Bryan is taking a theological 
course at Princeton. 

'86. — The Washington correspondent of 
the Durham Plant, in congratulating the 

News and Observer upon securing the ser- 
vices of C. T. Grandy, says of him : " He 
is a young gentleman with first-rate newspa- 
per ability, energetic, conservative and relia- 
ble. He stands deservedly high here among 
leading members of the profession, and I am 
glad that his services have received merited 
recognition from one of the most prominent 
journals in our own commonwealth. I pre- 
dict for him a successful career, and I hope 
his welcome to your section will be as cordial 
as he deserves it should be." 

— N. Tyndall Cobb, who was mentioned 
in a former issue as a telegraph operator, has 
long since been promoted, and is now chief 
clerk in the office of Engineer of Maintenance 
of Way of the W. N. C. R. R., at Asheville. 
He intends becoming a civil engineer. 

?86. — Herbert W. Jackson has left the 
office of the State Treasurer to be Secretary 
and Treasurer of the Wetmore Shoe Co., of 
Raleigh — a more important position. 

— Sam Jackson has a good school in Pitts- 
boro, Chatham county. 

'87. — Baker and Bourne are reading law 
at Tarboro, we hear. 

— Jos. A. Morris was fifteen points ahead 
of his nearest competitor in a recent examina- 
tion in Physiology, Hygiene and Chemistry 
at the Vanderbilt Medical' College. 



'88. — Eskridge is located at Mountain 
City, Tenn. He writes in a manner that 
shows affection for the University, and ac- 
companies it with substantial proof — one dol- 
lar for the Magazine. 

— Erwin, with 'SS through Soph, year, got 
his law license in February. We understand 
he has become a great dancer and " masher." 
This will strike those who knew him here as 
being a little funny. 

— O. C. Odell, with '88 through Soph, year, 
is a physician at Mabinton, S. C. 

— Geo. C. Holland {"Ante-bellum,"') etc., 
is also a physician, practising with his father 
at Dallas. 

— Matt. R. Peterson, here in '84, grad- 
uates this year at West Point. 

— J. J. Hooker, '86, Law Department, 
has a law office at Webster, Jackson county. 

— Jas. W. Forbis, '77-'7g, is candidate for 
Mayor of Greensboro. 

— We note that Alston Grimes, here in '83, 
has been appointed on the Governor's staff 
with the rank of Colonel. 

—Rich. C. Floyd, '8i-'S3, is President of 
the great Scotch-Irish Association, to meet at 
Columbia, Tenn. 

— R. S. Woodson, '85— '87, has won the 
Founder's Medal, as well as the medal on 
the practice of medicine, at the Vanderbilt 
Medical School. He is now practising at 
Day's Gap, Ala. 

— It was Wade Hampton Atkinson ('84- 
'86) who has become a medical practitioner, 
instead of John W., as stated in a former 

— Rufus II. Jones, '43, A. D. Jones, here 
in '78, and W. N. Mebane, '60, met here 
late in April to act as judges in awarding 
medals in the Di. Society. 

— M. C. S. Noble, with '80 through Soph, 
year, was one of a committee to award medals 
in the Phi. Society. The other members 
were Professors Winston and Manning. 

^-President Battle addressed the students 
of Trinity College on the Sth of May on the 
History of the N. C. Constitution. 

He has received letters from the English 
historian, E. A. Freeman, from W. T. Ar- 
nold, author of Arnold's Provincial Admin- 
istration, and from other critics of world- 
wide reputation, in commendation of his lec- 
ture before the Society of Christian Knowl- 
edge. This lecture on Trials and Judicial 
Proceedings in the New Testament has ap- 
peared in Christian Thought, edited by Chas. 
F. Deems, D. D., and is attracting attention 
in this country and abroad. 

— Doctor Venable, with his family, landed 
safely at Hamburg early in May. They went 
at once to Berlin, where they will spend the 
summer. Professor Gore and his wife will 
join them there in June. 

— Rev. Dr. Williams, pastor of a Baptist 
church, Baltimore, and his wife have been 
visiting their daughter, Mrs. Gore. The 
Doctor is a genial, godly man, and his visits 
here are always appreciated. 

— The editor of this department had the 
pleasure of grasping the handsof VV.E. Borden, 
"Tub" Battle and "Wink" Williams, at 
Wilmington. The two first mentioned are 
employed in the offices of the Atlantic Coast 
Line. The last is in a down-town store. 
" Tub " stated solemnly that he had gone to 

Resolutions passed by the Faculty of 
the University, April 26th, 1889: 

Whereas, the Rev. Charles Phillips, D.D. 
LL. D., Professor Emeritus of Mathematics 
in the University of North Carolina, is about 
to change his residence to Birmingham Ala., 
after having been for half a century con- 
nected with this University as student or 

The Faculty of the University desire to 
record their grateful appreciation of his long, 
faithful, and brilliant labors as a professor, 
his zealous and effective work as a teacher 
of morality and preacher of the Gospel, and 
his far-reaching influence in behalf of educa- 
tion generally, and especially in this institu- 

They desire also to express their warm per- 
sonal regard and esteem for Dr. Phillips as 
a man and a friend, and their sincere wishes 
for happiness and prosperity in his new home. 

University Record. 

Programme of the Centennial Celebra- 
tion of the Incorporation of the 

Wednesday, June 5, 1889. 

11 a. m. — Alumni address in Memorial 
Hall, by Hon. M. W. Ransom. 

12 a. m. — Meeting of the Alumni Associa- 
tion in Memorial Hall. 

2 p. m. — Alumni and Trustee dinner in 
Gerrard Hall, with talks and speeches. The 
members of each class will sit together. 

8 p. m. — Special memorial exercises in 
Memorial Hall; roll-call of Alumni by classes; 
short speeches by representatives of each 
class; special exercises by the classes of 1868, 
1879 and others. 

The class of 1868, the last to graduate 
under the old University, and the class of 
1879, the first to graduate under the new 
University, have requested time for special 
exercises. This privilege may be granted 
other classes for special reasons. 

It is expected that Hon. R. Barringer, 
Senator Z. B. Vance, Hon. W. L. Steele, 
and other eminent alumni, will speak, repre- 
senting their classes on this occasion. 
Thursday, June 6. 

8 p. m. — Social reunion of the Alumni, 
Faculty and Trustees in the University Li- 

The above is the programme of special ex- 
ercises connected with the Centennial cele- 
bration. The baccalaureate sermon will be 
preached on Sunday, June 2, by Bishop Dun- 
can, of South Carolina. The Seniors will 
have their class-day celebration on Tuesday; 
and the Representative speaking will take 
place Tuesday afternoon. Tuesday night 
the Societies are to hold reunions, with inter- 
esting exercises. The usual programme of 
Commencement Day will be carried out on 

Railway Tickets. — Those who attend 
the Centennial celebration should be careful 

to obtain a certificate from the ticket agent at 
the station where they purchase tickets. Such 
certificates will enable them to buy re! urn 
tickets at one-third rates. This applies to all 
railroads in the South. But it is absolutely 
necessary that certificates be secured. 

The Centennial Catalogue will, it is 
hoped, be issued near the end of May. 
Copies can be had from the Bursar, Major 
W.T. Patterson, at fifty cents each; or he will 
mail them to any address, postage paid, at 
that price. This will hardly cover the cost 
of publication and postage, even if the whole 
edition should be sold. 

The contents include: Historical Sketches 
of the University, by President Battle; a List 
of Officers and Trustees, 1789-1889, with the 
counties from which they were appointed, 
etc.; a List of the Faculty, including Tutors, 
from the beginning; an Alphabetical Cata- 
logue of Students, 1795-1889, prepared by 
Mrs. C. P. Spencer, with addresses, dates, 
degrees, occupations, etc. ; the Honorary De. 
grees conferred by the University. 

The Catalogue will contain over two hun- 
dred pages, with twelve full-page illustra- 
tions, — nine views of the buildings, and: 
three interior views of the Society halls and, 
the Library. 

Bishop W.W. Duncan, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, will preach the 
baccalaureate sermon this year. It will be 
on Sunday, June 2d. 

The company of the Boys of Bingham was 
enjoyed on April 19th and 20th. Hope they 
will come again when we are in as good trim. 

An additional chandelier has been ordered; 
to supplement the lighting arrangement of 
Memorial Hall. 

A beautiful little chapter house has just 
been erected for the use of the members of 
the Zeta Psi Fraternity. Situated on the west 
side of the campus, and facing it, on land 
bought from Mrs. Guthrie, it is both retired 



and showy, and in color it agrees well with 
the surrounding verdure. 

Student (in reading-room): " Wilkes' 
these chairs are covered with dust." 

Wilkes: " Yessir, boss; nobody has set on 
'em this mornin'." 

(This might have occurred in any one of 
the recitation rooms.) 

Workhard (picking up ore) : "I know 
what this rock has in it. It's brass, mixed 
with iron." 

Brasswell (been there): "O come, now!" 

Workhard (very proud of Virginia): "Yes, 
it is! I've been to a brass mine in the West- 
ern part of Virginia." 

I Thought of You. 

A wood-thrush piped— I thought of you! 
The brook sang low a happy note, 
I almost thought myself afloat 
On bending skies of tender blue. 

A whispering wind, the forest through, 
Played softly with its greening coat; 
A wood-thrush piped — I thought of you! 
Where brooks sing low a happy note. 

A thousand fancies dimmed the view, 
The sunbeams danced with wing and mote, 
And brooks sang low a happy note. 
Hiding where moss and lichens grew 
A wood-thrush piped — I thought of you! 
H. L. H. 

Medals. — The medallists in the Phi So- 
ciety are as follows: 

Debater's: Plato Collins, Kinston, N. C. 

Declaimer's: M. W. Ball, Greensboro, 
N. C. , . 

Essayist's : Logan D. Howell, Goldsboro, 
N. C. 

In the Di Society they were awarded as 
follows : 

Debater's: Chas. A.Webb, Warren county. 

Declaimer's : Robt. W. Bingham, Bing- 
ham School. 

Essayist's: Chas. A. Webb, Warren county. 

Society Representatives. — The follow- 
ing gentlemen have been selected as Repre- 
sentatives . 

From the Di Society: Edgar L >ve, Gas- 
tonia; G. H. Crowell, Bilesville; W. W. 
Davies, Drapersville, Va. 

From the Phi Society: F. H. Batchelor, 
Raleigh; H. A. Gilliam, Tarboro; F. A. 
Green, Durham. 

The Inaugural Centennial. — The 30th 
of April being a national holrday, was ob- 
served by the University. At 9 o'clock in the 
forenoon a thanksgiving and praise service 
was held in the chapel, followed by an ad- 
dress of about half an hour by W. J. Peele, 
Esq., of '79. This address was a thoughtful, 
carefully prepared discussion of the develop- 
ment of Constitutional Liberty, under three 
heads: What it was when Washington took 
charge, what he did with it, and what has 
been done with it since his lime. His conclu- 
sions were original and interesting, showing 
the past and present relation between the State 
and National Government. Orators on such 
occasions will do well to adopt the style of 
address used by Mr. Peele, rather than the 
prevailing American oratory. 

The exercises closed with an exhortation by 
Rev. Dr. Williams, of Baltimore, to preserve 
the everlasting foundation of all liberty — 
the Bible — from the attacks of infidelity and 

Shakspere Club. — March 19th, 18S9. — 
Subject: Hamlet, " the Tragedy of Thought." 

Mr. John S. Hill: Ophelia. In treating 
of her, one must not lose his balance. She 
must be subordinate. She is rather unintel- 
lectual and commonplace, if fair, and cannot 
appreciate Hamlet's motives. Hamlet per- 
ceives this, and is in despair. We must not 
be captivated through simple pity. 

Mr. Hayne Davis: Shakspere's favorite 
character. Who is he ? Mr. Davis concludes 
that we must find him in a play written in 
the fulness of his manhood and near the 
middle of the period (1594-1616), and not in 
a comedy but in a play which Shakspere him- 
self thought his best. Julius Caesar is ex- 



eluded, for he dies early in the play. Hamlet, 
then, is the play. By a course of ingenious 
argument he fixes upon Horatio as the favor- 
ite character of Shakspere. An original 
paper and much appreciated. 

Mr. O. D. Batchelor: Was Hamlet mad ? 
Interest chiefly in Hamlet. With a purpose 
in view, he feigns madness. Note his perfect 
sanity in dealing with Horatio and in the 
presentation of the play before the King. 
He loved Ophelia but could not trust her 
with his secret. In acting, he overacts — but 
the reality breaks out at the grave of Ophelia. 
He stands throughout between conscience 
and interest — a wretched plight! In the last 
scene, he throws aside his mask forever, and 
his sanity is beyond a doubt. 

Professor Toy read a charming translation 
of a criticism by the German poet Heine, on 

The President stated several facts that had 
Hot been brought out, and the Club adjourned. 

April 16th, 1889. 

The Club assembled for the continuation 
of the discussion of Hamlet. 

The paper on Shakspere's contemporaries 
was read by Mr. W. J. Battle on the special 
subject of Marlowe's Doctor Faustus, giving 
a synopsis and criticism of the play, with a 
discussion of actors and chief points of inter- 
est. Mephistopheles and Faustus. Origin 
of Faust legend. The whole drama a little 
more than mediocre. 

Mr. D. J. Currie: Hamlet's madness, a 
mystery never to be solved. Mr. Currie took 
a middle ground and attempted to show that 
while he was at some times clearly sane, he 
was at others as clearly insane. 

Mr. Alex. Stronach: Shakspere in his plays. 
He conceals his personality so that it is diffi- 
cult to find him. In his Sonnets, written 
about this time, however, he may be detected 
as a character which will be suggested by the 
character of Hamlet 

Dr. Hume: A comparison of the quarto 
editions of 1603 and 1604. They are quite 
different — the first representing the first draft 
in the poet's mind; the second the mature 
thought of a great genius. 

Mr. Hunter L. Harris: Euphuism in Ham- 
let. The rise of Euphuism from John Lyly's 
writings in 1580 and later. The style charac- 
terized by high-sounding phrases, far-fetched 
figures, and peculiarly balanced sentences. 
Shakspere's satirization, especially in Ham- 
let, of this affected style. Note the scene 
between Hamlet and young Osric. 

Mr. T. M. Lee rendered the famous solilo- 
quy of Hamlet, with some original interlocu- ' 
tions and reflections, the performance being 
much enjoyed. 

Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. — 

Forty-fourth meeting, April 2d, 1889. 

Professor Holmes presided in the absence 
the Vice-President, Professor Graves. 

The papers presented were as follows: 

A primitive reaping machine which Palla- 
dius, a Roman writer on agriculture, describes 
as in use among the ancient Gauls; by Pro- 
fessor Alexander. 

The waste and consumption of the world's 
natural resources; by Professor Venable. 
This paper called attention to the rapid 
consumption of the available supply of coal 
and petroleum, and the various metallic sub- 
stances, and to large waste of energy and 
mateiial in this consumption. 

The third paper was one by Professor 
Holmes on the uses of the microscope in 
geology and mineralogy, in which were de- 
scribed several forms of microscopes, and 
particularly the one recently manufactured 
for the University by the Bausch & Tomb 
Optical Co., of Rochester. 

The North Carolina Historical Society 
met Friday night, April 16th. President 
Battle gave an abstract of his History of the 
Supreme Court in North Carolina since the 
founding of the State. 

Our readers will be glad to know that offi- 
cial publication is to be made of this address 
in full as it was delivered at Raleigh. It is 
accurate, interesting and of very great value 
as a contribution to North Carolina History. 

A. M. Huger, Esq., of Macon, Ga., present- 
ed to the Society a list of the original Indian 
names of mountains, streams and towns in the 
Western part of the State, — the result of 



iome years of careful investigation among 
the Indians of that section. 

The work of the Society is attracting con- 
siderable attention outside of our own State. 

Seminary of Literature and Philology. 

— At the meeting held March 26th, the regu- 
lar subject, The Supernatural in Literature, 
was waived, and Professor Alexander read an 
unwritten translation of the 6th and part of 
the 7th books of the Odyssey of Homer. 

The meeting for the discussion of Epic 
Poetry was held May 2d. 

Mr. J. W. Graham read a paper on Vir- 
gil's Treatment of Nature in the /Eneid. 
Virgil may be ranked among the great poets 
of nature, and, indeed, his genius wasjiitted 
rather to sing of birds, bees, cattle, woods, 
streams and mountains, than of battles arid 
sieges. Like other ancient poetry, Virgil 
makes man a part of nature, and does not 
lift nature to the moral and spiritual level of 
man. This power belongs to the moderns, 
to Burns. Shakspere and Wordsworth. 

Mr. Logan D. Howell discussed Virgil's 
Characterizaiion of Women. His portraits 
of women are superior to his portraits of 
men. This is due to his fine sympathy and 
delicate sensibilities, being himself womanly. 
He combines the best characteristics of the 
Pagan and Christian writers, and may be 
called the golden link that binds classic to 
modern literature. Juno is a model of female 
hate, jealousy, pride, revenge and inflexible 
deteimination. Venus is a perfect specimen 
of the beautiful, tender, irresistible woman; 
full of weakness, sentiment, coquetry. Dido 
may take rank Reside any literary queen. 
Virgil shows great dramatic power. 

Dr. Hume read a scholaily paper on the 
Christian Epic. Milton is the foremost artist 
of the world in diction, and his standard is 
that of all true poetiy. 

Mr. C. A. Webb read and discussed some 
of the striking passages in Homer, Virgil 
and Milton, showing a resemblance which 
is most striking in the similes. 

Mr. J. S. Taylor d.scussed the Insanity of 

Dido, tracing the workings of her mind and 
heart from the first interview with .33neas 
until her tragic suicide. Virgil's character- 
ization of insanity may well stand comparison 
with that of Shakspere or of Goethe. 

This meeting closes the work of the Sem- 
inary for the year. The work of the year 
has shown that many of our students possess 
fine literary talent and are capable of original 
and scholarly work. 

As officers for the next year the Seminary 
chose Dr. E. Alexander, President, and 
Prof. W. D. Toy, Vice-President. The Sec- 
retary and other student officers will be 
elected at the opening of the next session. 

Hall of the Dialectic Society, 

University of N. C., 
Chapel Hill, N. C, May 14, 1889. 

Whereas, We, the members of the 
Dialectic Society, have heard with pro- 
found sorrow the intelligence of the death of 
our beloved and venerable fellow-member. 
Rev. Charles Phillips, D. D., LL. D., who 
from early youth, with the exception of a few 
years, has been connected with the Univer- 
sity, either as a student or professor, and a 
loyal member of our Society; therefore, be it 

Resolved: 1st. That in him we have had a 
faithful guide and safe adviser, whose coun- 
sels were always freely t^iven and were always 
helpful to us. 

2d. That while we bow in submission to 
the supreme wisdom of God in transferring this 
brilliant light from the sufferings and sorrows 
of earth to the glories of the celestial home, we 
sensibly feel the great loss we have sustained 
in his death. 

2d. That in his diath, the higher educa- 
tion of our Commonwealth has sustained a 
loss that cannot be repaired. 

4t/i, That we extend our heartfelt sympa- 
thies to the bereaved family in this the time 
of their sore aflliciion. 

$th. That these resolutions bespread upon 
the minutes of the Society; that the Dialectic 
Hall be draped in mourning for thirty days; 
that a copy of these resolutions be sent to 
the bereaved family, also a copy to the Uni- 



versity Magazine, the N. C. Presbyterian, 
News and Observer, and State Chronicle, 
with a request to publish. 

W. F. Shaffner, 
Chas. A. Webb, 
J. W. Graham, 

Committee . 

The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion. — Though more than a month has passed 
since the return of the delegates from the State 
convention at Wilmington, we feel safe in 
saying that the thoughts of each one recur 
daily to some feature of this great gathering, 
or some gentle courtesy shown by the Wil- 
mingtonians. It is a fact that the more men 
there are to go to such conventions or meet- 
ings the more the home work prospers. We 
wish half of our members could find a way to 
go to that world's gathering at Northfield in 
July. As it is, eight or ten have made ar- 
rangements to go. Many of these will meet 
and go together by steamer from Wilmington. 
A jolly party, surely! Fifty dollars will 
cover all expenses. 

Our University Association ought to have, 
and must have, a building exclusively for the 
manifold uses of the Young Men's Christian 
Association. Already four hundred dollars 
have been contributed, and that without ask- 
ing for it. If we, students and Faculty, 
cannot make up among ourselves twenty-five 
hundred dollars, we should be ashamed of 
our lack of interest in the cause of causes. 
If the Trustees of this University and the 
people of the State at large cannot swell this 
sum to ten thousand dollars, we are greatly 
deceived. And this is a fountain-head from 
which must come a large proportion of the 
supporters of the Young Men's Christian 
Association idea in this State. 

The officers for the next session are as fol- 

George C. Worth, President. 

Lacy L. Little, Vice-President. 

W. E. Rollins, Recording Secretary. 

Jas. J. Philips, Corresponding Secretary. 

J. V. Lewis, Treasurer. 

Let every man in the organization be an 
integer and all will be well. 

Take, as the motto of your organization, 
verses 22 to 26 of the second chapter of Paul's 
Second Letter to Timothy, and your cause 
will nourish as watered by the Eternal. 

The Student Volunteer Movement for 
Foreign Missions. — This movement started 
x n the summer of '86. About three hundred 
college students were gathered at Mt. Her- 
mon for a few weeks' Bible study under the 
direction of Mr. Moody. One hundred of 
them pledged themselves as " willing and 
desirous, God permitting, to be foreign mis- 
sionaries." As the result of this, Messrs. 
Robert P. Wilder and John N. Forman, dur- 
ing the collegiate year '86-'87, visited 162 
institutions, and 2,200 college students signed 
the volunteers' pledge. Since then the num- 
ber has increased to about 3,300, 600 of 
whom are young women. 

Mr. Wilder visited the University in the 
early part of February. Five of the students 
signed the pledge. As the result of Mr. 
J. R. Mott's visit to Trinity, three students 
there volunteered, and seven at Wake Forest. 

The work was thoroughly otganized at the 
State Convention in Wilmington, by appoint- 
ing George C. Worth, of the University, the 
general director of the work in North Caro- 
lina, under the name of "Corresponding 
Member of the Central Executive Commit- 
tee." Arrangements were made by which as 
many of the State schools and colleges as 
possible should be visited by volunteers for 
the express purpose of getting others. 

Besides the University, eight institutions 
were visited: Davidson, Trinity and Charlotte 
Female Institute, by Geo. S. Wills, of the 
University; Greensboro Female College by 
Wills and W. B. Lee, of Trinity; and Wake 
Forest, Bingham School, Oak Ridge Insti- 
tute and Guilford College, by Worth and 
Lee together. Thirty students volunteered 
as the direct result of these visits. Others 
have since decided, making the total number 
of student volunteers in North Carolina 
forty-eight, distributed as follows: David- 
son, 8; Charlotte Female Institute, 3; Trinity, 
3; Oak Ridge Institute, 1; Guilford College, 
9; Greensboro Female College, 3; Bingham 



School, 2; University, 8; Wake Forest, 9; 
miscellaneous, 2. Of this number, fifteen 
are young women. 

It is expected that during the next colle- 
giate year every college and high school in 
the State will be visited. 

The Sixth Annual Session of the North 
Carolina Teachers' Assembly will be held in 
the Teachers' Assembly Building, at More- 
head City, N. C, June 18th to July 2d, 1889, 

and Hon. Z. B. Vance is expected to deliver 
the opening address. The Atlantic Hotel 
will furnish board to all members of the 
Assembly at only $1 per day during the session. 
Have you a few hours or a few days spare 
time occasionally that you would like to turn 
into money? If so, then write quickly to 
B. F. Johnson & Co., of Richmond, Va., 
and they will give you information that will 
prove to be money in your pocket. 


Attend this Business College During 

There will be a Special Session of the Com- 
mercial College of Kentucky University for 
College young men, teachers and others dur- 
ing the summer. This College is situated in 
the beautiful, healthy and society-renowned 
city of Lexington, Ky , and received the 
Highest Honor at the World's Exposition, 
over all other Colleges for System of Book- 
Keeping and Business Education, Students 
can complete the Business Course and receive 
the Ky. University Diploma during the sum- 
mer. Young men from 27 Literary Colleges 
attended the Summer Session of this College 
last year. 

For particulars address its President. 

Wilbur R. Smith, Lexington, Ky, 

$/ Oi tO v{>ZOUi made working 

can be 
for us. 
Agents preferred who can furnish a horse and give 
their whole time to the business. Spare moments may 
be profitably employed also. A few vacancies in towns 
and cities. B. F. JOHNSON & CO., 1009 Main St., 
Richmond, Va. 

N, B. — Please state your age and business experi- 
ence. Never mind about sending stamp for reply. 
B.F.J. &> Co. 

Distinguished Business Educator 

Prof. E.W.Smith, Principal 
of the Commercial College of 
Ky.Uni versify, Lexington ,Ky., 
with his son, received the 
Gold Medal and Diploma of 
Honor at the WORLD'S EX- 
Book-keeping and General 
Business Education. He cu 

refer to 10.000 graduates in busing 

besides CouL'ressmen, city, count 

and State officials. His College, r 

cognized as the Cheapest, Best and 

Highest Honored, numbered last year 10 '> s:'uilents from 30 

States, in the Business.Phonographic, Type- ^'ritiiig, Penmanship 

and Telegraphic Departments, preparing to earn a living, and to 

hold high and honorable positions iu the business world. Costof 

full Business Course, including Tuition, Stationery 

and Board, about $90. For circulars, address 

WiLBUR R. SMITH, President, Lexington, Ky. 






Special Bargains in Second-Hand and Shop-Worn Bicycles at greatly Reduced Prices. Send for Special List 





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A ii \ book learned in one reading. 

Mind Wandering enred. 

Speaking without noteH. 

Wholly unlike artificial NyKteniK. 

Piracy condemned hy Supreme Court. 

Great inducements to correspondence 


Prospectus with opinions of Dr. William A. 
Hammond, the world-famed Specialist in Mind 
Diseases. Daniel Grei-nleaf Thompson, the 
great Psychologist, J. M. Imtklty, K. D., Edi- 
tor of the Christian Advocate, Ricliard Proctor, 
the Scientist, lions. Judge Gibson, Judah P. 
Benjamin, and others, sent post free by 

237 Fifth Ave., New York 


Correct styles and materials for University and 
College use. 

These Gowns add grace and fulness to speaker's 
form, and arc universally worn. 

Prices, 915 to $'£5, according to material. Spe- 
cial prices for large numbers to classes. For measure- 
ment, send height, width of shoulders, size of neck, 
length of sleeve. Address 


32 to 44 rsortli Steet, 

Boston, Mass. 

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I expect to be in Chapel Hill during the 
month of April to make 



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1 trust that all will bear this in mind, and 
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Being grateful tor former favors, 
1 am, very truly, 



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order now. Subscriptions may begin at any time. 

Address, W. M. HAMMOND, Business Manager, 

Lock Box 64. 



Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic- and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina. 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

The MAGAZINE has six departments, each conducted by a student 
selected with a view to his qualifications for the work in hand. 

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT is mainly intended to exhibit 
the character of the work done in the Societies, to encourage literary 
efforts an\T co-operate with the chains in [he University in developing 
a critical appreciation of the masters of the language. It is a vehicle 
of communication between the Alumni of the Institution, a repository 
of interesting bits of history, important results- in scientific'investiga- 
tion and discussion'of leading questions in general. 

THE COLLEGE RECORD will chronicle the events of college 
life.* Tihe proceedings of the Mitchell Scientific Society, tjbe Histor- 
ical ^ociety, the work of the Shakespeare Club,, the Y. M,iC. A., the 
Temperance Rand, and the other organizations, social and literary, 
which find a footing in the University, will be given in detail. 

THE PERSONAL DEPARTMENT will tell what "Chapel Hill- 
ians " are doing here and elsewhere, and give expression to whatever 
of wit the funny editor may possess. 

THE EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT will give the opinions of a 
student on the current periodicals, latest books, &c, together with 
such items as may be of interest to those living in the college world. 

Sketches of distinguished North Carolinians, Notes of Travel, Essays 
by members of- the Faculty, Original poems and other papers are 
being prepared for subsequent issues. Our popular Senator, HON, 
Z. B. VANCE, will contribute a very interesting article to the M 
ZINE during the year. 

The MXGA^INE is warmly endorsed by hading men of the SMI 
has bona fide subscribers all over the country, and a growing 
ing patronage. Ifc»appeals for support to all the Alumni of the I 
versity, to lovers of education everywhere, and especially to those im- 
bued with the spirit oj progress that now pervades our Iunl. 

Subscribe and persuade your friends to subscribe. 


One copy one year $ i oo 

One copy six months 75 

Six copies one year 5 00 

Business men will find the MajGA&INE a good advertising medium. 

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1 Idress, • 

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CH-ft.r'EL rZXT-L. 1 

— T 


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Single Copies 20 cents. 

Old Series, Vol. XXI. No. 6. New Series, Vol. VIII. 















Thomas Lanier Clingman... John D. Cameron 249 

A Winter's Tale A. A. F. Seawell, Jr. 257 

The Triumph of the Just . R. L. Uzzell 262 

An Inquiry 263 

Old Times in Chapel Hill, No. XV: Our Physicians Mrs. C. P. Spencer 266 

v Biographical Sketches of the Confederate Dead S. B. Weeks 271 

Editor's Table: — The Centennial Commencement;- Too Many Orations; Valedictory 275 

University Record: — Baccalaureate Sermon; Class Day; Representative Speaking; 
Society Reunions; The Centennial Celebration; Alumni and Delegates Present; Com- 
mencement Day; Honor Roll and Honor Grades; Prizes, Medals and Certifica'es; 
♦Graduates and Honors of '8q; Honorary Degrees; Reception and Ball- 276 




Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. D., President, 

Professor of Political Economy, Constitutional and International Law. 

Professor Emeritus of Mathematics. 


Professor of Mental and Moral Philosophy. 


Professor of Mathematics. 

Professor of the Latin Language and Literature. 


Professor of General and Analytical Chemistry. 

Professor of Geology and Natural History. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy and Engineering. 

. Hon. JOHN MANNING, A. M., LL. D.. 

Professor of Law. 

Rev. THpMAS HUME, Jr., M. A., D. D., 
Professor of the English Language and Literature. 


Professor of Modern Languages. 


Professor of the Greek Language and Literature. 


Associate Professor of Mathematics. 

T. L. MOORE, i , ., 

S. C. BRAGAW, \ Llbrarians - 

Professor GORE, Registrar. 

Professor LOVE. Secretary. 

W. T. PATTERSON. Bursar. 

Instruction is offered in three regular courses of study. Special ami optional courses are 
provided in Mineralogy, Chemistry and other sciences relating to Agriculture. School 
of Law fully organized. The sessions begin the first Thursday in September and end the 
first Thursday in June, with a vacation of about one week at Christmas. 

For catalogues or other information, address 

Hon. KEMP P. BATTLE, LL. ])., President, 

(II VPEl llll I . N. I 


Qniversity Magazine. 


Old Series, Vol XXI CHAPEL HILL, N. C. No. 6. 

New Series, Vol VIII. ' 

DI. # PHI. 

Wm. Jas. Battle, Hunter L. Harris, 

Walter M. Hammond. Logan D. Howell. 


" By their fruits ye shall know them ;" by the efficiency of human 
effort is shown the thoroughness of preparation for the work that has 
been, or is to be accomplished ; by the usefulness of educational training 
is demonstrated the fitness of institutions for the responsibilities they 
have assumed. When great natural gifts are enhanced by the addition 
of large and useful learning, and adorned with the graces of broad and 
thorough culture, the natural question presents itself, "At what insti- 
tution of learning were these acquirements attained ? " for we assume 
that effective self-culture is rare, and the efforts of untrained genius 
to reach excellence are so infrequent as to be dismissed from considera- 
tion in the question my question suggested, a phenomenon as dazzling 
as it is exceptional. There must be some fountain-head to which* 
knowledge must be traced ; some authoritative influence by which 
effort has been directed. 

In our own State, one great source, one perennial stream, forever 
flowing from the rock touched by the wise forethought and generous 
and considerate patriotism of our forefathers, preparing, amid their 
own privations and sufferings, amid their toils and struggles for liberty, 


amidst discord at home, and against the pressure of the enemy from 
without, for the highest education of coming generations, wisely con- 
scious that learning was indispensable, was the essential of free, stable, 
peaceful government, especially of the one they were engaged in 
forming or securing, the foundations of which were to be laid on virtue 
and intelligence, and to be permanently and prosperously sustained 
by close adherence to those vital prerequisites. 

The reward of wise foresight and marvellous abstraction from the 
cares of war to the consideration of the conditions of a future time of 
peaceful pursuits and duties has been a generous one. Since the work 
of the University of North Carolina was begun, there has been a con- 
tinuous, unbroken succession of rich and grateful fruit, splendidly 
illustrative of ancestral wisdom, nobly responsive to State solicitude 
and generosity, and grateful return to the care and efficiency of the 
educational direction. And this fruit, of such priceless value to our- 
selves, has been impartially and unselfishly distributed over an area as 
broad as the Union itself, to show forth in all its parts the value and 
the virtues of the University of North Carolina. Its light has been 
set up in the Presidential and Vice-Presidential chairs ; it has irradiated 
the Senate chamber of the United States, has given brilliancy to 
the halls of the lower House, has illumined the judiciary in all its 
branches, has shed its splendors over the bar, has graced the pulpit with 
a softer radiance, has guided the investigations of medical investiga- 
tors, has made clear the hidden paths of scientific research, has enlight- 
ened all vocations and pursuits, and stands the enduring beacon, the 
guiding standard for all educational aim and action. 

Examples of the beneficent influences of the University, of men 
who, doing honor to their alma mater, have won through their thorough 
training and equipment imperishable honors for themselves, crowd 
upon the memory or upon current observation, among the dead or 
among the living, in numbers so great as to make selection from among 
,them a somewhat invidious pleasure. With no purpose to exalt one 
tolthe disparagement of another, but to illustrate by the presentation 
of one who, conspicuously brilliant as a student, has through life 
given proof of the thoroughness of his University training, distin 
guished in many vocations, — in law, in politics, in science, — we present 
the name of one still living, to associate him with the centennial of 
the University, where he, too, in the unbroken line of succession, in 


his day, was girding on the armor and sharpening the weapons with 
which he so brilliantly won his many victories in his many fields of 

Thomas Lanier Clingman was born on the 27th day of July, 
1812, in the town of Huntsville, Surry county, North Carolina. His 
lineage was a good one, combining the best elements of the nationali- 
ties whose characteristics are the chief agencies in the world's progress ; 
blending in one blood what has formed the "American race " — brave, 
energetic, enterprising, persevering, lovers of liberty, impatient of 
oppression, but obedient to law and loyal to just government. The 
paternal grandfather of General Clingman was a German. Settling in 
Pennsylvania before the Revolution," and marrying a lady named 
Kaiser, of that State, he entered the American army and was captured 
when General Lincoln made the surrender of the city of Charlestown, 
with his troops, to the British forces. At the end of the war he 
removed to Cabarrus county, North Carolina, and there two sons were 
born to him, one of whom became afterwards the father of the subject 
of this notice. The family, in the course of time, moved to Surry 
county, and there General Clingman's father married a Miss Poindexter 
whose grandfather, an eminent divine of the Presbyterian Church 
and among the most noted of the few well known teachers of his day, 
was prominent, as Parson Patillo, during the revolutionary war, for 
active zeal and effective patriotic service. He was, by birth, a Scotch- 
man, who came to America at ten years of age, and marrying, when 
grown, an English lady. The first husband of General Clingman's 
grandmother was Colonel Robert Lanier, killed during the revolu- 
tionary war ; and the sister of this gentleman was the mother of Lewis 
Williams, for twenty-eight years a member of Congress from North 
Carolina ; and also of the distinguished John Williams, of Tennessee. 

The Poindexters were of Norman blood, but intermarried with the 
Welch family of Pledges. There were, therefore, in the veins of Gen- 
eral Clingman the united currents of German, Scotch, English, Norman 
and Welch blood, a blending of qualities and characteristics that will 
explain many excellencies and many peculiarities. 

Well prepared for the University, young Clingman entered in June, 
1829, and graduated June, 1832. Of his college career we know nothing, 
except from its fruits. Singly and alone he carried off the first honors 
of his class, each and all the professors awarding him the highest post 


of distinction in all his studies, an honor not before achieved and not 
often afterwards. 

After graduation, he repaired to Hillsboro to read law, without plac. 
ing himself under any instructor, but using books nnd authorities kindly 
lent him by Mr. William A. Graham, then a practising lawyer, in the 
future of such great distinction. 

He entered upon the practice of law in his native county, Surry, 
and in 1835 took his first step in politics, having been elected as a Whig 
to the House of Commons in the State Legislature. In the autumn 
of 1836, influenced by the prospects of a great development of trans- 
montane North Carolina by the contemplated construction of the 
Charleston and Cincinnati Railroad, the charter for. which had been 
obtained and active interest aroused, he removed to Asheville, which 
was on the proposed line of route of the projected road, and thence- 
forward made it his home. 

Circumstances arising out of a proposed change of route compelled 
the call of a convention to consider or combat the antagonistic prop- 
osition, and the convention met at Asheville in September. The 
subjects at issue were, adherence to the plans first adopted, or the 
adoption of another line, which crossed the Blue Ridge mountains 
much farther west, and would traverse a part of North Carolina then 
recently acquired from the Indians and with a very small white popu- 
lation and few developed interests. General Clingman was an active 
champion for the original line, and his activity and ability were con- 
spicuous in the debates. But during the convention, Col. Robert Y. 
Hayne, the president of the railroad company, and a very earnest 
opponent of the change under discussion, was attacked with fatal 
illness and died during the session, and the convention adjourned to 
meet again at Columbia, South Carolina, which it did in December of 
the same year. General Clingman was a delegate from North Caro- 
lina, and the question of route coming up, as anticipated, he cham- 
pioned his position and the views of the deceased president with great 
force and eloquence. Mr. Memminger, of South Carolina, already 
greatly distinguished in public life, ably and urgently advocated the 
other side, appealing for the adoption of a line which, without, as he 
claimed, materially influencing the prosperity of the work, by passing 
close to the residence of John C. Calhoun would be high compliment 
and noble tribute to that great man. 


General Clingman, a very young man, greatly distinguished himself 
in the conflict with his more experienced and already famous oppo- 
nent, and earned a fame that was speedily wafted over the whole 
country, fixing at once his reputation for ability, courage, eloquence 
and large information, though he failed in his immediate purpose, the 
convention favoring the views of Mr. Memminger. It was a fruitless 
victory ; the road was never built on either of the proposed lines. 
Half a century later, Asheville became an important point on a line 
connecting, indirectly, Charleston and Cincinnati ; but the great enter- 
prise which so far anticipated the present day came to naught. We 
refer to the subject as a conspicuously definite starting point in the 
long, active career of General Clingman. 

In 1840, he was elected, as a Whig, member of the Senate from 
Buncombe county, by a phenomenal majority, — through his efforts 
revolutionizing the legislative districts of the West, and replacing the 
delegation of five Democrats holding seats from that section by the 
same number of Whigs. 

The powers called forth in that legislative campaign, the powerful 
influence its results illustrated, and subsequent usefulness as a legisla- 
tor, Opened to him a broader and, possibly, a higher field of action, 
and in 1843 ne was elected to the House of Representatives of the 
Congress of the United States. His competitor was the Hon. James 
Graham, elder brother of the Hon. William A. Graham, who had 
served continuously and acceptably for the ten preceding years. Of 
this and successive congressional contests, we propose to say no more 
than that they were strikingly illustrated by the characteristic energy, 
persistence and ability of General Clingman. He defeated his next 
opponent, the able and eloquent John Gray Bynum, as also the Hon. 
Burgess S. Gaither, a gentleman who still lives, honored and admired, 
with almost unimpaired mental powers, the sole survivor of the com- 
petitors of General Clingman for the honors of the House. His last 
competitor was Col. L. Carmichael, the Know-Nothing candidate in 
1855, and then, until transferred to the Senate, his congressional 
pathway was smooth and unobstructed. 

In 1857, the Hon. Asa Biggs, who was one of the senators from 
North Carolina, was appointed a Federal Judge and vacated his seat 
in the Senate. Governor Bragg filled the vacancy by the appointment 
of General Clingman. The next session of the General Assembly 


ratified this act of Governor Bragg by acclamation. At the expiration 
of the term for which he was elected — the unexpired term of Judge 
Biggs, in 1861, — he was again elected for a full term of six years. 
The breaking out of hostilities between the States very soon after 
made this new election nugatory, and then General Clingman gave 
himself up to the military service of the State and the Confederacy. 
He entered the service of the State when the war broke out as Colonel 
of the Twenty-fifth North Carolina Regiment, but after eight months' 
duty in that character, during which time his military qualities had had 
fine illustration, he was made Brigadier General, and served with that 
rank for three years, or until the close of the war. 

Few general officers taken from the civil ranks achieved higher 
distinction in the best qualities of the soldier. He was a hard fighter, 
daring and impetuous in attack, stubborn and tenacious in retreat, one 
to whom might be sanguinely trusted the crushing of an opposing 
column, the capture of a defended position, the holding of a vital post. 
There was nothing in his sphere of action that he did not accomplish 
with brilliant achievement, and almost always with quite as brilliant 
results. He was in command of the fight at Goldsboro, December, 
1862 ; he held Sullivan's Island and Battery Wagner opposite Charles- 
ton during the hottest of the fighting at these points, and until Decem- 
ber, 1863. He led the advance in the attack on New Bern to rescue 
that place from the Federal troops, and was in the thickest of the 
terribly severe fighting at Second Cold Harbor in May, 1864. At 
Petersburg, June 17th, 1864, under the very adverse conditions of a 
small force, and the withdrawal of three brigades on his right, on 
which he had relied for support, he repelled the attack made on his 
position by Smith and Burnside with overwhelming force. 

A greater distinction still awaited General Clingman in his opera- 
tions around Petersburg. It was he, with tw6 regiments, that forced 
back General B. F. Butler, and safely " bottled " him up in Bermuda 
Hundreds. But for the unfortunate withdrawal of a large part of his 
effective force previous to the action, Butler and his command would 
have been captured. On the 19th of August, 1864, south of Peters- 
burg, General Clingman, with seven hundred of his command, defeated 
a large body of the enemy and captured twenty-one hundred of them, 
but in that battle was severely wounded and borne off the field, and 
was only able to walk with a crutch at the surrender at Greensboro in 


the April following. During the war he had received several wounds, 
but none to disable him seriously. 

This is the record of a civilian soldier, as ardent in war as in peace, 
and bringing to the military service many of the useful lessons acquired 
in his college life. 

Having briefly considered him in his various relations of lawyer, politi- 
cian and soldier, there remains another, in which he has acquired a solid 
reputation not often accorded to the layman actively engaged in other 
and absorbing vocations — that of scientist. Natural taste, thorough 
training at the University, close habits of investigation, and a fruitful 
field in the unexplored mountains of Western North Carolina, gave 
full scope for that restless activity, indefatigable industry and ambition 
to excel in all things — marked characteristics of General Clingman. 
We are not prepared to follow through all his, researches into the 
secrets of nature, but refer to a few upon which he has thrown the 
light of information. 

In Western North Carolina there occur frequent large excavations, 
nearly filled with earth fallen in since their construction, covered with 
large trees, and evidently of great antiquity. These were vaguely 
associated with the expedition of De Soto into this region in search 
of gold. General Clingman, by opening these pits, solved the mystery, 
but opened up a deeper one, for by demonstrating that the search of 
the original excavators was for mica, he established their identity with 
the mound-builders, — that vanished race which, untold centuries ago, 
thickly peopled the whole western plains from the lakes to the gulf ; 
holding there their seat of empire, sending to the mountains their 
colonies of workmen to procure a much-prized article of ornament or 
religious use. This, though not the first discovery of the mica of 
Western North Carolina, directed attention to it, and opened the way 
for a great and lucrative industry. 

In his mineralogical research, widely and scientifically extended 
through the mountains, he brought to notice the existence of corundum 
in large masses, since extensively and profitably mined in several 
Western counties, especially in Macon. This discovery was a surprise 
to the scientists of the Northern States ; but the fact was indisputable, 
and led to the introduction of Northern capital to work the newly 
discovered mines. He was also instrumental, after long-continued 
effort, in demonstrating the great economical value of the zircon, 


found in large quantities in Henderson county, on the south side of the 
Blue Ridge, — a mineral whose value is now becoming highly estimated 
in connection with gas and electric illumination. In the perfection of 
the last, General Clingman may ultimately have large share in his efforts 
(successful, but not perfectly secured by patent) to substitute the zircon 
pencil for the carbon now in use. 

On the authority of the distinguished Charles Upham Shepard, 
General Clingman is pronounced the discoverer of the diamond and 
platinum in North America, and he also brought to notice the existence 
of the ruby and other precious gems in North Carolina. 

He has devoted much attention to meteorology. Professor New- 
combe pronounced his observations on the great meteor of August 
2d, 1S60, as furnishing the best evidence of the height of the atmo- 
sphere that the world then had. In those observations it was affirmed 
that, in some mode, sound might be transmitted with the speed of 
electricity. This assertion, scouted by Professor Henry, of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, as absurd, has since had verification in the invention 
of the telephone. 

He devoted much scientific labor to ascertain the exact heights of 
the mountains of Western North Carolina, confident that some of 
them could be accurately demonstrated to exceed in height Mount 
Washington, in New Hampshire, then asserted to be the highest moun- 
tain in the United States. He established his claim triumphantly, for 
several peaks in the Black and Smoky Mountains were found to exceed 
in height their New England rival by several hundred feet. His name 
is applied to the highest point of the Smoky Mountains, a peak 6,660 
feet high. A friendly controversy between General Clingman and 
Professor Mitchell, of the University, as to the accuracy of their 
respective measurements of the highest summit of the Black Moun- 
tains, led to a renewed personal visit to that mountain chain by the 
latter, in the course of which he lost his life. 

The literary and scientific pursuits of General Clingman have been 
unremitting. But, with the exception of a volume of speeches, essays 
and lectures, he has published nothing to give him prominent literary 
or scientific fame. His life has been one of practical utility, of inde- 
fatigable industry, of restless activity, which sought to bring to present 
use the fruits of his many acquirements, rather than acquire fame by 
the patient labors of authorship. What he learned, sought and found, 


he gave liberally and unreservedly to the world ; reserving nothing to 
himself, reaping small reward for his discoveries, except the conscious- 
ness that his life has been an active, useful, in some respects, an illus- 
trious one. Alone in the world, for he never married, surviving most 
of his classmates and early cotemporaries, he looks back with pleasure 
and gratitude to the Institution where were so substantially laid the 
foundations of his fame and his usefulness. 

John D. Cameron. 


Shakspere loves to instance the law of compensation. It has abund- 
ant illustration in his work, shown in structural balance of parts, 
equipoise of qualities in individual character, multitude and variety of 
emotions. It is a refined law of order upholding the stability of his 
drama and endowing it with fertility. It is a producer of symmetry 
in development ; permeates not only his drama, but his very being in 
his progress toward that imperial estate wherein every sensation of 
the heart lay near to the touch of his genius. By reason of it tears 
have on them the sparkle of laughter ; by reason of it humor and 
pathos, so wedded, are grounded in philosophy. It gives net satisfac- 
tion, but content. It is the living principle in the philosophy of the 
Calm, out of which flows the purest love, the healthiest joy, the readi- 
est sympathy. 

The name of the play is , full of this suggestion in the exquisite 
interpretation it gives to the spirit of the author in producing it, and 
the impression he intended it should leave. In summer's droning 
quiet we love cool, sparkling rivulets, breezy sough of winds, all pro- 
ducers of energetic sensation ; in winter's rigor and gust we love the 
cheerful fireside and calmness of all emotion. The beating of the 
elements may have an awakening echo in the memory of subdued pas- 
sion ; but the winter is barred out, the passion is powerless, there is 
the heightening effect of security. The calm is not one of stolidity, 


but of moral subsidence. Our soothing philosophy controls every 
emotion. With just such a moral season the play is in accord. 

If we concede that the greater amount of moral enjoyment is derived 
from the pastoral part of the play, and that the tragic portion is 
intended as a foil to its idyllic spirit, we have an apotheosis of the 
cheerful fireside in the midst of winter. Just as in one case the enjoy- 
ment of the season is in the cheerful quiet rather than the elemental 
strife, so in the other the soul of the play resides in the perfect rest of 
the idyl rather than in the rush of emotion in its inclusive drama. 
But it is " reconciling drama," and the reconciliation casts over the 
idyl that mellow warmth which makes our winter fireside apposition 

What importance, then, must we attach to this portion of the work ? 

The rapidity of movement in the first three acts is apparent ; the 
strokes are as rapid as they are firm. The development is hurried to 
the last verge of propriety. All the evidences are present of the rest- 
lessness of an author anxious to get to the heart of his subject. Once 
upon the " coast " of Bohemia all restlessness disappears. The pas- 
toral runs its own soft and dallying course, not once hurried, but often 
retarded with a lingering rustic slowness, as if life were worth every- 
thing, and made trivial everything worthy — save time, which is worth 
nothing at all except to be restful and happy in. The poet who shirks 
nothing may yet love one part of his work pre-eminently ; and he has 
almost made us feel that the first three acts are merely a masterly intro- 
duction to the succeeding scenes of youth and love and untrammeled 
nature in which his genius every day more loved to luxuriate. 

We have here something beyond the usual set of experiences pro- 
duced by the reconciling drama: a legacy from the long holiday of 
love and rustic sport that takes possession of every interest. The 
reconciliation continues and mellows impressions produced by it ; such 
is necessary, such is the denouement of the story of the lost Perdita. 
But there is a spirit in the play which is not that of melodrama. 

I do not know how far the air of Stratford-upon-Avon influenced 
Shakspere in the production of this pastoral; what I do know is that 
there is a freedom from convention and care in rural life for which the 
soul yearns as it does for rest. Autolycus, of a breed that have their 
habitat in the country, brings in its welcome air ; we welcome his song 
as we do the first triumphant notes of the mocking-bird perched on a 


ragged holly in February to tell us he has caught a glimpse of the new 

In the country ambition gives way to humble content ; scheming, 
to bucolic trust in nature ; biting satire, to more kindly, if less polished, 
humor ; dangerous philosophy, to rustic aphorism. 

To see cultured life acted upon the stage is to stand face to face 
with a dread of sin and tragedy ; to see rustic life acted is to fear 
nothing but open-handed sentiment and good humor. There are 
none of the fomenting, explosive elements present ; there can be no 
representation of conventional entanglements and carking care. We 
surrender ourselves to a delicious poverty of incident, we purpose 
nothing less than a picnic. Such are the surroundings Shakspere chose 
for the romance of Florizel and Perdita, which he would render highly 
ideal. Let us see the propriety of it. 

" If wishes were horses, beggars might ride." But wishes are horses 
and beggars do ride ; only, the performance is very much in the realm 
of the imagination. The riding of wish-horses is a dangerous thing 
for the literary artist. That our best dreams should come true is a 
glaring improbability which the realist flees as he would flee literary 
death. Even the idealist takes care not to multiply instances of this 
sort. Yet it is a distinctive principle of romance. Therefore the suc- 
cessful romancer must be a supreme genius. Incomparable strength 
and chasteness of imagination make the tempest palatable ; the same 
masterly touch is required in A Winter's Tale. But what is present 
in the latter that makes idealism so readily accepted? It is set in the 
pastoral we have analyzed, the simple conception of which contains 
those elements that make romance probable. 

Love at the palace requires great artistic effort to give it currency; 
love among the sheepcotes is its own apology, stands convicted of 
truth. Therefore we know that Florizel loves Perdita and that " there 
is not half a kiss to choose who loves another best." 

Where convention and sophistry breed fraud, honesty requires great 
security for verisimilitude ; but an "unstained shepherd" must needs 
be honest. Therefore we. can easily believe the alacrity of Florizel's 
renunciation of Bohemia, and do not wonder at his conviction: " I 
needs must think it honesty." In all essential points the ideality of 
the romance, and the characters in it, is sustained by the pastoral sim- 
plicity that makes faith perfect, love healthy, and good people deserv- 
ing of good fortune. 


Shakspere's choice of subjects in later days signifies more than is 
usually conceded. Much as has been written, in a superficial manner, 
about his psychological state when in that vague region called by 
Dowden " On the Heights," he merely ran through the stages common 
to all °men. His genius had waxed full and now waned in energy, 
but the tenderness and wisdom of it still grew. Manifestly the Shaks- 
pere of 1610 could not have done Margaret of Anjou nor yet Falstaff, 
because he lacked the bursting energy of spirit that gave the one the 
mettle of her ambition and the other the compass and overbearing 
keenness of his humor. But at that time, 1 593—1 599, he perhaps 
could not have created Autolycus, whose humor is born of a quieter 
philosophy ; certainly not Perdita, who is treated with a tenderness 
and delicacy not acquired until long after. The sort of strength 
Shakspere had developed in, was the strength of fortitude, upon which 
is built the heroic character of Hermione. Now, we may reason from 
this that the cause which sets off the two ideal creatures Perdita and 
Miranda from all other of Shakspere's women is one of ethical pro- 
priety. While his genius had outgrown art and sought no better 
appeal to heart and mind than nature's simplicity, the man himself 
had tried every human experience and reached the age of retrospec- 
tion, becoming busy with the things of youth. As an interpreter of 
life, he could now look upon youth by the light of maturer experiences ; 
see its germinal worth, its freshness and purity, its tender possi- 
bilities; declare its triumph, love it, idolize it. Perdita and Miranda 
owe their existence to the same spirit that prompts the old folk to lay 
their sympathetic hands on the curly heads of children. Both char- 
acters are conceived in the same spirit, and both are exquisite studies 
of the same subject — womanhood untouched by art ; with all sweet 
essences not refined out of her because so many things of vital impor- 
tance to the conventional world are refined into her. 

Both are highly ideal, therefore, and very much alike. Their like- 
ness is in "general qualities, such as purity, innocence, tenderness; but 
the freshness and excess of these qualities distinguish them from other 
women. They have the same predominant idea, which is the larger 
half of their souls : there is something that Miranda shall die to want, 
something that Perdita must have or milk her ewes and weep. Even 
these two ideal women may then be incomplete ; they need fulfill- 
ment of their destiny. The women of Shakspere fulfill many offices, 


but I believe he keeps in the foreground their duty of loving. But 
where else does he give us two such creatures, in whom the most 
microscopic seer fails to discover any satisfactory apology for their 
existence, save in connection with that gentle fate they both sigh for ?' 
Perdita and Miranda are living lyrics of love. In them the destiny of 
woman is put in an interesting way. 

Perdita, however, is a far finer creation than Miranda. She is not 
nearly so elemental. She is arch, wise, and serious ; and one of the 
most modest of Shakspere's women. All of Florizel's prettinesses 
receive answers of classic mould. The spirit inherited from Hermione 
could not leave her a Mopsa, could but make her despise the injustice 
and the philosophy of Polixenes. 

In the later plays, Shakspere's humor is more thoroughly blended 
in the texture of the play, and is easier of feeling than of analysis^ 
But if we keep up with Autolycus and the old Shepherd, and the 
Clown, his son, we shall be in the way of the best of it this work 

Mastered by the dyspepsia of enthusiasm, Dowden entertained this 
undigested conceit : 

" Certainly no person of spirit can read A Winter's Tale without 
feeling a dishonest and delightful itching of the fingers, an interest not 
wholly virtuous in his neighbor's bleaching-green, and an impatience 
to be off for once on an adventure of roving and roguing with Auto- 

I want to bring this passage into discredit with the Club. Such- 
arrant imbecilities are too apt to catch the eye of critics and get 
upon a voyage as a " bon mot " through many a volume of the flunky- 
adulation prevalent in other circles, not our own, as criticism of Shaks- 
pere. If Autolycus produces any obliquity in our ethics it is because 
his fleet intellectual klepticism arouses in us a contempt for his victims' 
stupid, supine honesty. 

The scene in which Autolycus robs the clown is broad and farcical, 
with only a touch or two of true humor. Far better is the scene in 
which Autolycus, clothed in enforced finery, reflects on the Shepherd's 
" baseness court-contempt." Throughout this scene we are divided 
between sympathy with the old man's genuine distress, and fun at the 
expense of his ridiculous but natural son. 

This clown which Shakspere can afford to throw in without a name, 
might have done a name great honor. 


He was an aesthete : '' I love a ballad but even too well ; if it be 
doleful matter, merrily set down, or a very pleasant thing indeed, and 
sung lamentably." There's humor in this reference to a foible of the 
humble public. 

He was a man of observation too : " — A great man, I'll warrant ; I 
know by the picking on's teeth." 

He had ambition : "I was a gentleman born before my father." 

How exquisitely did sentiment and fun get mixed up together 
when the king's family claimed kinship, and the clown and his father 
shed their first gentlemanly tears. 

A. A. F. Seawell, Jr. 


A simple godly man he lived and died. 
His fields to work he went at early morn, 
At eve returned to rest and breathe toil-worn 
The sweet fresh air with lips that never lied ; 
The tempting lures of wrongful gain defied, 
And lived unknown to fame's brass blatant horn. 
His care the gentle Saviour, crowned with thorn, 
To glorify, and wished for none beside. 
Obscure? and world-despised ? Yes. But start 
Not, if, when the archangel's trump its loudest tone 
Sounds forth o'er land and sea, his glorious part 
'Mid thunder of angels' plaudits the throne 
Before to stand, this same pure lowly heart 
Up high to lift, and hear the words, " Well done ! " 

R. L. Uzzell. 


MESSRS. EDITORS : — There is a very important debate going on in 
my family, and as there seems no prospect of an agreement among us, 
will you kindly, as the highest court of appeals on such questions, 
decide between us ? I will state, as shortly as I can, the point of 

An ancient poem among our negroes, probably imported from Guinea, 

not excelled in the language for stirring incident, clear narrative, fine 

moral teaching, and intensity of interest, runs as follows : 

" Snake baked a hoe-cake, 
And set the Frog to mind it. 
Frog went to nodding 
And Lizard came and stole it. 
' Bring back my hoe-cake, 
You long-tailed Nanny! '" 

" Now, father," asked my little daughter, " who said ' Bring back my 
hoe-cake, you long-tailed Nanny"? 

" Well, daughter," said I, " I think the snake said it, when he came 
back and found the frog nodding and the hoe-cake going away in the 
lizard's mouth." 

Wife: " I don't think so, husband. It seems to me, the frog, when 
he awoke from his nap, must have uttered the exclamation." 

" I think so, too," said Aunt S., one of the best specimens of the 
" old maid " order. . " Not a word is said about the snake's return." 

I : " Why, you ruin the story by that interpretation. Something 
must be left to the imagination, and all must admit the picture is more 
lively if the snake returns before the lizard has carried the hoe-cake 
out of sight. Imagine a ' cool sequestered vale,' or a 'sunny slope of 
a hill,' 'quiet reigning all around,' the bright embers on which the hoe- 
cake has been baked, the solemn nodding of the frog overcome by 
the silence and warm glow of the fire, the lizard creeping slowly, 
cautiously, his keen black eyes fixed on the sleeping sentinel, first 
advancing, then retreating in guilty terror at the gentle rustle of the 
leaves, the sudden seizure of the hoe-cake, the rapid running to the 
bushes! Just then back from his wanderings comes the hungry snake ; 
with rising fury he discerns the nodding frog; with beating heart he 
reaches for the object of his care ; he hears a rustling of the leaves, 
and turning his head, lo ! the long tail of the thief is just disappearing 


in his hole in the moss-covered log decaying on the ground ! That is 
a picture Rosa Bonheur would delight to paint. Under these circum- 
stances of rage, amazement, indignation, — too much paralyzed to 
commence a pursuit, — the snake hisses out, ' Bring back my hoe-cake, 
you long-tailed Nanny ! ' Besides, the expression is ' my hoe-cake/ 
and surely there is no doubt as to the owner of the cake." 

Wife and Aunt S., both together: "Oh! you may imagine -what 
you please, we are dealing with /act. Your last reason is no reason at 
all. Everybody knows all cooks speak of the articles they prepare 
as belonging to them. The frog called it ' my (his) hoe-cake,' because 
he had been set to ' mind it.' He was not sleeping, only nodding, and 
it is natural he should shout to the lizard when he found him stealing 
what had been placed under his charge." 

" There is an old rule of law," said I, " which declares that if a cer- 
tain condition of things is proved, the continuance of that condition 
is presumed until it is proved to be changed. Now, we know that the 
frog 'went to nodding,' and, according to the rule of law just men- 
tioned, he continued to nod, and, consequently, could not have uttered 
the exclamation in question, unless he did it in a state of somnolency, 
which is unreasonable." 

Aunt S.: " That may be so. I don't know anything about your law 
maxims. Even according to that, though, it must be the frog, because 
the snake went away, and, by your rule, it must be presumed he staid 
away, until it is proved he returned." 

" But," said I, " it is evident that the snake went off for only a tem- 
porary purpose. After baking the hoe-cake, he set the frog to mind 
it, evidently intending after a while to relieve him from his charge- 
What he went for, we are not informed — probably to procure some 
tender mouse or other animal food 'to go with ' the cake, or, perad- 
venture, to bring some guest to share his hospitality. Besides, we 
know the snake is a foul-mouthed, abusive animal, while the frog has 
no such reputation. In this narrative there is a resort to ' calling of 
names ' immediately on the discovery of the theft. Who is more 
likely to indulge in this denunciatory language, the fierce and revenge- 
ful serpent, under whose forked tongue the venom lies, or the meek 
and dignified frog? No doubt, forthwith' into the hungry stomach of 
his irate master was dragged, headlong and lubricated, the unhappy 
victim of the wiles of Morpheus. Death is the penalty to a sentinel 
for sleeping on his post." 


By this time, wife's mind became perturbed lest her own hoe-cake 
should be suffering from similar neglect of duty, and she retired in 
disgust to the kitchen. But Aunt S., who is as " game " in logomachy 
as Stonewall Jackson on the field of battle, warmed up and continued 
the controversy : 

"Yes, if your imagination is to decide the question, I'll give it 
up. Isn't it a pretty story that the snake, whose tail is ten times as 
long as the lizard's, should call the latter ' you long-tailed Nanny ' ? 
Do you think the snake considers a long tail as a reproach ? or would 
select that term as an opprobrious epithet? It comes with a good 
grace from the frog, who has no such adornment, but the snake would 
consider the length of the tail an extension of beauty." 

I own I was perplexed at this thrust, but searched my mind for a 
parry, and found it in this wise : . 

" Your argument is ' plausible but not strengthy.' We read in the 
Bible that the tail of the snake was given him as a punishment for 
deceit and treachery. He remembers his treatment of Eve and its 
penalty, though when cool he will not confess his shame. But here he 
is placed in temper-trying circumstances. Hungry, disappointed, vin- 
dictive, angry, he hurls at the retreating thief the epithet which in his 
heart he feels to be the most opprobrious and disgracing of all in the 
billingsgate of serpents. Besides, the frog could hardly be so rash as 
to talk thus disrespectfully of the distinguishing feature of the physique 
of his dangerous master, and in his presence, too. Not he ; he is too 
cautious an animal for that. Though a great croaker and, according 
to ^Esop, sometimes swollen from vanity, he doesn't look so wise for 

Aunt S.: "There, again, you are still busy with your imaginings. 
The story doesn't say the snake had returned. / say he was not there. 
But here is a Judge ; let us leave it fairly to him. Judge B., didyow 
ever hear of such a preposterous idea as that the snake shouted to the 
lizard? We leave you to decide." 

Judge B.: " I have listened to your arguments. It is a difficult 
question, and not to be decided from internal evidence. There is a 
latent ambiguity which must be removed by testimony. We find no 
authentic non-fabulous account of a frog's being gifted with speech. 


The Bible is authority that a snake has been so gifted. The weight 
of the evidence is therefore in favor of the snake." 

The ladies were not convinced, and appeal to a higher tribunal. 
To you, Messrs. Editors, the appeal is made. 

Yours, Joel Chandler Harris, 2D. 


No. XIV. 


A prominent figure in all village life is necessarily the physician, 
the leading physician, if there be more than one — the Doctor par 
excellence, having become so by his own acknowledged merit, or by a 
long term of professional service, or some other claim to special dis- 

The influence and personal popularity of a good physician, who is 
also a good man and a highly cultivated one as well, are not second 
to those of any man in the community, not even of a beloved and 
honored minister. And people are always at their best before a doc- 
tor without knowing precisely why. The secret is that they are natural 
with him. It is of no use to affect anything with these masters of our 
weakness, who have so often seen us as we are, stripped of all our con- 
ventionalities, prostrate and helpless, and without disguises of any sort. 
There is no going beyond him, no getting around him. He knows us 
so well. We feel that we have got down to rock-bottom with the 
family physician, and may as well lay aside our airs and pretences of 
various kinds, and be plain, and simple and natural. This in itself is 
an agreeable and comfortable state of things, and the doctor's pres- 
ence is felt to have a charm. 

For myself, I must confess that I have always loved and honored 
this profession especially and always am ready to re-echo Doctor John- 
son's cordial eulogy : "I believe that every man has found in physi- 
cians great liberality and dignity of sentiment, very prompt effusions 


of beneficence, and great willingness to exert a lucrative art when 
there is no hope of lucre." 

From fifty to sixty years ago the health of Chapel Hill, or the size 
of its population, was such that one physician was competent to attend 
to the sick of the community. Dr. Charles Yancey filled this post in 
my childhood. I remember him well : a man of good though plain 
address, with a certain energy in speaking. He had but one eye ; was 
a man of good family ; had been well educated ; had talent, and special 
gifts for his profession. All was lost, however, in his love of drinking. 
He had a brother, Lem. Yancey, a deaf mute, a well-known figure on 
our streets till within a few years past. As Doctor Yancey fell lower 
and lower in the esteem of men, various physicians made vain attempts 
to establish themselves here. Dr. Alex. Henderson, Doctor Lloyd, 
Doctor Norwood — one after another they folded their tents and 
departed. In case of severe illness we had to send to Hillsboro for 
Doctor Strudwick, who was one of the best doctors in the State, much 
beloved as well as esteemed. 

In 1 841, Dr. Johnston Blakely Jones, then lately returned from a 
two years' study in Paris, settled in Chapel Hill, and in a very short 
time established a reputation second to none in the State. He had 
received his collegiate education in the University, had gone from 
here to the Charleston Medical School, and thence to Europe. His 
preparation for the practice of his profession was, for that day, excep- 
tionally good. 

In The University Magazine for March, 1886, is a Biographical 
Memorial of our late Prof. John DeBerniere Hooper, in which may be 
found an extended account of the Jones family, with whom he was 
closely related. They derive in a direct line from the celebrated Eng- 
lish Bishop, Jeremy Taylor, and many of them now occupy places of 
honor in England. 

Col. Edward Jones, the father of our Doctor, was an Irishman of 
good family, who came to this country soon after the Revolution, in 
company with his brother-in-law, Colonel DeBerniere. Jones finally 
settled in Chatham county, in this State, became a lawyer, took a lead- 
ing part at the bar, and was for many years Solicitor General for 
North Carolina. He married into the Mallett family, and his hand- 
some residence, " Rock-rest," in Chatham, became famous for hospi- 
tality and generous living. Besides a large family of his own, he had 


the charge of a number of wards whom he befriended and brought up 
as his own. Among them was the gallant Capt. Johnston Blakely, 
commander of the "Wasp," who was lost at sea during the war with 
England in the year 1814. Colonel Jones gave his ward's name to 
his youngest son, born in that year. Of his three sons, two died early; 
of his four daughters, Mrs. John Eccles, of Fayetteville, Mrs. Edward 
Hardin, of Pittsboro, Mrs. Wm. Hooper, of Chapel Hill, and Mrs. 
Rencher, widow of the Hon. Abram Rencher, ex-Governor of New 
Mexico, the latter lady alone survives, last now of all her immediate 

It may be supposed that family connections and associations with 
Chapel Hill from childhood induced our young Doctor to take up his 
abode here. Otherwise it would seem to have been a deliberate 
obscuring of his talents and educational advantages. Perhaps, like many 
another, he designed this for a merely temporary perch, while he 
plumed his wings for a higher sphere of action. Here, however, he 
remained from '41 to '67, and having taken high rank from the start 
he went on with ever-increasing reputation. His practice extended 
over several counties, public confidence in his skill and sagacity reach- 
ing almost to a superstition. 

In 1841 he married Miss Polly Ann Stewart, a grand-daughter of 
Dr. Baker, of Raleigh, a beautiful woman, whose character formed the 
complement of his own, so that in marriage, as in other respects, he was 
exceptionally happy. The young couple boarded for a year or two 
with Professor Green in the old Caldwell mansion. Then the Doctor 
built the house now owned by Miss Cole, lived there a few years, and 
then built that now belonging to Mr. McCauley, and remained there 
till his removal to Charlotte in 1867. His first office was the house 
nearly opposite the hotel, now occupied by Jordan Weaver's family. 

There he soon had a class of bright young men reading medicine with 
him, William Hooper, Charles Phillips, Stephen Green and others. 
The twenty-six years that Doctor Jones lived in Chapel Hill were 
years doubtless of much enjoyment to him. He formed many warm 
and congenial friendships here, knew himself to be gaining the fore- 
most rank in his profession, with a large and lucrative practice, and 
saw a fine family of children growing around him. Yet they were 
years, too, of hard and insufficiently paid work. The rough roads and 
the long hills of Orange and Chatham saw him many a stormy win- 


ter's night and broiling day in summer, bent on healing errands that 
were often purely charitable, and undertaken with no expectation of 
fee or reward. The amount of his charity practice was enormous. 
Added to this he was habitually careless in the keeping of his accounts 
with his paying patients. Doctor Jones ought to have died a rich 
man, but after near a half century of distinguished and most success- 
ful service to his fellow-men death found him, last March, poor in 
worldly goods, though immeasurably rich in the enthusiastic love, 
admiration and honor of troops of friends. He never appeared to 
regard his fees. The call of his poorest neighbor was always attended 
as promptly as that of his wealthiest, the case was studied as carefully, 
the costliest remedies provided (at his own expense) as freely. Such 
a man would never be a rich man, but I think I may say without exag- 
geration that no man has ever lived in Chapel Hill more universally 
beloved than Doctor Jones. Our elderly people speak of him yet 
with warm affection — " There was nobody like him." 

As a physician, I believe that Doctor Jones was especially distin- 
guished for his skill in diagnosis. He would at once detect the jarring 
chord in his patient's frame, and place his finger on the weak spot 
with unerring intuitive perception. His mind was also fertile in 
resources. He was an omnivorous reader in many other departments 
than that of medicine and a very careful student in that. He thought 
about his cases, studied them, put his mind to them with the spirit of 
a philosopher searching for truth. And this quality was the highest 
effect of his genius, for genius has been defined to be "a capacity of 
taking infinite pains." 

In general society he was singularly quiet and unobtrusive. Not in 
the least shy, but always cool, easy, imperturbable; still he would never 
put himself forward. He was a keen observer, and preferred that part 
in the game. There was rather a negligent air about him, as of a man 
profoundly indifferent to popularity, to gossip, to current reports. 
But in conversation with choice friends, his learning, his wide infor- 
mation, his fine sense of humor, his all-pervading charity and tolera- 
tion, and his keen enjoyment of an intellectual repast, made him a 
delightful companion. He would sit up all night talking in congenial 
company as cooly and as matter of course as he would sit by some 
poor sick man's bedside all night in a hand-to-hand struggle with 


In estimating the extraordinary magnetic influence that Doctor 
Jones appeared to exert unconsciously on all who came within his 
sphere, perhaps it should be stated that he was one of the handsomest 
men in the State. Unstudied and negligent as he was in air, dress 
and manner, the noble beauty of his features was remarkable and 
impressive. The profile of his head and face strikingly resembled 
Lord Byron's. He brought from Europe a fine cameo head of Byron 
set in a pin, and it was characteristic of him that when the growing 
likeness attracted more and more attention and remark, he threw the 
pin aside, not choosing to have it observed. 

Among that group of men who made the social circle in Chapel 
Hill unique for many years, Doctor Jones was of course prominent. 
His high qualities of head and heart found congenial element here, 
and he was content to remain, indifferent to the fortune and fame 
that awaited him elsewhere. The loss of his oldest son Edward, a 
mere boy, killed at the Wilderness, and the death of his excellent wife 
in 1865, loosened his ties to his home here, and the decline of the Uni- 
versity and the disintegration of society that began as soon as the war 
closed, finally necessitated a change of residence. He removed to 
Charlotte in '67, taking with him and maintaining there a reputation 
and pre-eminence accorded to very few men. 

The last year or two of his life was clouded by paralysis. He died 
suddenly March I, 1889, within the week that saw his old friend and 
neighbor, Professor Fetter, brought back to be interred at Chapel Hill. 

About the same time that Doctor Jones set up his household gods 
here, Dr. George Moore, of the well-known Cape Fear Moores, removed 
hither with his family from Wilmington, and began the practice of 
medicine. He lived in what was known as the old Henderson house, 
standing where now is Doctor Mallett's residence. The Moores were 
a very agreeable addition to society, the Doctor himself being a plain, 
silent man of many genial qualities. He was a careful, judicious physi- 
cian, and acquired and retained till his death, about '57, a good and 
paying practice, chiefly in the country. 

These families, with many another, have passed entirely out of the 
place, only a few elderly people now remembering that such were once 
numerous and influential. Cowper's lament will find an echo in human 
hearts as long as the world lasts : 

" Where once we dwelt our name is heard no more; 
Children not thine have trod thy nursery floor." 


What I remember chiefly about these men and women of a former 
day was their sociability and neighborliness, the geniality of their 
intercourse with each other. I really doubt if this younger genera- 
tion now upon the stage have half as good a time. They certainly 
dress a great deal more, and live in a good deal more "style " ; but the 
laughter, the jokes, the friendliness, the easy superiority to trifles, the 
communal enjoyment of a new book, the ripening talk of it after- 
wards, — nay, even the bird-suppers at Doctor Moore's, where the old 
Cape Fear cook had her own secret recipe for preparing them, and 
where old and young met with glee. No, I don't think such viands 
for mind, body and estate are met with these days. Ph. D's abound, 
brie a-brac abounds, people come and go with great rapidity, and we 
do our shopping by sample. 

C. P. Spencer. 

Biographical Sketches 



Edited by Stephen B. Weeks. 

Austin, William Henry, Tarboro, N. C, b. Nov., 1840, son of 
Robert H. and Sarah Janet Jeffreys, d. near Rolesville, N. C, March, 1 865. 
Prepared at the Horner School, Oxford, and matriculated June, 1857. 
His health failing, he left the University in Dec. 1858, and went into 
the mercantile business with his father. Enlisted June 1, 1862, in Co. 
I, Seventeenth Regiment, Col. Wm. F. Martin, and was promoted Ser- 
geant. His health began to fail towards the close of 1862, and he was 
given several furloughs for the purpose of recruiting; early in 1865 he 
was given a final discharge because of poor health, and died on the 
trip home. He died at the residence of his maternal grandfather, and 
was buried there while the booming cannon of Bentonsville, heard 


in the distance, served as his funeral dirge. After peace was declared 
his remains were taken up and re-interred in the Episcopal cemetery in 
Tarboro. A Phi. 

Bartlett, Leonard White, Sumter co., S. C, b. Oct. 12, 1842, 
third child and eldest son of Rev. Julius Lyman and Agnes P. White, 
d. July 1, 1862. Was prepared for college partly at the Mt. Zion 
School in Winnsboro, S. C.,and partly athis home under a private tutor. 
Matriculated as a Sophomore, July, 1859. He was always very studious 
and his mental abilities were of a high order. Prof. Hepburn said he 
attracted his attention in a class of ninety boys, and that he has since 
been interested in some of his cousins at Davidson College for his 
sake. He was cheerful in disposition, yet grave and dignified for one 
of his years. His ideals and standards were very high, his sense of 
duty strong and unfaltering. When his State seceded he wrote home : 
" My first duty is to my State ; I know you will let me leave college if 
she needs me." After the surrender of Fort Sumter in April, '61, he 
came home and volunteered in Co. D, Second Regiment, S. C. V., 
Kershaw's Brigade. At the reorganization May, '62, he was elected 
Captain. He was in the first battle of Manassas, and afterwards at Wil- 
liamsburg, and was on the Peninsula during that time of hardship and 
suffering. During the seven days' fighting around Richmond, he was 
wounded, probably mortally, at Savage Station, Sunday evening, June 
29th, '62. He was shot through the head, while leading his men. He 
fell, but instantly sprang to his feet, and, waving his sword, rallied his 
company. Again he was struck and fell, shot through the body, and 
his lower limbs completely paralyzed. Our men retreated, leaving their 
dead and dying on the field all night. Some of the Federals came and 
took his sword and side arms, but gave him water. Next day he was put 
on a train with others who were to be sent to the hospitals in Richmond, 
but he was going to the house of a friend of his father's. When that friend 
met him at the depot Tuesday morning, he found he had died on the 
train on his litter, before daylight. He cared for his body, and from his 
house his remains were taken to Hollywood and interred. In course 
of time a headstone was erected to mark the spot where lay one of 
South Carolina's bravest and truest soldiers, and it was erected in great 
part by the voluntary offerings of the surviving portion of his old 
command. He furnished another instance, often noted here during 
the war, that many of the bravest and most devoted Confederate sol- 


diers were the children of Northern and Southern parents, his father 
having been a native of Massachusetts, but a Southerner from princi- 
ple. A Di. 

Claiborne, Lieut. Col. Thomas D., was a descendant of Thomas, 
last Lord of Cleborne Manor, one of the oldest families in Westmore- 
landshire, England. He spent but a single year, 1S5 5— '56, at the Uni- 
versity. He died at Mont Blanc, the residence of his mother, near 
Danville, Va., on the morning of the 29th December, 1864, aged 
twenty-nine years and four days. Entering the service early in April,. 
1861, as Captain of the Danville Grays, he remained constantly in the 
field until shot down, serving as Captain in the Eighteenth Virginia 
Regiment during the arduous campaigns of 1861-62; in almost every 
battle-field in Virginia and Maryland. Promoted in rank and trans- 
ferred to the Seventh Confederate Cavalry (composed of Virginians 
and North Carolinians), his career in that branch of the service was 
characterized by the same virtues that had distinguished him in the 
infantry and endeared him to his comrades. On the 23d of June, 
1864, while in command of his regiment, he fell leading a charge 
against Wilson's raiding force in Nottoway county, Virginia, and 
although his surgeons pronounced his wound necessarily and speedily 
fatal, he was cheerful and confident of recovery. Confined six long 
months, unable to sit up, subjected to painful surgical operations, 
his patient and cheerful spirit never failed, even when all around him 
were despondent. Long before he was thus stricken down, his thoughts 
were turned to the necessity of seeking his soul's salvation, but after 
his confinement it was a frequent subject of prayerful thought, and he 
died in full assurance of forgiveness and peace. Kind and tender 
hearted as a woman, chivalrous as a knight of the olden time, gener- 
ous, brave and true, he fell a willing martyr to the cause of that 
country he loved so well. A Di. 

Chisholm, Seaborn Whatley, Polk co., Ga., b. in Polk county, 
Georgia, March 23, 1841, d. September 21, 1862. Matriculated at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia, August. 1859, University of North Carolina, i860. 
Private in Fulton Dragoons, Cobb's Legion, Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia. He was wounded September 13, 1862, and died eight days 
later; had been in all the battles in Virginia up to that time. A Di. 

Coggin, Joseph Burwell, Orange co., N. C, only son of Elder 
George T. and Nancy G. Coggin, was born October 10, 1842, and died 


August 21, 1864, in the twenty-second year of his age, of wounds 
received in the struggle at Petersburg, Virginia, on the 17th of June, '64. 
He was unmarried, and was reading medicine at South Lowell, N. C, 
his place of residence, when he went into the army. He served in Com- 
pany D, Fifty-sixth Regiment, N. C. T., Ransom's Brigade. He 
entered the Confederate service on the i6thof May, 1862, as a private; 
on the ioth of February, 1864, he was elected Lieutenant, and soon after- 
wards was promoted to First Lieutenant by the examining board. 
A classmate said of him in a notice of his death: "Few had more 
brilliant prospects opening before them than Lieutenant Coggin. 
During life there were few who received a greater share of the respect 
and love of their countrymen than he." A Phi. 

COOK, John Thomas, Warrenton, Warren co., N. C, b. October 
2 3» 1837, son of Benjamin Edwards and Sally Hawkins, d. in Warrenton 
June 16, 1863, of a wound in the leg received in the battle of Chancel- 
lorsville, May 2, 1863. Matriculated 1856, class 1859; unmarried; a 
lawyer, but at the time he enlisted in the army he was preparing himself 
for the ministry of the Episcopal Church. Enlisted October 14, 1861, 
in the " Warren Guards," Company F, Twelfth N. C. Regiment, R. 
D. Johnston's Brigade ; promoted Sergeant Major of the regiment, 
and was in the battles of Hanover C. H., Malvern Hill, Boonsboro, 
Md., Cold Harbor, June 27, 1862, where he was wounded in the groin, 
Antietam, besides numerous skirmishes. John F. Trumbull, Captain 
of Company F, Twelfth Regiment, says of him : "I do most unhesi- 
tatingly state that he was a gallant soldier. After his promotion he 
performed the duties of his office promptly and faithfully in camp, and 
on every battle-field where he appeared his chivalric bearing and 
brave heart won the admiration of his comrades in arms." A Phi. 

Daniel, Henry Rives, Bladen co., N. C, b. December 9, 1837, son 
of John O. and Ann, d. of disease February 25, 1862. Matriculated 
1856, class 1859; unmarried; a lawyer, practising at Elizabethtown. 
Commissioned Second Lieutenant, Bladen Guards, Compauy K, Eigh- 
teenth Regiment, July 20, 1861. His company was stationed at Fort 
Fisher and was not engaged in battle before his death. A Phi. 

Editor's Table. 

The Centennial Commencement. — So 

the Centennial Commencement is past. A 
grand time, a glorious time, say all. But 
why, why was not some action taken towards 
endowing the University with money as well 
as love ? The alumni came here expecting a 
movement of the kind; they came prepared, 
in several known instances, to give largely of 
their wealth. But, somehow, nobody was 
moved to begin. The authorities of the 
University hung back by a mistaken delicacy 
from proposing it; the alumni hesitated, and 
so nothing was done. An opportunity was 
lost which, it is to be feared, will never re- 
turn. The grandest celebration in her his- 
tory has come and gone, and still the Uni- 
versity remains without a cent of permanent 
endowment. Is it ever to be thus ? Will 
there never be a time when the alumni will 
come to the rescue ? 

Gov, Fowle was tumultuously applauded 
when he mentioned fifty thousand dollars 
annually from the State. But have our peo- 
ple not yet learned to expect nothing from 
a North Carolina legislature ? Will our 
Camerons, our Moreheads, our Carrs, our 
Worths, — to say nothing of the scores of 
moderately wealthy alumni, — men who love 
their alma mater, and who count their riches 
by hundreds of thousands, stand before the 
doors of the General Assembly asking for 
help, without contributing a cent themselves ? 
It will be a shame, a burning shame upon us 
if all the love and affection expressed in the 
speeches at commencement be nothing but 
talk. That thing, be it church, alma mater, 
native town, society or what not, has but the 
slenderest hold upon a man's affections which 
produces fine sentimental talk, forsooth, but 
leaves unloosed the strings of his purse. 

Too Many Orations. — Sixteen orations 
from the graduating class on Thursday are 
almost unbearable. This is evidenced by 
masses of people making a rush for the door 
at the end of every oration. They stay out 

awhile and then come back again ; then repeat 
the process two or three times during the 
course of the day. This is a troublesome 
condition of things. It creates great confu- 
sion in the rear end of the hall, and thereby 
does injustice to the speaker. It affords the 
marshals, too, much unnecessary trouble. 
One of them told us that he had seated a cer- 
tain lady three times already, and the ninth 
speech was only just beginning. 

To listen to twelve speeches one after 
another, and even then to feel that you will 
have to hear some more after dinner, discour- 
ages one. His patience gives way, and the 
result is that nobody listens to any of the 
speeches. Sad, but true! 

Let the Faculty, as in old times, have 
Senior speaking before commencement, at 
which everybody speaks, and select the speak- 
ers then. Eight are amply enough, but if, 
for any special reason, more are desired, let 
ten be chosen, but never more. These eight 
or ten will be listened to and the patience of 
the audience will not be worn out. 

Valedictory. — With this number the con- 
nection of the present board of editors with 
The University Magazine ceases. A 
short time before commencement the new 
editors were elected: from the Dialectic So- 
ciety, Messrs. J. D. Bellamy, Jr., and T. M. 
Lee; from the Philanthropic Society, Messrs. 
C. A. Rankin and F. H. Batchelor. 

During the past year we have edited the 
Magazine entirely, of course, as a labor of 
love. We have done our best to give a maga- 
zine which should be both readable and of 
real value. Many of the articles which have 
appeared are of permanent historic worth. 
Others, light in their character, were intended 
as a sauce to weightier matter. In all that 
we have written and published, we have been 
actuated by the purest motives. If we have 
caused offence in any quarter, we ask pardon 
and express the hope that wrath with us will 
not be visited upon our successors. 



We part from our readers with regret, 
assuring them of our sincerest thanks for the 
kind words which they have spoken of us. 
To their kind consideration we commend our 
successors, in the most earnest hope that with 
an increased patronage the number of issues 

will be gradually increased, and that the 
merits of the Magazine will become greater 
continually, till the whole State shall recog- 
nize it as pre-eminently the leading literary 
and historical magazine of North Carolina. 

University Record. 


Baccalaureate Sermon. — The sermon be- 
fore the graduating class, preached by Bishop 
W. W. Duncan, in Gerrard Hall, on Sunday, 
June 2d, was heard with strong interest by a 
large congregation. Matt. 20: 20-28, fur- 
nished the hinge upon which the discourse 
turned. It is safe and sufficient to say that 
many of the Bishop's grand and yet simple 
touches will never be forgotten by the class 
of '89. He is a man of almost perfect phys- 
ique and with that large-hearted and great- 
minded expression that makes him what a 
Bishop should be first of all,— the embodi- 
ment of all that makes a man a man. 

It is quite often the case thatbaccalaureate 
sermons are eloquent and pleasing, and they 
are also often deep, doctrinal, and logical, 
but seldom do they have in them more true, 
manly, practical, godly wisdom and sympathy 
than did this. There were no services in the 
different churches of the village and neigh- 
borhood, and the people came in numbers 
from distant communities. 

On that evening Bishop Duncan preached 
in the new Methodist church, that being the 
first service ever held thete. As in the 
morning, a very large number were gathered 
together. After the service a call was made 
for i 800.00 to complete the payment for the 
building, and the amount was subcribed 
without difficulty, which being tiansferied to 

the proper hand, the church was formally 

Bishop Duncan left on the Monday even- 
ing train, being called off by his regular work. 

Class Day. — On Tuesday morning the 
regular class-day services took place in 
Memorial Hall. Many visitors had come in, 
so that the great hall was about half filled 
and all the exercises were listened to with 
apparent interest. 

First came the Class Oration, by Chas. A. 
Webb, of Warren county. Next the History, 
by Geo. L. Wills, of Greensboro, disclosed 
the following facts: There are, in the class of 
twenty, six lawyers, three teachers, one 
preacher, one physician, two missionaries, 
one teacher or preacher, one farmer, and five 

Their average age is 22? years and their aver- 
age weight i-jSMbs. Tennyson is the most pop- 
ular poet, and the favorite amusement is ten- 
nis. As to denominational preferences, there 
are eight Methodists, five Baptists, five Pres- 
byterians, one Friend, and one Episcopalian. 

Their final graduation shows two maxima 
and seven magna cum laudt distinctions, 
which is a better showing than any class has 
had since the reopening of the University in 

The Class Poem, by Hunter L. Harris, of 
Granville county, was entitled Lucius and 
Edward: — An imitation of the Idyls oj 



the King. It was a tale of college friendship 
in the days of "the Blue and the Gray." 

M. R. Eure, of Norfolk, Va., read the 
Prophecies of the class, and showed that he 
had well mastered the herculean task of 
making out a horoscope for twenty men (with 
the assistance of the gods, of course). After 
a few words by the President, Logan D. 
Howell, of Goldsboro, the whole class united 
in singing the class song, written by Hunter 
L. Harris : 

Air — " In the Gloaming." 
Comrades, as we stand together 
Here to take a last farewell, 
Hope may spring and live forever, 
Parting now comes like a knell. 
Oft in fair and cloudy weather 
At the call of book or bell 
Have we toiled, or lounged together, — 
Ah, the tale is hard to tell ! 

Well, four years is quite a season, 

But how quickly it has passed ! 

Life is short, ah! that's the reason 

Why eternity's so vast. 

Now the slow revolving cycle 
Once hath reached the hundred line, 
There we've climbed to write the title 
Of our class of EIGHTY-NINE. 

College joys are ours no longer, 

College trials too are o'er, 

And our hearts should be the stronger 

For the days that are no more. 

If it be, when hours were golden, 
We have oft unfaithful been, 
It should all the more embolden 
Us to labor and to win. 

Comrades in the great hereafter, 

When our youth has gone before, 

Let the echo of its laughter 

Thrill us ever more and more. 

And from youth to old age growing, 
Grow we too in sweet content, 
May we reap the faithful sowing 
Of a true life truly spent. 

This exercise produced, as it always does, 
a marked impression on singers and audience. 
It is really a touching occasion to those who 
for four years have stood together on the 
same footing, and experienced very much the 
same joys and sorrows. Only one who has 
experienced it can realize this. So ended 
the undergraduate meetings of the class 
of '89. 

Representative Speaking. — In the after- 
noon of the same day a still larger audience 
listened to the orations from the Represen- 
tatives of the two Societies. We give the 
programme : 

G. H. Crowell, (Di), Stanly county, 
" There shall be no Alps." 

Frank H. Batchelor, (Phi), Raleigh^ 
" Forecasts." 

W. W. Davies, jr., (Di), Drapersville, 
Va., " Scepticism, False and True." 

Fred. A. Green, (Phi), Durham, "The 
Nineteenth Century." 

H. A. Gilliam, jr., (Phi), Tarboro, " The 
Mormon Question." 

Edgar Love, (Di), Gastonia, — " Shall Wo- 
men Vote?" 

Mr. Crowell received the medal for the 
best oration, upon the judgment of a com- 
mittee of three, of which ex-Judge Mills L. 
Eure, of Norfolk, Va., was chairman. 

Society Reunions. — On Tuesday night, 
as is the custom, the Phi and Di Societies 
held reunions, at which many alumni mem- 
bers had an opportunity of renewing their 
acquaintance with the Society of their col- 
lege days and its associations and memories. 
The former members heartily enjoyed the 
evening, spent in giving histories and remi- 
niscences, and the present members shared 
their pleasure to the fullest extent. 

The Centennial Celebration. — Wednes- 
day was the day set apart for the Centennial 
celebration. The early morning was cloudy 
and a little rain fell, but it was of little mo- 
ment when everybody was enthusiastic and 
bent on enjoying the occasion to the full. 
Crowded trains had brought hundreds of 



alumni and friends of the University from 
every part of the country. Men of all ranks 
of life, — public officials, lawyers, physicians, 
ministers, merchants, farmers, manufactur- 
ers, editors, — had come with one impulse to 
the scene of their early college days. Men 
were here who had not seen Chapel Hill in 
thirty years and more. Delighted they were 
to see their old comrades and renew the 
friendships of their youth. It was charming; 
to see them, calling each other by their col- 
lege nicknames, telling stories of their sopho- 
moric pranks; delightful to hear old gray- 
bearded men talking with one another like 
boys about "Old Bunk" and "Old Mike," 
and all the others of the worthy Faculty of 
the olden time. 

These men constitute the strength of the 
University. It was a grand sign of the future 
to see so many of them present at her cen- 
tennial commencement ; to see such interest 
and enthusiasm among them all. The occa- 
sion strengthened the zeal of all, and im- 
pelled everyone to labor henceforth with 
gieater effoit for the advancement of their 
alma mater. 

It was intended that there should be an 
historical address on Wednesday morning by 
Senator Ransom, of '47, and all anticipated 
a rare treat. But, two or three days before, 
the distinguished Senator fell frum his horse 
and fractured his arm. He telegraphed his 
inexpressible regret, and ihe hundreds of 
people anxious to hear him were forced to be 
content with the speeches by the representa- 
tives of the different dasses. 

Memorial Hall was well filled — a thing 
never before seen on Wednesday — when Col. 
W. L. Steele, of '44, called the Alumni As>o- 
ciation to order at a few minutes past eleven. 
Seated upon therostrum wereGovernoi Fowle, 
President Kemp P. Battle, Col. W. L. Steele, 
Gen. T. L Clingman, Prof. Jas. II. Hor- 
ner, Maj. S. M. Finger, Treasurer Donald 
Bain, Hon. John Manning, Bishop Lyman, 
Gen. R. Barringer, Dr. A. J. De Rosset, 
Thos. W. Harriss, Dr. W. S. Stamps, Jos. 
B. Batchelor, Esq., Maj. J. T. Moiehead, 

Auditor Sanderlin, Dr. J. L. M. Curry, 
ex-Minister to Spain, Prof. W. G. Brown, of 
Washington and Lee University, C. A. Cook, 
Esq., R. H. Smith, Esq., Chief Justice 
Smith, Judges Davis and Avery, of the Su- 
preme Court, Col. T. A. Kenan, Profs. 
W. B. Burneyand F. C. Woodward, of South 
Carolina University, Col. C. S. Venable, of 
the University of Virginia, W. N. Mebane, 
Esq., Judge Gilmer, President Taylor, of 
Wake Forest College, Maj. John W. Gra- 
ham, Col. L. C. Taylor, Col. Henry R. 
Shorter, Dr. Eugene Grissom, Judge Shipp 
and Col. Wm. Johnston. These, however, 
were but a tithe of the distinguished men 
who occupied seats among the audience. 

Messrs. Henry A. London and Josephus 
Daniels were elected Secretaries of the Alumni 

Hon. John Manning made a statement of 
the work of the Alumni committee, and 
spoke of his delight to see alumni here from 
Iowa to Florida. 

The calling of the roll of the classes was 
then begun. The first class called was that 
of 1824. Dr. A. J. De Rosset appeared as 
the sole surviving graduate. He was elected 
Honorary President of the Association. 

Hon. Paul C. Cameion responded for the 
class of 1S27. 

The venerable Giles Mebane spoke in 
touching words for the class of '31. 

Next came the class of 1832. Mr. Thos. 
W. Harriss made an eioquent speech, bring- 
ing tears to the eyes of numbers of his hear- 
ers by his allusions to his classmates and their 
advanced years. 

Senator Thomas L. Clingman then gave 
many laughable recollections of his youth, of 
his amorous days, when he wrote poetry. 
He dwelt especially upon the ladies and his 
regard for them. Concluding, he gave a 
picture of the great progress of North Caro- 
lina and of the grandeur of its future. 

Richard H. Smith was the third member 
of '32 present. 

The class of 1836 was represented by Dr. W. 
S. Stamps, of Caswell, who spoke very briefly. 



The class of 1839 was not represented in 
person, but a very feeling letter was read 
from the Rev. Dr. Tarvis Buxton, of Asheville. 

Col. Wm. Johnston spoke for the class of 
1840 — Judge Shipp being also present, but 
declining to speak. 

Messrs. Stephen Graham and Chauncey W. 
Graham, of the class of 1841, were present, 
the former making a short talk. Dr. Charles 
Phillips, so recently dead, came to the minds 
of all when this, his class, was called. 

Gen. Rufus Barringer spoke for his fellow 
classmates of 1842. Dr. W. VV. Harriss, of 
Wilmington, was also present, but did no 

Of the class of 1843, Judge R. P. Dick, 
Rufus H. Jones, Esq., and Dr. John L. Wil- 
liamson appeared. Judge Dick bore testi- 
mony to the unusual excellence of his class. 
There was not a mean man in it, said he. 

Three men, Colonel Steel, and Messrs 
James H. Horner, of Oxford, and A. G. 
Jones, of Wake, stood up for the class of '44. 
Colonel Steel remarked especially on the de- 
votion of his class to the University, and 
pledged it in an increased degree for the 

Jos. B. Batchelor, Esq., of Raleigh, and Dr. 
L. Taylor were the only ones present of the 
class of '45. Mr. Batchelor laughingly de- 
clared that he intended to be present at the 
next centennial in 1989. 

Mr. Wm. A. Faison, of Sampson, arose 
to represent the class of 1846, and then 
Colonel Steele announced vhat as the classes 
of 1879 and of 1868 had asked for special 
time upon the programme, this would now be 
accorded them. 

The members of the class of '79 then 
came upon the rostrum. There were pres- 
ent : Dr. K. P. Battle, jr., Dr. R. B. Hen- 
derson, Dr. J. M. Manning, Messrs J. S. 
Manning and W. J. Peele, Rev. Robert 
Strange, ex-Senators F. D. and Robert W. 
Winston, and Dr. Isaac M. Taylor. Mr. 
Peele, the President, called the class to 
order. The Secretary called the roll, and 
then Mr. F. D. Winston presented the 
printed history of the class, a handsome 

pamphlet, to President Battle. The latter 
responded in a few words. 

Mr. Peele, in a very appropriate and exquis- 
itely expressed speech, presented the class 
cup to James Horner Winston, son of Robert 
W. Winston, being the first son born to any 
member of the class. He declared that 
though we are poor in North Carolina, we 
need men more than money. " Make your 
boy," said he, addressing the father, "to 
hate sham, to take nothing but genuine suc- 
cess, to love some great truth." 

Mr. Winston then arose and responded in 
an admirable speech, humorously proposing 
that whichever member of the class shall 
have his quiver fullest, should be exempt 
from taxation and be awarded a golden cup. 

Little James Horner then stood up, and in 
a clear voice spoke his own words of thanks. 
The picture of the little boy, dressed in Lord 
Fauntleroy style, making his little speech 
before that vast assemblage, was very pleas- 
ing, and produced vociferous applause. 

The class of '79 then retired, and that of 
1868 took their places upon the rostrum, in 
the persons of Col. Wm. H. S. Burgwyn, 
Messrs. A. W. Graham, I. R. Strayhorn and 
Thos. Watson, and Dr. George W. Thomas. 

Colonel Burgwyn read the history of the 
class. Eloquently, and at some length, he 
spoke of the olden time, of what the college 
bell would say, could it but speak, of the 
merits of Swain and Phillips 

This concluded the exercises of the morn- 
ing, and the Association adjourned until the 
dinner in Gerrard Hall, at three o'clock. 
The hungry alumni lounged impatiently 
around the chapel door for some little time 
before admission could be obtained. But at 
last the doors were opened and everybody 
swarmed in and scrambled for seats. So 
many more were present than were expected 
that quite a number failed to find sitting 
room at once. After grace by Bishop Lyman, 
the company fell to work, and did ample 
justice to the viands before them. When 
knives and forks ceased to clatter, Colonel 
Steele, still master of ceremonies — and a cap- 



ital one he made, too — announced the toasts, 
which were responded to as follows : 


No. I. The State Congress at Halifax, 
1776, and the General Assembly of 1789: 
Response by his Excellency Daniel G. 

No. 2. The Founders and Donors of the 
University : Response by Hon. Kemp P. 
Battle, President of the University. 

No. 3. The General Assembly of 1875, 
1881 and 1885: Response by Mr. W. N. 
Mebane. Judge Strong was also to respond 
to this toast but was detained at home by 

No. 4. The Site of the University : Re- 
sponse by Mr. W. J. Peele. 

No. 5. President Joseph Caldwell and the 
Faculty and Trustees of his Administration: 
Response by Hon. P. C. Cameron. 

No. 6. President David L. Swain and the 
Faculty and Trustees of his Administration: 
Responses by Hon. R. P. Dick and Mr. 
Thos. W. Mason. 

No. 7. President Kemp P. Battle and the 
Faculty and Trustees of his Administration: 
Responses by Mr. A. H. Eller and Mr. R. 
W. Winborne. * 

No. 8. The Confederate Dead of the 
University: Response by Col. Thomas S. 

No. 9. The Alumni who have honored' the 
State and Nation by their services, in Public 
Life, at the Bar, on the Bench, in the Min- 
istry or as Physicians. At the Bar: Response 
by Hon. Jos. B. Batchelor. On the Bench : 
Response by Hon. A. C. Avery. In the 
Ministry : Response by Thos. E. Skinner,' 
D. D. As Physicians : Response by George 
G. Thomas, M. D. 

No. 10. The Alumni who have promoted 
Education, in Private or in Public Schools. 
In Private Schools: Responses by Maj. Robt. 
Bingham and Prof. Jas. H. Horner. In 
Public Schools: Response by Mr. E. A. 

No. 11. The Alumni who in private life 
have advanced the prosperity of the State, 

in Manufactures, Internal Improvements, 
Trade and in Agriculture. In Manufac- 
tures : Response by Mr. Julian S. Carr. In 
Internal Improvements: Response by J. 
Turner Morehead. 

No. 12. The Dialectic and Philanthropic 
Societies. The Dialectic Society : Response 
by Mr. Jas. M. Leach, Jr. The Philanthro- 
pic Society : Response by Mr. James 

No. 13. Our Sister Universities: Responses 
by Col. Chas. S. Venable, of the University 
of Virginia, and Dr. Chas. E. Taylor, of 
Wake Forest College. 

No. 14. To George Peabody and others, 
who, loving the South, have given of their 
means to educate her children : Response by 
J. L. M. Curry, LL. D. 

No. 15. Our Guests : Responses by Henry 
E. Shepherd, LL. D., of Charleston Col- 
lege, and Prof. Crawford H. Toy, of Har- 
vard University. 

All these toasts were drank with the cold- 
est of pure water. The sparkling cham- 
pagne was conspicuous by its absence, or, as 
was said by Mr. Evarts of one of President 
Hayes's state dinners, "water flowed like 

All the speeches were good, some were 
magnificent. As a whole, they were univer- 
sally declared the finest ever heard in North 
Carolina. It is needless to give an epitome 
of them. They are all to be published in 
pamphlet form at an early date. 

At 9 o'clock, the roll-call of classes was 
continued. Speeches were made as follows: 

For the class of 1847, by Rev. Dr. Skin- 
ner, of Raleigh; class of '48, by N. A. Ram- 
sey, of Durham; class of '49, by Hon. Kemp 
P. Battle, and W. E. Hill, of Duplin; class 
of '50, by Hon. John Manning; class of '51, 
by Peter E. Smith, of Halifax; class of '52, 
by Dr. R. L. Beall; class of '53, by Hon. 
Henry R. Shorter, of Alabama; class of '54, 
by R. H. Battle; class of '55, by Rev. S. P. 
Watters, of Morganton; class of '56, by A. 
H. Merritt, of Chatham; class of '57, by 
Col. T. S. Kenan, of Raleigh; class of '58, 
by Thos. W. Mason, of Northampton; class 



of '59, by Judge M. L. Eure, of Norfolk; class 
of '6o, by W. T. Allen; class of '61, by Hon. 
Thos. D. Johnston, of Asheville; class of 
'62, by Hon. Thos G. Skinner, of Hertford; 
class of '63, by Rev. Dr. J. L. Carroll, of 
Asheville; class of '64, by Wnu A. Guthrie, 
of Durham; class of '65, by H. A. Lon- 
don, of Chatham, who was the only repre- 

It was nearly 12 o'clock, and the Associa- 
tion, after adopting the following resolution, 
offered by Mr. W. J. Peele, adjourned: 

Resolved, By this Association of Alumni, 
that a committee of twelve, with Col. W. L. 
Saunders as chairman, be appointed by the 
Chairman to report to the next meeting of 
the Alumni a plan for establishing a Chair of 
History at this University. 

The following list of Alumni present on 
Wednesday is published here, though not at 
all complete: 

Armand J. De Rosset, Wilmington. 

Paul C. Cameron, Raleigh. 

' 1831. 

Giles Mebane, Milton. 

Thomas L. Clingman, Asheville, 
Thomas W. Harriss, Panacea Springs, 
Richard H. Smith, Scotland Neck. 

William L. Stamps, Milton. 

William Johnston, Charlotte, 
William M. Shipp, Charlotte. 

Stephen Graham, Kenansville. 

Rufus Barringer, Charlotte, 
William W. Harriss, Wilmington. 

Robert P. Dick, Greensboro, 
Rufus H. Jones, Cary, 
John L. Williamson, Caswell county. 



James H. Horner, Oxford, 
Walter L. Steele, Rockingham, 
Adolphus G. Jones, Cary. 

Joseph B. Batchelor, Raleigh, 
Leonidas Taylor, Oxford. 

William A. Faison, Warsaw, 
William B. Meares, Wilmington. 

Thomas E. Skinner, Raleigh, 
Thomas Webb, Hillsboro. 

Nathan A. Ramsey, Durham. 

Kemp P. Battle, Chapel Hill, 
William E. Hill, Faison, 
Peter E. Hines, Raleigh, 
B. W. Whitfield, Demopolis, Ala. 

James F. Cain, Durham, 
Joseph J. Davis, Louisburg, 
John W. Lewis, Milton_ 
John Manning, Chapel Hill. 

Peter E. Smith, Jamesville. 

Robert. L. Beall, Lenoir, 
George A. Brett, Lotta, 
John R. Hutchins, Chapel Hill, 
Richard H. Lewis, Kinston. 

Baldy A. Capehart, Kittrell, 
Alexander Mclver, Pittsboro, 
John L. Morehead, Charlotte, 
Henry R. Shorter, Eufaula, Ala, 
John D. Taylor, Wilmington, 
David G. Worth, Wilmington. 

Richard H. Battle, Raleigh, 
E. Hayne Davis, Statesville, 
John M. Galloway, Madison, 
Robert B. Johnston, Asheville, 
Oscar R. Rand, Smithfield, 



William L. Saunders, Raleigh, 
John D. Shaw, Rockingham, 
William H. Thompson, Clinton, 
William R. Wetmore, Lincolnton. 

Nathaniel A. Boyden, Forsyth county, 
Matthew S. Davis, Louisburg, 
William J. Love, Wilmington, 
Samuel Paxson Watters, Morganton. 

W, F. Alderman, Greensboro, 
William H. Burwel!, Manson, 
Clement Dowd, Charlotte, 
Abraham H. Merritt, Pit^boro, 
Benjamin R. Moore, Wilmington. 

Alphonso C. Avery, Morganton 
Robert Bingham, Bingham School, 
Daniel M. Graham, Fayetteville, 
John W. Graham, Hillsboro, 
Thomas S. Kenan, Raleigh, 
John M. Lawing, Mecklenburg county, 
William H. Williams, Warsaw. 

Lewis Hilliard, Norfolk, Va. , 
John A. Gilmer, Greensboro, 
Francis M. Johnson, Farmington, 
Thomas W. Mason, Garysburg, 
J. F. Miller, Goldsboro, 
James T. Morehead, Greensboro, 
James A. Walker, Wilmington. 

Mills L Eure, Norfolk, Va., 
John M. Fleming, Raleigh, 
Simmons H. Isler, Goldsboro 
Daniel P. McEachern, Mill Prong, 
Marshall H. Pinnix, Lexington, 
James P. Taylor, Columbia, Texas, 
Elijah B. Withers, Danville, Va. 

W. T. Allen, Oxford, 
Algernon S. Barbee, Chapel Hill, 
William H. Borden, Goldsboro, 
Edward J. Hardin, Raleigh, 
Robert P. Howell, Goldsboro. 

Calvin Barnes, Wilson, 
Edmund G. Brodie, Henderson, 

George B. Bullock, Warren county, 
John D. Cunie, Clarkion, 
Thomas D. Johnston, Asheville, 
James G. Kenan, Kenansville, 
James T. Morehead, Leaksville, 
James Parker, Gatesville, 
Joshua G. Wright, Wilmington. 

Marsden Bellamy, Wilmington, 
Joseph A. Haywood, Raleigh, 
Thomas G. Skinner, Hertford 
Henry C. Wall. Rockingham. 

John L. Carroll, Asheville, 
William N. Mebane, Wemworth, 
Warner M. Watkins, Milton. 

Albert M. Boozer, Columbia, S. C, 
Walter M. Clark, Raleigh, 
William A. Guthrie, Durham, 
William R. Kenan, Wilmington, 
Octavius A. Wiggins, Wilmington. 

Henry A. London, Pittsboro. 

Julian S. Carr, Durham. 

W r illiam H. S. Burgwyn, Henderson, 
A. W T . Graham, Oxford, 
Isaac R. Strayhorn, Hillsboro, 
George G, Thomas, Wilmington, 
Charles E. Watson, Durham. 

Alexander Graham, Charlotte, 
William E. Murchison, Jonesboro, 
Piatt D. Walker, Charlotte, 
Joseph C. Webb, Hillsboro. 

Charles A. Cook. Warrenton, 
Richard H. Lewis, Raleigh, 
George T. Winston, Chapel Hill. 

James T. Crocker, Asheboro, 
Fred. A. Olds, Raleigh. 

Charles C. Covington, Wilmington, 
II. T. Watkins, Henderson. 



i8 7 g. 
John C. Angier, Durham, 
Kemp P. Battle, Jr., Raleigh, 
Frank K. Borden, Goldsboro, 
Richard B. Henderson, Wilton, 
James S. Manning, Durham, 
John M. Manning. Durham, 
W.J. Peele, Raleigh, 
David C. Stanback, Richmond county, 
Robert Strange, Wilmington, 
Isaac M. Taylor, Morganton, 
Robert W. Winston, Oxford, 
Francis D. Winston, Windsor. 

Thomas H. Battle, Rocky Mount, 
Thomas C. Brooks, Daysville, 
Locke Craig, Asheville. 

William J. Adams, Carthage, 
Herbert B. Battle, Raleigh, 
Frank B. Dancy, Raleigh, 
Alfred D. Jones, Raleigh, 
James M. Leach, Washington, D. C, 
Charles D. Mclver, Raleigh, 
John A. Mclver, Jonesboro, 
James D. Murphy, Greenville, 
Walter E. Phillips, Battleboro, 
James H. Southgate, Durham, 
Leroy Springs, Lancaster, S. C, 
John M. Walker, Charlotte, 
R. W. Winborne, Murfreesboro. 

E. A. Alderman, Goldsboro, 
Thomas J. Gill, Laurinburg, 
Albert S. Grandy, Oxford, 
James G. Hunt, Oxford, 
Alex. W. McAlister, Asheboro, 
Duncan E. Mclver, Sanford. 

David S. Cowan, Henderson, 
John McC. Dick, Greensboro, 
Robert P. Gray, Greensboro, 
Edward C. Smith, Raleigh. 

S. M. Gattis, Hillsboro, 
James Lee Love, Chapel Hill, 

H. J. Overman, Salisbury, 

Wra, G. Randall, McKinney, Texas, 

Frank S. Spruill, Louisburg. - 

Josephus Daniels, Raleigh, 
Adolphus H. Eller, Winston, 
Oscar B. Eaton, Mocksville, 
Alexander J. Field, Oxford, 
Augustus W. Long, Spartanburg, S. C. 
Berrie C. Mclver, Goldsboro, 
R. S. Neal, Scotland Neck, 
John U. Newman, Graham, 
Alfred D. W r ard, Kenansville, 
Sol. C. Weill, Wilmington. 

William H. Carroll, Burlington, 
Charles T. Grandy, Raleigh, 
Luther B. Grandy, Oxford, 
Samuel S. Jackson, Pittsboro, 
Herbert W. Jackson, Raleigh, 
Frank M. Little, Washington, D. C, 
William P. McGehee, Raleigh, 
Pierre B. Manning, Wilmington, 
John M. Morehead, Charlotte, 
H. W. Rice, Richmond, Va., 
Robert L. Strowd, Chapel Hill, 
John F. Schenck, Shelby, 
James Thomas, New Berne, 
Robert L. Uzzell, Roanoke, Va., 
Stephen B. Weeks, Chapel Hill, 
Paul Wilkes, Charlotte. 

Robert. T. Burwell, Raleigh, 
Robert G. Grissom, Raleigh, 
Richard N. Hackett, Wilkesboro, 
Jacob C. Johnson, Johnson's Mills, 
Vernon W. Long, Winston, 
William H. McDonald, Charlotte, , 
John F. Mclver, Winder, 
Joseph A. Morris, Wilton, 
Albert M. Simmons, Fairfield, 
William S. Wilkinson, Enfield. 

Oliver D. Batchelor, Nashville, 
William Jas. Battle, Chapel Hill, 
Hayne Davis, Statesville, 
L. B. Edwards, Winston, 



James L. Foster, Raleigh, 

Frank M. Harper, Raleigh, 

William E. Headen, Pittsboro, 

St. Clair Hester, Raleigh, 

R. L. Holt, Burlinglon, 

William M. Little, Statesville, 

Julius C. Martin, Creswell, 

Malvern H. Palmer, Warren county, 

Benoni Thorp, Raleigh, 

Eugene P. Withers, Danville, Va. 

Caleb G. Cates, Rock Spring, 

Herbert Clement, Mocksville, 

Daniel J. Currie, Stewart's, 

Walter M. Curtis, Franklinsville, 

James E. B. Davis, Pikeville, 

Mills R. Eure,' Norfolk, Va., 

Walter M. Hammond, Archdale, 

Hunter L. Harris, Raleigh, 

John S. Hill, Faison, 

Logan D. Howell, Goldsboro, 

Lacy L. Little, Little's Mills, 

Thomas L. Moore, Greenville, S. C, 

William S v Roberson, Chapel Hill, 

A. A. F. Seawell, Jonesboro, 

Alexander Stronach, Raleigh, 

Clinton L. Toms, Hertford, 

Charles A. Webb, Warren Plains, 

George S. Wills, Greensboro, 

William A. Wilson, Sutherland, 

Henry G. Wood, Edenton. 

Delegates from other Universities and Col- 
leges were present, as follows : 

University of Virginia, Prof. C. S. Ven- 
able; Washington and Lee University, Prof. 
W. G. Brown ; University of South Carolina 
Profs. W. B. Burney and F. C. Woodward ; 
Wake Forest College, President C. E. Tay- 
lor ; Harvard University, Prof. C. H. Toy ; 
Wofford College, Prof. A. W. Long; Charles- 
ton College, President H. E. Shepherd. 

President D. ('. Gilrmn, of Johns Hop- 
kins University, was prevented at the last 
moment from attending. Chief Justice W. 
N. H. Smith, of Yale '34, was commissioned 
to represent Yale University; Prof. G. T. 
Winston, of Cornell '74, to represent Cor- 

nell University; and Dr. J. L. M. Curry, to 
represent Richmond College. 

With Wednesday's proceedings the Cen- 
tennial exercises proper were concluded. 
Next day was commencement day, when all 
were to come in to hear the boys make their 
orations. But before the morrow could 
come, the young people repaired to the gym- 
nasium, to tread the mazy figures of the ger- 
man till far into the night. Superb ballroom 
decorations, elegant music and perfect be- 
havior on the part of all, students and visi- 
tors, combined to afford the beautiful daugh- 
ters of Carolina and her gallant sons a de- 
lightful night, which will ever remain a 
charming memory in the lives of all. 

Commencement Day. — Thursday dawned 
clear and cool. Hundreds of people came in 
from the country in vehicles of all shapes and 
fashions. Fastening their horses to the trees 
in the rear of Memorial Hall and the South 
Building, the people poured in streams into 
the great Hall. By eleven there was within 
a crowd of over two thousand people, and 
outside almost as many. Chief-Marshal Mc- 
Iver and his two sub-Marshals with their 
four assistant-subs piloted the incoming 
crowds to seals with great politeness. An 
inspiring sight it was to see that great edifice 
crowded with expectant listeners. Proud 
fathers and anxious mothers, with number- 
less relatives and friends, were there to hear 
their darling boy deliver his graduating 
speech. Of course he was going to get the 
Mangum medal. But alas, only one medal 
was to be given, only one boy made happy! 
Speech after speech was delivered, until at 
last the wearied listeners could stand no more. 
A recess for dinner was had after the eleventh 
oration. The fact of the matter is that there 
were too many speeches. Ten at most, and 
preferably eight, would be a suitable number. 
As it was, at the conclusion of every one, 
crowds of people would rush out of the im- 
mense doors, until one on the outside would 
think nobody was left within. Yet there was 
no perceptible diminution of the numbers in 



the Hall. The audience being really so 
large, and the seats in the Hall so peculiarly 
arranged, there was the effect of a full house 
throughout the whole morning. 

Of course everybody had a good dinner, and 
came back at four to hear the remaining ora- 
tions. Five speeches, the last the valedictory, 
were delivered, and then came the awarding 
of prizes, diplomas, etc. 

The programme of the orations, was as 
follows :, 

Walter M. Curtis, Franklinsville, N. C, 
"The Three Kingdoms." 

Alexander Stronach, Raleigh, N. C, "In- 

A. A. F. Seawell, Jonesboro, N. C, 
" The Ethics of Toil." 

John Sprunt Hill, Faison, N. C, 'National 
Moderation." The Philosophical Oration. 

George S. Wills, Greensboro, N. C., "A 
Reformer Before the Reformation." 

M. R. Eure, Norfolk, Va., " The Dark 

H. G. Wood, Edenton, N. C., "Our 
Foreign Element." 

C.W.Toms, Hertford, N. C, "Moral 

J. E. B. Davis, Wayne Co., N. C, 
Modern Cynicism." 

W. M. Hammond, Archdale, N. C, "The 
Better Half." 

Logan Douglass Howell, Goldsboro, N. 
C, " The Novel as the Mirror of Modern 

Caleb Gilmer Gates, Rock Spring, N. C, 
" Developed Manhood." 

Chas. A. Webb, Warren Co., N. C, 
" The Buddhas of Mankind." The Classi- 
cal Oration. 

W. A. Wilson, Sutherland, N. C, "Phi- 
losophy and Progress." 

Hunter L. Harris, Granville Co., N. C, 
"An Unconscious Slavery." The Scientific 

Daniel J Currie, Stewart's, N. C, " Grit." 

On the conclusion of the valedictory, Pres- 
ident Battle read the list of theses required of 

those not wishing to speak, but not required 
to be read on this occasion. Doubtless there 
was many a one in the audience who devoutly 
wished that more of the Seniors had "elected 
not to speak." Sixteen speeches almost wore 
people's patience out. The list of theses 
was as follows : 

Herbert Clement, Mocksville, N. C, 
"The Test of Progress." 

Lacy L. Little, Little's Mills, N. C, 

Thomas Lake Moore, Greenville, S. C, 
"The Star in the East." 

W. S. Roberson, Chapel Hill, N. C, 
"The, Historic Relation and Results of 

After this, came the annual report, read in 
his usual clear, rapid manner by Professor 
Gore. The following are the honor roll and 
the list of honor grades : 


Buiej and Cuninggim were never absent 
from prayers or recitations during the session. 

Andrews, Burroughs, Connor, Fleming, 
Hunter, Jimeson, Mebane, Merritt, Thomp- 
son, J. M. Willcox and J. R. Williams were 
never absent from prayers; Harvey and J. 
Worth absent only once; J. G. Blount and 
Scales, three times. 

honor grades. — (Term ending Dec, 1888.) 

Political Economy — Stronach and Hill, 98; 
Little and Seawell, 95; Wills, 93; J. Davis, 
92: Roberson, 91; D. Currie, L. Howell and 
Webb, 90. 

Business Law — Branch, 93. 
Junior Greek — Rankin, 97^. 

Sophomore Greek — Cuninggim, 97 }£; 
Batchelor, 97.3; Bryan, 93.8; J. W, Graham 
and Mangum, 91^; Bingham, 91.3. 

Freshman Greek — Mebane, 99; Robbins, 
95.4; Scales, 95^; R. Davis, 95; Clark, 93; 
F. Willcox, 91.7: R. P. Johnston, 91. 2; 
Connor, 91. 

Trigonometry — R. P. Johnston, 99; Cun- 
inggim, 96; J. V. Lewis, 95; Batchelor, 90. 

Calculus — G. Howell, 96; Shaw, 93. 

Algebra — T. R. Foust, 99^; Harvey, 97^; 



Hunter and Mebane, 97; Robbins, 96; Keech, 
95; G. Graham, 94; R. Davis and Rollins, 
92; Ferguson and F. Willcox, 90. 

Essays — Seavvell, 99; D. J. Currie and 
Hill, 98; Webb, 97^; Wills, 96; Curtis and 
Stronach, 95; Davis, Harris and Little, 94; 
Hammond, 90. 

Anglo-Saxon (Second Year) — Wills, 96. 

Anglo-Saxon (First Year) — Howell, L. D., 
97; Hammond, 92. 

Fourth English — Hill and Wills, 99; Cur- 
tis, Davis, J., and Webb, 98; Stronach, 97; 
Harris, Little and Moore, 96; Seawell, 95; 
Currie, D. J., 94; Wood, 93; Hammond, 91; 
Clement, 90. 

Third English — Mclver, 98; Rankin, 97; 
Shaw, 96; Taylor, J. S., 95; Graham, J. W., 
94; Philips, 91; Battle, Bellamy, J. D., 
Foust, J. L, and Woodard, 90. 

Second English — Batchelor, Hendren, R. 
P. Johnston and Patterson, 98; Bingham and 
Ransom, 97; Bryan, Darden and Whitaker, 
96: Blount, J. G., and Cunninggim, 94; G. 
Graham, 93; Andrews, 92; R. Bellamy, Bras- 
well, J. S. Lewis, 90. 

First English — Clark, Keech and Scales, 
95; Hunter and Mebane, 94; Davis, R., Led- 
better and R. Urquhart, 93; Robbins, 92; 
Harvey, Rollins and J. S. Worth, 91; T. R. 
Foust, R. H. Johnston and F. L, Willcox, 90. 

First French — D. J. Currie, 99^; J. E. B. 
Davis, 99; W. J. Battle, 98^; Hunter, 98; 
J. D. Bellamy, 97^: Mclver and Shaw, 97; 
Rankin, 96; Miller, 95; Keech, 94; Wilson, 
93; J. W. Graham, McKethan, Ross and 
Vaughn, 92; Love and Phillips, 91. 

Second French — Little, 97; D. J. Currie and 
J. V. Lewis, 96; L. D. Howell, 93; Ransom, 
92; Curtis, 90. 

First German — T. R. Foust, Harvey, Hill, 
Patterson and Ransom, 99; Eure, 98; J. D. 
Bellamy, 97; Darden, Hodges, Vaughn and 
Wills, 95; Phillips. 94; Dunn, 91; Busbee and 
Toms, 90. 

General Chemistry — Batchelor, 97; Patter- 
son, 93; Spoon and Vaughn, 92; Andrews, 91; 
R.P.Johnston, Morehead and Ransom, 90. 

Qualitative Analysis — Battle and McKc- 

than, 100; Braswell, Holliday, Laughing- 
house and Miller, 96; Eason, 95; J. Blount, 
Carson, F. Covington and B. Green, 93; Rod- 
man and Roberson, 90. 

Industrial Chemistry — Shaflner, 94; G. 
Battle, 92; Harris, 90. 

First Latin — Mebane, 97; Clark, 95 j£; 
Connor and R. Davis, 93; Robbins, 92; Skin- 
ner, 91 ; Scales, 90. 

Second Latin — Bingham, Darden, G. Gra- 
ham, Hendren, Ransom and Whitaker, 94; 
Batchelor, J. G. Blount, P. Graham, R. P. 
Johnston and G. Worth, 93; Cuninggim, 
92; Ashe, Bryan and Patterson, 90. 

Third Latin — Mclver, 99; J. W. Graham, 
92; J. S. Taylor, 90. 

Logic — Mclver and Shaw, 98; Lee, Love, 
McKethan, Phillips and Woodard, 97; G. 
Battle, Braswell, J. D. Bellamy and Rankin, 
96; Miller, 95^; J. I. Foust, Philbeck and 
Smith, 95; Snipes, 94^; Davies, Shaflner 
and Taylor, 93; J. W. Graham, 91. 

History oj Philosophy — Curtis, Hill, 
Moore, Sapp, Toms, 98. 

Biological Laboratory — Harris and Rober- 
son, 99; J. G. Blount, Braswell, Carson and 
G. C. Worth, 95; McKethan and Murphy. 90. 

Physiology — Roberson, 98; J. G. Blount 
and Worth, 97; J. D. Bellamy, 96; Rollins, 
93; Carson, Clement, J. I. Foust and Wood- 
ard, 92; Love, 91. 

Mineralogy — G. Battle and J. V. Lewis, 
96; Miller, 93; Braswell and Woodard, 92; 
Love, 90. 

Physics (Sophomore Class) — Spoon, 98; 
Morehead, 95. 

Physics (Junior Class) — Shaw, 98^; G. 
Howell, 98; Mclver, 97; Miller, 93^3; J. 1. 
Foust, 92; J. D. Bellamy, 90. 

Surveying — L. D. Howell and Shaw, 99; 
J. I. Foust, G. Howell and Seawell, 9S; Mil- 
ler and Shaflner, 95; Phillips, 92. 

Astronomy — Seaweil, <.)~ z i\ Hill. 97; D. J. 
Currie, 93; Webb, 92 3 ,: Stronach 92; Cur- 
tis, 90. 
Honor Grades — (Term ending June 6. '89.) 

Constitutional and International Law — 
Stronach, 100; Hill, 97; Little, 95; L. D. 



Howell, Miller, Webb and Wills, 94; D. J. 
Currie, 92; Roberson, Seawell and Wood- 
ard, 90. 

Constitutional History — McKethan, 95; 
Holland, Love and Moore, 94; Petty, 92. 

Moral Science — D. J. Currie, Hill and 
Stronach, 100; Roberson, 99^; Curtis^, L. 
Dl Howell, Little, Webb and Wills, 99; 
Hammond and Seawell, 98^; Braswell, 
Davis and Moore, 98; F. Covington and 
Wood, 97^; Clement, Eure, Sapp, Toms, 97; 

First English — Scales, 97; Mebane, 96; 
Bennett, C. D., Connor, Davis, R., Keech, 
Rollins and Winborne, 95; T. Foust, Har- 
vey and Ledbetter, 93; Gatling, Hunter and 
Robbins, 92; Everett, 91; Carson and R. 
Urquhart, 90. 

Second English — J. G. Blount, Hendren 
and Patterson, 98; G. Graham, 97; Batchelor, 
96; Cuninggim, Darden and Fleming, 95; 
Bingham, Ransom and G. Worth, 93; Lewis, 
J. S. , 92; Lewis, J. V., 91; Andrews, Bryan, 
Mangum and Morchead, 90. 

Third English — Mclver, 98^; Shaw, 98; 
J. I. Foust and J. W. Graham, 96^; J.J}. 
Bellamy and Phillips, 93; Woodard, 92; G. 
Battle and Holland, go. 

Fourth English— Wills, 99; Hill, 98^; D. 
J. Currie, 97 %\ Seawell, Stronach and 
Webb, 97; J. Davis, qb%; Curtis and Har- 
ris, 95; Little, 94; Hammond, 92. 

Essays — Seawell, 99^; D. J. Currie, Hill 
and Webb, 98^; Wills, 97; Curtis, J. Davis 
and Stronach, 96; Little, 95; Harris, 94; 
Hammond, 91; Clement and Wood, 90. 

Anglo-Saxon (First Year) — L. D. Howell, 
97; Hammond, 96. 

Anglo Saxon (Second Year) — Wilis, 98. 

Freshman Latin — Mebane, 99; Connor, 
97; R. Davis, Robbins and Scales, 96; Clark, 
94/4\ Winborne, 94; Harvey, Johnston and 
Rollins, 90. 

Sophomore Latin — Bingham, G. Graham 
and Hendren, 93; J. Blount, Bryan and 
Whitaker, 92; Darden and Ransom, 91; 
Batchelor, Cuninggim, Dahymple, P. Gra- 
ham, Patterson and G. Worth, 90. 

Third Latin — Mclver, 96; Taylor, 92; 
J. W. Graham, 91. 

Freshman Greek — Mebane, 99.3; R. Davis, 
98.7; Scales, 98; Robbins and Winborne, 
96.7; F. Willcox, 96; Connor, 93.7; Clark, 
93.3; Buie, 93; De Vane, 91; Ledbetter and 
Shannonhouse, 90. 

Sophomore Greek — Cuninggim, 97; Batch- 
elor, 96.3; Bryan, 92; Dalrymple, 91; J. Gra- 
ham, 90. 

Freshman Mathematics — R. Davis, T. 
Foust, Hunter and Mebane, 97; Winborne, 
96; Harvey, Ledbetter and Scales, 93; G. 
Graham, Rollins and F. Willcox, 92; Keech, 

Sophotnore Mathematics — Cuninggim and 
J. V. Lewis, 95; De Vane, 93; G. Graham, 
P. Graham and Patterson, 92; Batchelor and 
Spoon, 91. 

Calculus — G. Howell, 97; Shaw, 96^. 

First German — Harvey and Hill, 97; J. D. 
Bellamy, T. Foust and Ransom, 95; Patter- 
son, 93; Eure, Phillips, Toms and J. E. B. 
Davis, 92. 

First French — J t . Davis, 98; W. Battle and 
Mclver, 97; Carson, Shaw and Thompson, 
96; Hunter, 95; J. D. Bellamy and Ross, 
93; Keech, 92; I. W. Graham, Miller, Phil- 
ips and Vaughn, 91. 

Second French — D. J. Currie and J. V. 
Lewis, 97; Little, 93; L. Howell and Ran- 
som, 92. 

General Chemistry — Batchelor, 97; J. 
Blount, 96; J. S. Lewis and Ransom, 95; 
Bryan, 94; Patterson, 92; Morehead and 
Sapp, 90, 

Lndustrial Chemistry — Shaffner, 97; Bras- 
well and Stronach, 94; Battle and Miller, 92; 
Harris and Wood, 90. 

Zoology — J. G. Blount, 99; J. D. Bellamy, 
98; F. Covington, 94; G. Currie, Love and 
G. Worth, 93; Pearsall, 90. 

Botany — J. G. Blount, 98; J. D. Bellamy, 
97; Seaweil, 95; Love, 94; G. Currie and 
Keech, 92; Merritt, 91; G. Worth, 90. 

Biological Laboratory — Harris, 98; Hill 
97; Hammond, 95; Little, 93; Curtis and 
Seawell, 90. 

Advanced Mineralogy — G. Battle, Bras- 
well, Harris and Woodard. 95. 

History — Mebane and Scales, 99; Win- 



borne, 98; Clark, 97^; C. Bennett, Connor, 
R. Davis, Harvey and Robbins, 96; T. Foust, 
95; Hunter and Rollins, 94^; J. Willcox, 
94; R. H. Johnston, Ledbetter and R. 
Urquhart, 93; Koss and F. Willcox, 92; 
Murphy and Simmons, 91; Buie, Gatling, 
Keech, Shannonhouse and Sherrod. 90. 

Physics (Sophomore Class) — Spoon, 98^; 
Vaughn, 97. 

Physics (Junior Class) — J. I. Foust, 98; 
Shaw. 97%; Mclver, 95%; J. D. Bellamy, 
93^; Miller, 93; Philips, 90. 

Projection Drawing — Shaw, 9S; J. I. 
Foust, 94; Seawell. 93; Shaffner, 90. 

Mechanics — D. J. Currie, 99; J. I. Foust, 


Now came the most interesting part of the 
day, the awarding of prizes. 

The Greek prize, offered to the member of 
the Sophomore class who presents the best 
rendering into English of passages not pre- 
viously read, was divided between Messrs. 
Shepard Bryan, of New Berne, and Palmer 
Dalryrnple, of Jonesboro. 

The Mathematical prize, to the best stu- 
dent above a certain grade in the Junior 
Mathematical class, was awarded to Mr. 
George P. Howell, of Goldsboro. 

The Representative Medal was adjudged 
due to Mr. George H. Crowell, of Stanly 

The Mangum Medal was awarded to Mr. 
Charles Aurelius Webb, of Warren county. 

Special certificates were granted as follows: 

TWO years' teacher's course. 

J. E. B. Davis, Wayne county, 
J. E. Jimeson, Mitchell county. 


John W. Graham, Moore county, 
A. A. F. Seawell, Moore county. 

D. J. Currie, Richmond county, 
G. P. Howell, Goldsboro. 


George S. Wills, Greensboro. 

A. Stronach, Raleigh, 

C. W. Toms, Hertford, 
George S. Wills, Greensboro. 


D. J. Currie, Richmond county. 


Clement, Herbert (cum laude), Mocksville. 

Currie, Daniel Johnson (maxima cum 
laude), Stewart's. 

Eure, Mills Roberts, Norfolk, Va. 

Howell, Logan Douglass (magna cum 
laude), Goldsboro. 

Little, Lacy LeGrand (magna cum laude), 
Little's Mills. 

Roberson, William Stone (cum laude), 
Chapel Hill. 

Webb, Charles Aurelius (magna cum laude) 
Warren Plains. 

Wilson, William Albert, Sutherland. 


Cates, Caleb Gilmer, Rock Springs. 

Curtis, Walter Makepeace (magna cum 
laude), Fianklinsville. 

Davis, James E. B. (cum laude), Pikeville. 

Hammond, Walter Monroe (cum laude), 

Hill, John Sprunt (maxima cum laude), 

Moore, Thomas Lake (cum laude), Green- 
ville, S. C. 

Seawell, Aaron A. F., Jr., (cum laude), 

Stronach, Alexander (magna cum laude), 

Toms, Clinton White (cum laude), Hert- 

Wills, George Stockton (magna cum laude), 

Wood, Henry Gilliam (cum laude). Eden- 


Harris, Hunter Lee (magna cum laude), 




Currie, Daniel Johnson, Valedictorian. 

Hill, John Sprunt, Philosophical Oration. 

Webb, Charles Aurelius, Classical ^Oration. 

Harris, Hunter Lee, Scientific Oration. 

On delivering the diplomas. Governor 
Fowle made a very neat speech, declaring 
that he would use his best efforts to induce 
the next Legislature to appropriate fifty thou- 
sand dollars annualiy to the University. 

The diploma conferring the degree of Mas- 
ter of Arts was then given to the only candi- 
date therefor at this commencement, William 
James Battle, Chapel Hill. 

The following honorary degrees were then 


President John F. Crowell, Trinity College, 
North Carolina. 

President Charles E. Taylor, Wake Forest 
College, North Carolina. 

Prof. F. C. Woodward, University of 
South Carolina. 


Prof. W. B. Burney, University of South 

Prof. W. G. Brown, Washington and Lee 


Hon. Daniel G. Fowle, Governor of North 

Hon. A. C. Avery, Judge of the Supreme 

Hon. James E. Shepherd, Judge of the 
Supreme Court. 

Dr. E. Burke Haywood, Raleigh. 

Hon. William L. Saunders, Secretary of 

Hon. Alfred M. Scales, ex-Governor of 
North Carolina. 

Hon. Paul C. Cameron, Hillsboro. 

Hon. George V. Strong, Raleigh. 

President Daniel C. Gilman, Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

Prof. Charles S. Venable, University of 

Prof. Crawford H. Toy, Harvard Univer- 

Prof. William J. Martin, Davidson College. 

Prof. William" Royall, D.D., Wake Forest 

The class of '89 then stood together for the 
last time and sung their class song, composed 
by one of its members. Very affecting was 
that final moment, which brought tears to 
the eyes of most present. 

A stanza of a hymn, the doxology, and the 
end was come. The alumni reception and 
the ball alone remained of the commence- 
ment of 1889. 

The Reception and Ball. — Beginning at 
nine o'clock, the reception in the Library, 
Smith Hall, lasted till eleven. The affair 
was thoroughly enjoyable, well managed and 
with very nice refreshments. To the un- 
wearying exertions of Professor Toy, the 
success of the occasion may be said to be 
largely due. 

Of '.he ball, it is needless to speak at 
length. The ball-room was crowded with 
the fairest daughters of Carolina, unexcelled 
for beauty of face and grace of figure. Long 
did the dancing continue, till the bright day 
peeping through the windows warned the 
dancers that the end was at hand. Soon the 
soft strains of " Home, Sweet Home " were 
heard, and all was over. 

All honor is due to the managers who con- 
ducted the series of three dances to such a suc- 
cessful conclusion. Not a drunken person was 
seen within the ball-room during the whole 
of commencement; not an instance was there 
during the whole time of unseemly conduct on 
the part of anybody at the dances. Let the 
scoffers, who see the broad gate of hell in the 
entrance to the brilliantly lighted ball-room, 
attend a commencement ball, and they will 
cease their mad cries. They speak whereof 
they know not. Far less are the evils result- 
ing from dances like ours, than from prom- 
enading in single couples through the by-paths 
of a dark campus grove, or from sitting un- 
seen in dark corners of hall or library. 

The fortunate girls who on Thursday night 



received rosettes or regalias were: Miss Tamar 
Manning, who received the rosette of Chief 
Ball-manager Gaston Battle; Miss Mildred 
Badge, that of Mr. Philips; Miss Simms, 
that of Mr. Branch; Miss Helen McVea, 
those of Messrs. Staton and Lee; Miss 
Bessie Tucker, that of Mr. Williams; Miss 
Mary Boyd, that of Mr. Vaughn. The Chief 
Marshal, Mr. Alex. Mclver, Jr., presented 
his regalia to Miss McDuffie, of Fayetteville. 

Of the recipients of the regalias and 
rosettes of the sub-marshals and assistant 
subs we are uninformed. 

So ended the centennial commencement. 
A grand success, was the verdict of all. The 
only blemish, the painting of the monument 
to Dr. Caldwell, was almost overlooked in 
the general good feeling. Alumni and friends, 
all left the Hill with a large accession ot love 
and zeal for the University. 


Attend this Business College During 

There will be a Special Session of the Com- 
mercial College of Kentucky University for 
College young men, teachers and others dur- 
ing the summer. This College is situated in 
the beautiful, healthy and society-renowned 
city of Lexington, Ky , and received the 
Highest Honor at the World's Exposition, 
over all other Colleges for System of Bock- 
Keeping and Business Education, Students 
can complete the Business Course and receive 
the Ky. University Diploma during the sum- 
mer. Young men from 27 Literary Colleges 
attended the Summer Session of this College 
last year. 

For particulars address its President. 

Wilbur R. Smith, Lexington, Ky. 

<£7£ 00 + n AlRO 00 A MONTH can be 
<J>/ <Jt 10 $£.>J\Ji made working for us. 

Agents preferred who can furnish a horse and give 
their whole time to the business. Spare moments may 
be profitably employed also. A few vacancies in towns 
and cities. B. F. JOHNSON & CO., 1009 Main St., 
Richmond, Va. 

JV, B. — Please state your age and business experi- 
ence. Never mind about sending stamp for reply. 
B. F. J. &> Co. 

Distinguished Business locator 

Prof. E. W. Smith, Principal 
of the Commercial College of 
Ky.Uni versify, Lexington.Ky., 
with his son, received the 
Gold Medal and Diploma of 
Honor at the WORLD'S EX- 
Book-keeping and Gener? 
Business Education. He oa 
refer to 10.000 graduates in bnsine? 
besides Corr^-ressuieu, city, count; 
and State officials. His College, r' 
cognized as the Cheapest, Best and 
Highest Honored, numbered last year lO'.s 
States, in the Business, Phonographic. Type-Writiug.l-'euinanship 
and Telegraphic Departments, preparing to earn a living, and to 
hold high and honorable positions iu the business world. Costof 
full Business Course, including Tuition, Stationery 
and Board, about SUO. For circulars, address 

WILBUR R. SMITH, President, Lexington, Ky. 

cox j tjt^e:ot^^.3 CFOK 18SS. 
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full of the best sort of reading matter, 
news, market reports, and all that. You 
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Address, W. M. HAMMOND, Business Manager, 

Lockbox 64. CHAPEL HILL, N.^C. 


Published under the auspices of The Philanthropic and Dialectic Societies of 
The University of North Carolina. 

Prospectus for 1888-89. 

The MAGAZINE has six departments, each conducted by a student 
selected with a view to his qualifications for the work in hand. 

THE LITERARY DEPARTMENT is mainly intended to exhibit 
the character of the work .done in the Societies, to encourage literary 
efforts and co-operate with the chairs in the University in developing 
a critical appreciation of the masters of the language. It is a vehicle 
of communication between the Alumni of the Institution, a repository 
of interesting bits of history, important results in scientific investiga- 
tion and discussion of leading questions in general. 

THE COLLEGE RECORD will chronicle the events of college 
life. The proceedings of the Mitchell Scientific Society, the Histor- 
ical Society, the work of the Shakespeare Club, the Y. M. C. A., the 
Temperance Band, and the other organizations, social and literary, 
which find a footing in the University, will be given in detail. 

THE PERSONAL DEPARTMENT will tell what " Chapel Hill- 
ians " are doing here and elsewhere, and give expression to whatever 
of wit the funny editor may possess. 

THE EXCHANGE DEPARTMENT will give the opinions of a 
student on the current periodicals, latest books, &c, together with 
such items as may be of interest to those living in the college world. 

Sketches of distinguished North Carolinians, Notes of Travel, Essays 
by members of the Faculty, Original poems and other papers are 
being prepared for subsequent issues. Our popular Senator, HON. 
Z. B. VANCE, will contribute a very interesting article to the MAGA- 
ZINE during the year. 

The Magazine is warmly endorsed by leading men of the State, 
has bona fide subscribers all over the country, and a growing advertis- 
ing patronage. It appeals for support to all the Alumni of the' Uni- 
versity, to lovers of educatfon everywhere, and especially to those im- 
bued with the spirit of progress that now pervades our land. 

Subscribe and persuade your friends to subscribe. 


One copy one year ; . . . . . $i oo 

One copy six months 75 

Six copies one year 5 00 

Business men will find the Magazine a good advertising medium. 


W. M. HAMMOND, Business Manager,